The study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions is called _____.
The principles people follow in making judgments about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior are known as _____.
You and a friend are watching a ballgame. The batter misses. You believe this is because the sun is setting and probably cast a glare in his eyes. Your friend believes this is because the batter lacks talent. You made a _____ attribution and your friend made a(n) _____ attribution.
The two major attribution mistakes people make are _____.
The fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias
A stranger walking in front of you trips. You assume this is because he is clumsy, rather than considering the fact that the sidewalk might be uneven. You have just committed _____.
The fundamental attribution error
When you attempt to maintain a positive self-image by taking credit for your successes and emphasizing external causes for your failures, you are engaged in _____.
The self-serving bias
Which of the following is most often TRUE regarding social behavior?
Most people judge others more harshly than they judge themselves.
A learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object is known as _____.
This theory says that people are motivated to make attitudinal changes when they experience tension after becoming aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behaviors.
Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory
In the classic dissonance experiment, which group had more attitude change?
The group that was paid $1
_____ is a learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group.
A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members is called a _____.
Negative behavior directed at members of a group is known as _____.
Prejudice is _____; discrimination is _____.
An attitude; a behavior
Mr. Bundy believes that women make poor shoe salespersons, but hires a woman to sell his shoes anyway. Based on this information, which of the following is TRUE regarding Mr. Bundy?
He is prejudiced, but does not discriminate against women.
The degree of positive feelings you have toward others is called _____.
A strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship is called _____.
The two MAJOR kinds of social influence are _____.
Conformity and obedience
In the classic Asch study of conformity, _____ of the subjects conformed and agreed with obviously incorrect choices made by other group members.
More than one-third
When someone has a need for approval and acceptance by a group, they often conform to the norms set by that group. This is called _____ social influence.
A cultural rule of behavior that prescribes what is acceptable or acceptable in a given situation is called a _____.
Lincoln thought he smelled smoke for a second. He looked at others in the classroom and at the teacher. No one seemed concerned, so Lincoln continued taking his test along with his other classmates. This is MOST likely an example of _____.
Informational social influence
Sometimes people conform because they like and admire a group, and want to be like them. This is the _____ explanation for conformity.
Amorita agrees to party with friends she admires rather than staying home to study even though she’d rather stay home to study. This is an example of _____.
How a reference group influences conformity
Obedience is BEST defined as following _____.
A direct command or order
Milgram’s participants thought they were participating in an experiment to study the effects of _____.
Punishment on learning
Less than _____ percent of the public thought they would shock a learner beyond 300 volts; in reality, _____ percent of the actual participants did so.
Stanley Milgram was investigating _____ in his classic teacher-learner shock study.
Obedience to authority
The results of Milgram’s research suggest that _____ will follow orders to hurt someone.
A majority of “normal” people
In Zimbardo’s classic prison study, the _____ took their roles so seriously that the experiment had to be discontinued prior to completion.
Prisoners and guards
During _____, a person who feels anonymous within a group experiences an increase in arousal and a decrease in self-consciousness, inhibitions, and personal responsibility.
The critical factor in deindividuation is _____.
Violent behavior has been linked to low levels of _____.
Serotonin and GABA
The frustration-aggression hypothesis predicts that _____.
If a desired goal is blocked, you may aggress
Research suggests that children who are exposed to more TV or video game violence may _____.
Act more aggressively; imitate the violence; and seek out violent programs
According to research, which of the following does NOT reduce aggression?
Channeling aggressive impulses into harmless activities
Actions that are designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper are collectively known as ___________.
In the _____, helping behavior is motivated by some anticipated gain.
In groups of two or more people, this is the tendency to assume that someone else will take action.
Diffusion of responsibility
Pointing to someone in a crowd to call the police increases helping by _____.
Decreasing the diffusion of responsibility
Research suggests that one of the best ways to decrease prejudice is to encourage _____.
A social influence technique in which a first, small request is used as a set-up for later requests is known as _____.
The foot-in-the-door technique