Psychology Chapter 8 – Test Questions

Habituation
One way researchers study newborn development involves measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a non changing stimulus. This technique is referred to as
Touch
Which of a baby’s senses is the most well developed at birth?
Concrete Operations
In which of Piaget’s stages would a child be who has just developed the ability to conserve
Sensorimotor
Vygotsky defines this as the process of helping less as the learner improves at a given task
Cooing
Which of the following tends to occur first in a child’s language development?
Throughout adulthood; heredity
According to Thomas and Chess, temperament styles often last ___________ and are often influenced by ___________
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Ambivalent
What kind of attachment, according to Ainsworth, is shown by a baby who clings to his or her mother, gets upset when the mother leaves, and demands to be picked up but at the same time kicks and pushes her away?
Physical Contact
Studies by Harry Harlow showed that the most important element to developing attachment is
Awareness of Herself
Baby Lisa is beginning to learn more about herself. When she sees herself in a mirror, she smiles and laughs but no longer needs to touch the mirror or look behind it to find the baby that she sees. Researchers would say that baby Lisa is developing
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
According to Erikson, which stage results in a sense of independence because of one’s ability to control their own actions?
A secondary sex characteristic
Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered
Personal Fable
“It can’t happen to me. I’m special.” This is a common attitude found in adolescents who have developed
Post-conventional
According to Kohlberg, about one-fifth of the adult population is at the __________ level of morality
Find a consistent sense of self
According to Erikson, the task of the adolescent is to
His taste in clothes
If Colin is going to argue and disagree with his parents, which of the following topics will he typically be arguing over?
20’s
At which age does and adult’s physical senses begin to hit their peak?
Heart Disease
What is the most frequent cause of death in the middle age?
Stress
As Conrad has gotten older, he finds that it is becoming more difficult to remember certain words or the name of a new acquaintance. What is the most likely explanation for this change in memory?
Finding a Mate
According to Erikson, the primary task of an early adulthood is
Authoritarian
According to Baumrind, which type of parent would most likely say, “Because I said so” or “It’s my way or the highway!”
To develop a sense of ego integrity
As William celebrates his 70th birthday, he finds that he is happy with how things have turned out with his life. According to Erikson, William’s life review will cause him
Telomeres
The structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces are called
Cellular-Clock Theory
Which theory of aging is compared to the limited number of repairs you can have before your car’s warranty runs out?
They are not asked to take part
According to research, the reason many older people are no longer involved in their community is because
Denial
What stage might terminally ill patients be in if they refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe that in doing so, they are admitting the will die?
Cohort Effect
The thinking and attitudes of many who survived the Depression of the 1930’s changed them for the rest of their lives. This would be an example of a
Recessive
If a person has one gene for blue eyes but actually has brown eyes, blue eyes must be what kind of trait?
Klinefelter’s
In this syndrome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes consists of an XXY pairing, resulting in reduced masculine characteristics and excessive height.
One egg is fertilized by one sperm and then splits
Which of following represents the fertilization process for monozygotic twins?
Stem Cells
What part of an infant’s body is said to stay in an immature state until needed to produce more cells?
Between 22 and 26 weeks
Based on today’s science and medicine, when does the age of visibility begin?
Preferential Looking
Dr. Kahn measures how long baby Lydia looks at a particular stimulus. The technique is known as
2 Months
At what age can the typical infant roll over?
Unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared out to make way for new cells
Studies of the infant brain show signs of what scientists call synaptic pruning. What occurs during this process?
Concrete Operations
In which of Piaget’s stages does the child become capable of understanding conservation?
Holophrase
Monique says “milk” when she wants her milk from the kitchen counter. Subsequently, she says “milk” after she has had a drink. Using a single phrase to mean different things is an example of
If all the other children in a school are immunized, there is really no harm in not immunizing one’s own child
Which of the following is a myth regarding immunizations?
Secure
In the Strange Situation, ________ babies would cry when their mother left the room but were happy upon her return
Such behavior may be due to the incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex
What is a new explanation as to why teenagers and young adults may engage in risky and dangerous behavior?
The imaginary audience
Samantha enters a classroom where two students are talking. When they stop their discussion, Samantha is certain they must have been talking about her. Such a belief is an example of
Changes in memory begin to occur
What cognitive changes occurring during middle adulthood are the most noticeable?
Authoritative
Independence and self-reliance in the teenage years is the most likely due to _________ parenting
Integrity versus despair
The crisis of late adulthood, according to Erikson, is
Free Radical Theory
Which theory of aging states that unstable oxygen molecules tend to steal electrons as thy bounce around, thus causing damage to surrounding cells?
Anger is a normal reaction to death and not a sign of mental illness
Kip is worried that he is losing his mind because he finds himself angry at a friend who died in an automobile accident. Based on Kubler-Ross’s research, what might you tell him?