Psychology Chapter 3: The Evolving Mind

They are both cause and consequence of our actions
How are nature and nurture intertwined?
Nature
The contributions of heredity to our physical structure and behaviors
Nurture
The contributions of environmental factors and experience to our physical structure and behaviors.
1. Genotype
2. Phenotype
3. Genes
4. Gene Expression
5. Alleles
6. Homozygous
7. Heterozygous
8. Recessive Alleles
9. Dominant Alleles
What are the building block of behavior?
Genotype
An individuals profile of alleles
Phenotype
Observable characteristics.
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Gene
Small segment of DNA located in a particular place on a chromosome
Gene Expression
The process in which genetic instructions are converted into a feature of a living cell.
Alleles
One of several different versions of a gene, as in having an A, B, or O blood type allele.
Homozygous
Having two of the same alleles for a gene
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a gene.
Recessiveness
When an allele will only produce a phenotype in the homozygous condition.
Dominance
When an allele will determine a phenotype in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
Epigenetics
The study of gene environment interactions in the production of phenotypes.
The field of behavioral genetics
The scientific field that attempts to identify and understand links between genetics and behavior.
Behavioral Geneticists
Often speaks in terms of the heritability of a particular trait, or the statistical likelihood that variations observed across individuals in a population are due to genetics.
Heritability
The statistical likelihood that variations observed in a population are due to genetics.
Evolution
Descent with modification from a common ancestor.
Natural Selection
The process by which survival and reproduction pressures act to change the frequency of alleles in subsequent generations.
If an animal that is good at hiding in the bushes is more successful than others of its species in escaping predators, it is likely that the ability to hide will spread through subsequent generations of the population.
What is an example of how evolution influences behavior?
The evolutionary psychology perspective
The psychological perspective that assumes our current behavior exists because it provided survival and reproductive advantages to our ancestors.
mating systems, the availability of resources such as food, water, and shelter, the exposure of predators, and competition.
What are some examples of origins of social behavior?
Humans as a social species
Individuals either benefit or not from the interaction, ultimately affecting their survival and reproductive success. Both parties benefit if they cooperate.
Altruism
Sacrifice of ones self for the benefit of another individual
Sexual Selection
The development of traits that help an individual compete for mates.
Personal investment
Sexual selection is influenced by the different investments in parenting made by males and females.
Intrasexual selection and Intersexual selection
Sexual selection may occur in what two ways?
Intrasexual Selection (Intra means “within”)
When members of one sex compete with each other for access to the other sex.
Intersexual (inter means “between”) Selection
When characteristics of one sex that attract the other might become sexually selected.
Culture
Practices, values, and goals shared by groups of people.
They interact with survival and reproductive pressures
Experiences shaped by culture have what effect?