Psychology – Chapter 16 (Social psychology)

Social psychology
The scientific study of how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations
Culture
An ongoing pattern of life, characterizing a society at a given point in history
Social roles
Expected behavior patterns associated with particular social positions (such as daughter, worker, student)
Ascribed roles
Assigned to a person or are not under personal control: male or female, son, adolescent, inmate
Achieved roles
Voluntarily attained by special effort: spouse, teacher, scientist, bandleader, criminal
Role conflict
Trying to occupy two or more roles that make conflicting demands on behavior
Group structure
The network of roles, communication pathways, and power in a group
Group cohesiveness
The degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in the group
In-group
A group with which a person identifies. Example: nationality, ethnicity, age, education, religion, income, political values, gender, sexual orientation, etc.
Out-group
A group with which a person does not identify. (prejudice towards other groups)
Status
An individual’s position in a social structure, especially with respect to power, privilege, or importance
Norm
A widely accepted (but often unspoken) standard of conduct for appropriate behavior
Attribution
The process of making inferences about the cause of one’s own behavior, and that of others
Situational demands
Unstated expectations that define desirable or appropriate behavior in various settings and social situations
Self-handicapping
Arranging to perform under conditions that usually impair performance, so as to have an excuse for a poor showing
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes while attributing one’s own behavior to external causes (situations and circumstances)
Cognitive dissonance
An uncomfortable clash between self-image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and one’s behavior
Persuasion
A deliberate attempt to change attitudes or beliefs with information and arguments
Conformity
Bringing one’s behavior into agreement or harmony with norms or with the behavior of others in a group
Compliance
Bending to the requests of a person who has little or no authority or other form of social power
Obedience
Conformity to the demands of an authority
Social loafing
The tendency of people to work less hard when part of a group than when they are solely responsible for their work
Social facilitation
The tendency to perform better when in the presence of others
Coercion
Being forced to change your beliefs or you behavior against your will
Brainwashing
Engineered or forced attitude change involving a captive audience
Cult
A group that professes great devotion to some person and follows that person almost without question; cult members are typically victimized by their leaders in various ways