Psychology Chapter 12 Vocab

a pattern of enduring distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way someone adapts to the world
Psychodynamic Persepctives
theoretical views emphasizing that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness)
the Freudian structure of personality consisting of unconscious drives; the person’s reservoir of sexual energy
The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality
The Freudian structure of personality that serves as the harsh internal judge of our behavior; what we often call conscience
Defense Mechanisms
The Freudian term for tactics the ego uses to redue anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
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Oedipus Complex
according to Freud, a boy’s intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother
Collective Unconscious
Jung’s term for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past
Jung’s term for emotionally laden ideas and images in the collective unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people
Individual Psychology
Adler’s view that people are motivated by purposes and goals and that perfection, not pleasure, is thus the key motivator in human life
Humanistic Perspectuves
Theoretical views stressing a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities
Unconditional Positive Regard
Roger’s construct referring to the person’s need to be accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of his or her behavior
Conditions of Worth
the standards that the person must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others
Trait Theories
theoretical views stressing that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses
Big 5 Factors of Personality
the five broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality:
-neuroticism (emotional instability)
-openness to experience
Personological and Life Story Perspectives
Theoretical views stressing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story
Social Cognitive Perspectives
theoretical views emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, and expectations, and goals
the belief that one can accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change
Cognitive Affective Processing Systems(CAPS)
Mischel’s theoretical model for describing that individuals’ thoughts and emotions about themselves and the world affect their behavior and become linked in ways that matter to that behavior
Behavioral Genetics
the study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics
Self-Report Test
a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits; also called an objective test or an inventory
Empirically Keyed Test
A type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items in 2 groups that are known to be different in some central way
Minnesota Mulitphasic Personality Inventory (MMP)
the most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test
Face Validity
the extent to which a test item appears to fit the particular trait it is measuring
Projective Test
A personality assessment test that presents people with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or tell a story about it- to project their own meaning onto the stimulus
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a famous projective test that uses an person’s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about a person’s personality
Type A Behavior Pattern
being very competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile- related to higher incidence of heart disease
Type B Behavior Pattern
being relaxed and easygoing-related to a lower incidence of heart disease
Type D Behavior Pattern
being generally distressed, having negative emotions, being socially inhibited-related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes
Subjective Well-Being
a person’s assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and an evaluation of his or her life in general