Psychology Chapter 14 Study Guide

The pattern of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from each other
Trait
An aspect of personality that is considered reasonably stable
Introverts
These types of people tend to be imaginative and to look inward rather than to other people for their ideas and energy.
Extroverts
These people tend to be active and self-expressive and gain energy from interaction with other people.
The Five-Factor Model
This trait approach shows studies that suggest that there may be five basic personality factors. These include extroversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience. This is interpreted that our personalities tend to mature rather than be shaped by environmental conditions.
Id
This represents animalistic drives, demands pleasure through instant gratification, and pays no attention to laws, social customs, or the needs of others. This is carried out in an unconscious manner.
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Ego
This represents reason and good sense and the understanding that in the real world we cannot always get what we want. This is carried out in both a conscious and unconscious manner, depending on the type of impulses.
Superego
This represents the moral values and principles we have and incorporates the standards and values of parents and members of the community. It is developed through out early childhood and acts as our conscious.
Defense Mechanisms
Methods the ego uses to avoid recognizing idea or emotions that may cause personal anxiety.
The 8 Defense Mechanisms
Repression, Rationalization, Displacement, Regression, Projection, Reaction Formation, Denial, and Sublimation
Repression
This is a defense mechanism that removes anxiety-causing ideas from conscious awareness by pushing them into the unconscious. (Ex. Soldiers exposed to traumatic experiences had amnesia and were unable to recall any part of their ordeal)
Rationalization
This is a defense mechanism that states that people use self-deception to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas. (Ex. A student will say they only cheated on a couple of the questions because the test was unfair and they knew most of the material anyway)
Displacement
This is a defense mechanism that states that people transfer an idea or impulse from a threatening or unsuitable object to a less threatening object. (Ex. An athlete got yelled at by his coach so he goes home and yells at his little brother)
Regression
This is a defense mechanism that states that people, when they are under a great deal of stress, will return to behavior that is characteristic of an earlier stage of development. (Ex. A teenage girl may whine, cry, and then refuse to speak to her parents when she is told she is grounded)
Projection
This is a defense mechanism that states that people sometimes deal with their own unacceptable impulses by projecting these impulses outward onto other people. In other words, people see their own faults in other people. (Ex. The individual who actually likes to have others do things for him may be quick to criticize other people for being dependent lazy)
Reaction Formation
This is a defense mechanism that states that people act contrary to their feelings in order to keep their true feelings hidden. (Ex. A little boy throwing a rock at a little girl because he likes her)
Denial
This is a defense mechanism that states that people refuse to accept the reality of anything that is bad or upsetting. (Ex. People ignore the risks of smoking because they believe it will not happen to them)
Sublimation
This is a defense mechanism that states that people channel their basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior. (Ex. Boys and girls who pull the wings off flies and jab pins into animals may turn out to be doctors or surgeons)
Carl Jung
This was a psychoanalytic psychologist who developed the theory of analytic psychology which places greater emphasis of the influence of mysticism and religion on behavior. Believed that people not only had a personal unconscious but a collective unconscious as well.
Collective Unconscious
The concept that humans store concepts in themselves that are shared by all people across all cultures.
Archetypes
Ideas and images of the accumulated experience of all human beings. (Ex. supreme being, young hero, nurturing mother, wise old man, and the hostile brother)
Alfred Adler
This was a psychoanalytic psychologist who developed the theory of an inferiority complex which places an emphasis on the theory that people are motivated by a need to overcome feelings of inferiority. This concept may be based on physical problems (and the need to compensate for them) and also because of our small size as children (children growing up in an adult’s world). This person also introduces the term sibling rivalry as well.
Inferiority Complex
Our need as human beings to overcompensate feelings of inferiority.
Karen Horney
This was a psychoanalytic psychologist who agreed with Freud that childhood played a major role in development, but that the greatest influences on personality are social relationships. This person also coined the term “basic anxiety” when children develop feelings of insecurity because their parents treat their children with indifference.
Behaviorism
The concept that environmental influences, such as parental approval and social custom, condition or shape us into becoming a certain type of people and wanting certain things for ourselves.
Socialization
The process by which people learn the socially desirable behaviors of a specific culture and adopt them as part of their personalities
Watson and Skinner
These are learning-theory psychologists who claimed that external forces or influence largely shape people’s preferences and behaviors. They agreed that we should pay more attention on how organisms behave rather than trying to see within people’s minds.
Albert Bandura
This learning-theory psychologist believed in social-learning theory, the process of learning by observation and on the role of the cognitive process, because in this way we each produce individual differences. He believed behavior is not solely based on what is learned from observation and that internal variables also influence how we act in certain situations.
Abraham Maslow
This humanistic-theory psychologist believed that humans are separated from lower animals because they recognize the desire to achieve self- actualization and that because people are unique, they must follow their own paths to this self-actualization.
Carl Rogers
This humanistic-theory psychologist believed that people are to some degree the conscious architects of their own personalities. He believed that people shape their personalities through free choice and action, thus coining the term “self theory”.
Self-Concept
A view of oneself as an individual, this is made up of our impressions of ourselves and our evaluations of our adequacy.
Self-Esteem
A person’s belief in one’s self
Individualism
This is a concept that people define themselves in terms of their personal identities. (Ex. “I am a nurse” or “I am outgoing”)
The Trait Approach
This describes personality as certain traits people have that are based off of how they behave (doesn’t elaborate on this anymore).
The Psychoanalytic Approach
This describes personality as a representation of the outcome of inner contests between the opposing forces of personal drives and society’s rules.
The Learning Approach
This describes personality as environmental influences or purposeful learing that condition or shape us into wanting certain things or having certain opinions.
The Humanistic Approach
This describes personality as “free will” and that people’s pursue self-fulfillment and ethical conduct of their own choice.
The Sociocultural Approach
This describes personality as the roles people adhere to as a focus for their life, which includes: ethnicity, gender, and culture.

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