What is the place of consciousness in psychology’s history
Since 1960, under the influence of cognitive psychology and neuroscience, consciousness (our awareness of ourselves and our environment) has resumed its place as an important area of research. After initially claiming consciousness as its area of study in the nineteenth century, psychologists had abandoned it in the first half of the twentieth century, turning instead to the study of observable behavior because they believed consciousness was too difficult to study scientifically.
How does selective attention direct our perceptions
We selectively attend to, and process a very limited portion of incoming information, blocking out much and often shifting the spotlight of our attention from one thing to another. Focuses intently on one task, we often display intentional blindness to other events and change blindness to changes around us.
What is the dual processing being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience
cognitive neruroscientist and others studying the brain mechanisms underlying consciousness and cognition have discovered a two-track human mind, each with its own neral processing. this dual processing affects our perception, memory and attitudes at an explicit, concious level and at and implicit unconcious level
What is sleep
the periodic, natural loss of consciousness- as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning
Our bodies run on the internal biological clock. As morning approaches our body temperature rises, and as evening comes in drops. Age and experiences can alter these patterns and reset our biological clock.
What is the biological rhythm of our sleeping and dreaming stages
We cycle through five sleep stages in about 90 minutes. leaving the alpha waves of the awake. relaxed stage, we descend into transitional stage 1 sleep, often with the sensation of falling or floating. -stage 2 sleep ( in which we spend the most time) follows about 20 minutes later, with its characteristic sleep spindles. -Then follow stages 3 and 4, together lasting about 30 minutes, with large, slow delta waves. Reversing course, we retrace our path, but with one difference: We experience periods of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. -Most dreaming occurs in this 5th stage (also known as paradoxical sleep) of internal arousal but outward paralysis, During a normal night’s sleep, periods of Stage 3 and 4 sleep shorten and REM sleep lengthens
How do biology and environment interact in our sleep patterns
Arousal from sleep occurs when light activates our circadian clock. This occurs when light sensitive proteins trigger signals in the brains SCN which stimulates the pineal gland, decreasing production of sleep hormone melatonin. The rise and fall of the sun during the day naturally stimulates these processes and determines our sleeping patterns. Artificial light has altered our sleep.
What are the sleep’s functions
-Sleep protects-nature’s instinct to stay inside when its dark.
-Recuperation-restores and repairs brain tissue
-Restore memory-consolidates memory-strengthens and stabilizes neural memory traces.
-Creativity-boosts our thinking and learning
-Supports growth-pituitary gland releases hormone during sleep.
How does sleep loss affect us, and what are the major sleep disorders
-Sleep loss causes: decreased energy, depression, difficulty studying, decreased productivity, make mistakes, irritability, fatigue, weight gain, decreased immunity, slower reaction times.
Insomnia-persistent problems falling asleep
narcolepsy-sudden attack of overwhelming sleepiness.
-sleep apnea-breathing stops momentarily during sleep
Night terrors-activity during sleep, increased VS, look of terror
What do we dream
Daydreams tend to involve familiar details, while REM dreams are vivid, emotional, and often bizarre. We mostly dream, though, of ordinary events and experiences, most involving anxiety or misfortune.
What functions have theorists proposed for dreams
-Researchers debate dream functions. Different theories are:
To satisfy our wishes
To understand our inner conflicts
To file away memories-organize the day’s experience
To develop and preserve neural pathways
To make sense of neural static
To reflect cognitive development
What are substance use disorders, and what roles do tolerance, withdrawal, and addiction play in these disorders
Those with a substance use disorder may exhibit impaired control, social disruption, risky behavior, and the physical effects of tolerance and withdrawal. Psychoactive drugs alter perceptions and moods. They may produce tolerance- requiring larger doses to achieve the desired effect- and withdrawal- significant discomfort accompanying attempts to quit. Continued use may lead to addiction, which is the compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as gambling) despite known adverse consequences.
How has the concept of addiction changed
Psychologists debate whether addiction has been stretched too far. Also does labeling something as an addiction create a mentality that they can not over come their.
What are depressants, and what are their effects
-Depressants are drugs that calm neural activity and slow bodily function.
-Effects: Slowed neural processing, memory disruption, reduced self awareness and control, expectancy effect.
What are stimulants, and what are their effects
-Drug that excited neural activity and speeds up bodily function.
-Addiction, death, sleep deprivation, altered mood, decreased serotonin, memory, and immunity.
What are hallucinogens and what are their effects
-Hallucinogens are drugs that distort perception and evoke sensory images without input
-psychological disorders, same as stimulants
Why do some people become regular users of consciousness-altering drugs
-Biological influence- vulnerable based on heredity
-Psychological and social culture influences-stress, feeling of acceptance, social pressure.