Psychology Chapter One

Behaviorists are not interested in studying:
Emotions, Ideas, and Thoughts
I/O Psychology
Is the application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings
Before positive psychology became popular__________ psychology focused on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one’s highest potential
Humanistic
Privately Public
In terms of electronic social interactions , you connect with many other people by being relatively nonpublic about revealing who you are
Psychoanalysis
A clinically based approach to understanding and treating psychological disorders. It assumes that the unconscious mind is the most powerful force behind thought and behavior
Evolutionary Psychology
The branch of psychology that aims to understand the functions of the human mind by looking at and understanding what adaptive problems it may have solved in its ancestral past
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Developmental Psychologists
Are interested in age related changes in behavior from conception to death
Biological Psychology
Studies the relationship between bodily systems and and chemicals, and their relationship to behavior and thought
Wilhelm Wundt
Created the first psychology laboratory
Clinical Psychologists
Promote psychological health and research ways to treat mental disorders
Adaption Example
Some psychologists suggest that humans inherit a preference for fatty foods because this trait was useful when humans lived as hunter gatherers
Asylums
Were facilities for treating the mentally ill that existed in Europe during the middle ages
Structuralists used ________ to break conscious experience down into the smallest possible parts
Introspection
Darwin
Believed that natural selection determined our physical traits
Evolutionary Psychologists
Believe that natural selection determines our personality traits
Sports Psychology
Studies psychological factors in sports and exercise
When explaining human thoughts and behavior
Psychologists believe that we are more softwired
Positive Psychology
Theory of psychology that uses a scientific approach to study psychological well-being
Structuralism
The 19th century school of psychology that argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offers the best way to understand thought and behavior
By-Products
Structures or features that preform a function that did not arise through natural selection
Cognitive Psychology
A psychologist who studies mental processes such as memory and reasoning is likely to be interested in this psychology
Gestalt Psycholgy
Emphasizes that humans perceive a whole image as more than the sum of its parts
Nature-Nurture debate sides are equally supported
Critical Thinking
Evaluating various perspectives and explanations before drawing conclusions
DSM-5
The most modern resource used for classifying and diagnosing psychological disorders
Evolutionary Psychologist Example
Males tend to be more promiscuous than females. How this reproductive behavior is linked to genes would be of greatest interest to them
Egyptians and Greeks
The first Ancient cultures that focused on natural and physical explanations for disorders
Cognitive Psychologist would be interested in________
The process of thinking
Cognitive Psychologist studies_________
Logical reasoning
Dualism
The separation of mind and body
Nature through Nurture
The position that the environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do
Behavioral Neuroscientist
A psychologist who studies how the mind works by recording brain activity while a student studies for a test
Positive Psychology
A theory of psychology that uses a scientific approach to study psychological well-being
Mind-Body Dualism
Perspective that the mind controls the body but occasionally the body controls the mind
Trephination
practice employed by prehistoric shamans and which involved drilling a small hole in someone’s skull, usually less than an inch in diameter. It is the oldest of all known surgical procedures
Shamans
Treat the possessed by driving out demons
Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor who says she studies how the size of the amygdala(brain structure) affects a child’s tendency to become a bully
Nurture-Only Side
Says that we are all essentially the same at birth, and are all products of our own experience
Theoretical perspective that assumes that our experiences during childhood are a powerful force in the development of the adult personality
Psychoanalysis
People use psychological defense to protect themselves against threatening impulses, thoughts, and feelings
Psychoanalysis
MOST interested in the creation of an avatar, in the gaming world
Personality Psychologist
Skinner
Largely responsible for making behaviorism the major approach in experimental psycholgy
Would be most interested in finding out why the popularity of electronic devices decreases with age
Developmental Psychologist
Experimental Psychologist
Conducts laboratory experiments to address their research questions
Mary Whiton Calkins
First female president of the American Psychological Association
Bartlett
Stated that memory is not an objective and accurate representation of events but rather a highly personal reconstruction based on one’s beliefs, ideas, and point of view
Adaptions evolved to solve problems in past generations, not current ones
Computer
Has a lot in common with the human mind and being associated with cognitivism
Would be most interested in conducting a research regarding online dating services
Social Psychologist
In the process of learning and memory, certain genes in the brain are turned off and on based on what happens to us. Which aspect of nature-nurture debate is most at work in this scenario?
Both
Carl Rogers
Founder of client-centered or humanistic psychology
Fechner
Father of psychophysics
How is mind-body dualism similar to the nature-nurture debate?
Both represent false dichotomies; the concepts are intertwined
Kraepelin
The psychiatrist who collected data on various kinds of psychological disorders and began developing a classification system
In the West the mind-body problem is seen as a dichotomy, where as in the east the two are seen as interdependent
Calkins
Student of James, taught at Wellesley College and conducted research in the area of dreaming, attention, and self-image
Hall
Opened the first experimental psycholgy laboratory in the United States, founded the American Psychological Association, and started the first psychological journal. Also a student of William James
Would be most interested in the application of electronic interactions for the relaying of well being information
Health Psychologist
What we call fear evolved because it helps us deal quickly and efficiently with danger is an example of _________
Adaption
Helmholtz
Made key contributions to the study of memory, physiology, and color vision
Cognitive-behavioral
Therapy focuses on changing a person’s maladaptive thought and behavior patterns by discussion and rewarding more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving
Hippocrates
Greek physician was the first to document acrophobia, or fear of heights
Philosophers
Do not collect data to test their ideas
Psychologists
Make use of the scientific method
Half of all psychologists specialize in what field of study?
Clinical Psychology