Psychology Chapter 11, 12, 13

Claire’s boss picked on by by her in front of her coworkers in a meeting. When she got home, she started a fight with her roommate. What form of coping with this frustration did Claire demonstrate
displaced aggression
When Ben found out his girlfriend had been unfaithful, he didn’t say anything to her but he was furious on the inside. Ben is personality type
C
If Tom has been adapting to a stressor and is now experiencing fatigue due to prolonged muscle tension, according to psychologist Selye, Tom is in the _______ stage.
exhaustion
Howard was upset that her got a B in Biology, but he felt better knowing that the average grade was a C. Howard was using _____ to make himself feel better.
downward social comparison
When Ravi found out he didn’t get a high enough grade on his final for an A in his psychology course, he experienced stress from
frustration
Which of the fooling is NOT true regarding optimists?
They have a 75% lower risk of premature death.
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____ are types of sexual problems caused by physical disorders of psychological stress.
Organic of stress-induced dysfunctions
According to Lazarus’s cognitive appraisal approach, the first step in appraising a stressor is called _____ appraisal
primary
People facing _____ conflict are dealing with two or more goals or events that are unpleasant
avoidance-avoidance
The method of coping with stress in which a person changes the way he or she feels or emotionally reacts to a stressor is the _____ method
emotion-focused coping
Psychologist Hans Selye’s three stages of the body’s physiological reaction to stress are called the
general adaptation syndrome
During the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the adrenal glands release hormones that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and the supply of blood sugar.
alarm
The phases of the general adaption sydrome are alarm, resistance, and
exhaustion
_____ results when people experience unpleasant stressors.
Distress
Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale focuses on
how life events cause stress in one’s life
A person dealing with acculturative stress by choosing to maintain a sense of the original culture identity while also trying to form a positive relationship with members of the majority culture is using the _____ method.
integration
Two economically based social factors discussed in the text that create stressful living conditions are poverty and
job stress
_____ is a sexual dysfunction in which a male cannot maintain an erection long enough to complete the sexual act.
Male erectile disorder
Adults find the hassle of _____ to be the greatest source of stress.
Fighting among family members
MIller and Rahe found that overall stress associated with many of the items on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale had _____ from the original 1967 ratings
increased about 45%
Marge is easygoing, slow to anger and usually relaxed. Marge’s personality type is
B
Which of the following is a typical first response to a source of frustration?
persistence
Drug abuse, as a reaction to a source of frustration, is a form of
withdrawl
Stress has been shown to
put people at higher risk of heart attacks
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of meditation?
brain waves change to include more delta waves
Religion is associated with all of the following EXCEPT
reducing people’s numbers of negative life events.
Becca put her last dollar into a vending machine to buy herself a snack. The machine accepted the dollar but did not release the snack. Becca pushed the button for coin return, but the machine did not refund her money. She continued to keep pushing the button for several minutes. Her behavior is an example of
persistence.
_______ refers to negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration.
Burnout
A person dealing with acculturative stress by choosing to maintain a sense of the original culture identity while also trying to form a positive relationship with members of the majority culture is using the _______ method.
integration
Researchers found that _______ were much more strongly affected by hassles such as shopping, doctor’s appointments, and bad weather.
elderly people
The ______ returns the body to normal functioning after the stress has ended
parasympathetic nervous system
______ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
Stress
Which of the following ranks the highest on the SRRS?
Divorce
Mike thinks of himself as a “go-getter.” He gets to work early, leaves late, doesn’t stop for lunch, and competes with his coworkers to get the best accounts and to complete a task with the least errors. He also runs 5 miles a day, always takes work on vacation with him, and will only watch TV if he can fold laundry or do dishes while watching. Mike is a _________ personality.
Type A
More than anything else, Kendra wants to be the lead singer in a rock band and become famous. However, during her singing lessons her music teacher has told her that her voice is flat and she has no future as a singer. This is an example of
internal frustration.
Day-to-day hassles
are predictors of short-term illnesses such as headaches and colds.
Scores between 150 and 199 on the SRRS indicate
a “mild life crisis.”
Which personality type is associated with cancer?
C
According to psychologist Richard Lazarus, the cognitive-mediational theory suggests that
the way people think about and appraise a stressor is a major factor in how stressful that particular stressor becomes.
The ______ type of conflict, also called a “win-win situation,” is easy to resolve and doesn’t cause a great deal of stress because a person experiences a desire for two goals.
approach-approach
In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to
give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task
Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______.
public; women; men
The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of
groupthink
If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the
foot-in-the-door technique
A person demanding for _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change.
obedience
In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
61 and 66
Attitudes
are learned through experiences and contact with others
Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
direct contact
A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
persuasion
People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
forming new cognitions to justify their behavior
Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of
situational cause
_____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude.
Prejudice; discrimination
The formation of in-groups and out-groups
begins in childhood
Scapegoats are
typically members of the out-group
The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
stereotype vulnerability
Strategies for overcoming prejudice include
education and equal status contact
Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
proximity
Research has found that the view that opposites attract
is false
According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and
commitment
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
intimacy and commitment
Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
aggression
The sadistic behavior of the “guards” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people
Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. This is an example of
altruism
The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to
the bystander effect
_______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
Diffusion of responsibility
Sherif’s 1936 study of conformity involved
asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room
Studies have shown more conformity
in collectivist cultures
The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because
some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion
Chris’s roommate asks Chris to do him a favor, and Chris agrees. Chris is showing
compliance
Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. Carol is showing
obedience
In Milgram’s study, as the teachers became reluctant to continue, the experimenter
told them that they had to continue
Studies have found that in civil suits, if individual members of the jury favor stiff penalties, the deliberation process will result in even higher penalties. This illustrates
group polarization
The ABC Model of Attitudes includes
Affect, Behavior, and Cognition
If Julie holds the specific attitude that smoking is bad and will likely have an adverse effect on her health, possibly causing lung cancer or emphysema, Julie is
more likely to match her behavior to her attitude by not smoking
When trying to persuade an audience, the message should
present both sides of the argument
A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nonetheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer’s message.
central-route processing
Nicole thinks of herself as an honest, trustworthy person. However, when she doesn’t get time to study, she cheats on her history test. Nicole will probably experience
cognitive dissonance
When one person meets another person for the first time, ________ occurs.
impression formation
Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on
implicit personality theory
Fritz Heider developed _______ to explain why people choose the particular explanations of behavior that they do.
attribution theory
In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situational attributions rather than personal, which is
the actor-observer bias
When prejudicial attitudes cause members of a particular social group to be treated differently than the others in situations that call for equal treatment, it is called
discrimination
In order to teach her second grade students about ______, teacher Jane Elliot created in-groups and out-groups based on the superficial characteristic of eye color.
discrimination
According to _________ theory, prejudice may result, at least in part, from the need to increase one’s own self-esteem by looking down on others.
social identity
In one study, college students liked another student simply because they were told that the other student liked them. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
reciprocity
_______ love, based on many years of shared responsibilities and experiences, is what binds many marriages together.
Companionate
Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is
a basic human instinct
_________ has been linked to higher levels of aggression.
Testosterone
The presence of others is especially important in influencing helping behavior when a situation is
ambiguous
Once someone has taken responsibility to help, the next step in the decision-making process is
planning a course of action
_____ is the scientific study of how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social psychology
In Asch’s black line experiment, participants
conformed to the group answer about one-third of the time.
Invulnerability, where members of a group feel they can do no wrong, is a characteristic of
groupthink
Gene keeps Roger’s cat while Roger is out of town. When Gene goes out of town, he expects, in return, that Roger will water his plants. This is the
norm of reciprocity
People are less likely to be susceptible to the foot-in-the-door technique
in collectivist cultures
Stanley Milgram set out to learn
how far people would go in obeying the command of an authority figure
Social loafing can be explained by the fact that
it is easier for a lazy person to hide laziness when working in a group of people
The three components of attitude are _____, thoughts, and actions.
feelings
Attitudes are
poor predictors of actual behavior
If an environmental group is trying to persuade the public to join its cause, it needs to focus on the
source, message, and target audience
When someone who thinks they’re smart does something they think is stupid, it causes
dissonance
In Festinger and Carlsmith’s study, the students who were only paid $1 for doing a very boring task
convinced themselves that the task was interesting
Karen is late for work, and her co-worker, Jeff, assumes it is because she is careless and lazy. Jeff is assuming a
dispositional cause
Cheryl got a bad grade on her test, which she attributes to the fact that she had to work overtime throughout the week and so could not study as much as usual. Cheryl’s co-worker also got a bad grade on a test, which Cheryl attributes to her co-worker’s laziness. This is
the fundamental attribution error.
Prejudice is to ____ as discrimination is to _______.
attitude; behavior
The group most likely to become a scapegoat is the group
with the least power
In the third element of social identity theory, people use _______ to improve their self-esteem.
social comparison
The “Robber’s Cave” study showed that
prejudice can be created by separation
According to Sternberg’s theory, when intimacy and passion are combined the result is _____, which is often the basis for a more lasting relationship.
romantic love
In Sternberg’s model, intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present in
consummate love
One common cause of aggression is
frustration
The area of the brain that controls aggressive responses is the
amygdala
Zimbardo’s prison experiment lasted only five days because
of the extreme effect it was having on the participants
Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. He doesn’t run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. This is an example of
diffusion of responsibility
Most people associate the term cult with
a fringe group
Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince’s behavior is an example of
conformity
Which of the following researchers conducted a series of studies on conformity that involved having a subject judge the length of three lines after a group of confederates all reported an obviously incorrect answer?
Solomon Asch
_______ occurs when people begin to think that it is more important to maintain a group’s cohesiveness than to objectively consider the facts.
Groupthink
All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT
openness to differing opinions
At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of______ to increase sales.
norm of reciprocity
Selena is trying to get her boyfriend to wash the dishes for her. To start with, she asks her boyfriend to cook dinner for her. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, “Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?” To which he readily agrees. Selena has just used the
door-in-the-face technique
Changing ones behavior due to a direct order of an authority figure is referred to as
obedience
Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram’s famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond?
the majority would administer 450 volts as instructed
A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all groups members get the same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about?
social loafing
Ashley has practiced her drum routine over and over. When she gets up to play it at the recital in front of 100 people, she preforms it better than she ever has. Her improved performance is an example of
social facilitation
Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude?
Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause.
Which of the following is not a factor that influences attitude formation?
DNA inherited from your parents
Kerry’s positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formations is involved in this example?
interaction with others
Which communicator would likely be most persuasive?
an attractive person who is an expert
________ describes the situation in which people attend to the content of a message.
central-route processing
Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)?
Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $2.
Which of the following represents an example of cognitive dissonance?
A woman argues that it is morally wrong to kill animals for food becomes upset when she is asked to explain why she is wearing a leather belt and leather shoes.
What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person?
impression formation
Toni sees a picture of the new international exchange student and notices that the student looks happy, so Toni automatically assumes that he is also friendly. This automatic assumption about the student’s personality is an example of
implicit personality theory
The process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behavior of other people is called
attribution
“Look, Officer, I didn’t see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes” The police officer responds, “You were not paying attention.” How would a social psychologist describe this situation?
The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a dispositional attribution.
While watching the TV game show Jeopardy, your roommate says, “The game show host, Alex Trebek, knows all the answers. He must be a genius.” You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of
fundamental attribution errors
A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer’s belief is an example of_____. His refusal to grant them loans is an example of________.
prejudice; discrimination
The part of a person’s self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society is called
social identity
Which of the following does NOT represent an effective method for reducing prejudice?
bringing diverse groups of people into contact with each other
We tend to _____ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.
like
When opposites attract it is said that they have_____ characteristics.
complementary
Which of the following was NOT a component of Robert Sternberg’s theory of love?
lust
Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as
aggression
The fact that a social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior points to _____as a major contributor to aggression.
the environment
What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, which no anticipation of reward?
altruism
In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, “He’s killing me!” Yet no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latane?
There is a diffusion of responsibility
In Latane and Darley’s classic 1969 study, they found that____ of the participants reported the smoke in the room when the two confederates in the room noticed the smoke but then ignored it.
one-tenth
All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT
diffusion of responsibility
A person’s conformity in a situation like the Asch line study is most likely to be strongest when________.
That person is from Hong Kong
In groupthink, members of the group______.
have an illusion of invulnerability
When members of a cult are trying to enlist a new recruit, they start by asking the recruit to make a small commitment, such as attending a short meeting or helping out at a social function. Then the commitments get more involved, such as donations of money and moving in the with the cult members. This is most like which of the following techniques?
foot-in-the-door technique
Which of the following has been shown to be true concerning the “teachers” in Milgram’s experiment?
A follow-up psychiatric exam found no signs of psychological problems after 1 year.
Alex, who is in the honors program, failed to do his share of the work on the group project with his four classmates. Alex was most likely engaging in________.
social loafing
Which of the following represents the cognitive component of an attitude?
“Italian food is the best of the European cuisines.”
Lilly’s mother always listens to the classic rock station on her car radio, so Lilly has grown up hearing that music and noticing how much her mother enjoys it. Now Lilly says that classic rock is her favorite music, too. Lilly’s attitude toward classic rock was most likely acquired through______.
vicarious conditioning
Physical attractiveness is most involved in which of the following aspects of persuasion?
the source
Which of the following is not one of the elements of effective persuasion?
presence of supporters
“I didn’t like the sermon at all today. It was too long, and that preacher wasn’t dressed up enough” would be an example of which type of processing?
peripheral-route processing
In the famous Festinger experiment, participants were paid either $1 or $20 to lie to a woman in the waiting room about how interesting the task really was. The participants who convinced themselves that the task really was fun were the ones who were___________.
paid only $1.
Which of the following statements about stereotypes is FALSE?
Stereotypes are governed by the recency effect
Mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people are called________.
schemas
Elizabeth’s room is almost always a mess. Her parents attribute this to Elizabeth’s laziness. This is an example of_______ cause.
dispositional
John was late to class, and his friend Eddie assumes that John simply doesn’t care about being on time. But when Eddie is late the next day, he blames it on heavy traffic. Eddie has made the _________.
fundamental attribution error
In Asian cultures, people tend to explain the behavior of others as a result of______.
situational factors
The behavioral component of prejudice is______.
discrimination
The most likely predictor of the development of prejudice and discrimination between two groups is the degree of _____ between the groups.
conflict
In teacher Jane Elliot’s classic study, the most startling finding was that the______.
test scores of each group decreased when it was the out-group.
Which of the following is not an element of social identity theory?
superodinate goals
Which situation would be last likely to result in a decrease of prejudice?
asking people to work on separate projects but in the same room
Which of the following is not one of the reasons given by the text for interpersonal attraction?
personality
The more you see someone, the more likely you are to _____ that person.
like
A person who is very low in self-worth is less likely to be affected by the_____.
reciprocity of liking effect
According to Sternberg, the emotional and psychical arousal a person feels for another is the_______ component of love.
passion
According to the text, which of the following has not been studied as a cause of aggressive behavior?
marijuana
The area of the brain that is most involved in aggression is the ______.
amygdala
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Abused children grow up to become abusers about one third of the time.
According to the bystander effect, Leshan is more likely to get help if there is (are)______.
only one other person standing nearby.
In the Latane and Darley experiment, subjects were most likely to help when______.
they were alone in the room.
Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is_______.
taking responsibility
Studies have found the degree of conformity to be greater in_______ cultures.
collectivistic
To prevent groupthink, member’s of a group should do all but which of the following?
Discourage questions and alternate solutions.
Maria’s fellow professor asked her to teach an honors class in the spring. Maria agreed only to find out after agreeing that teaching such a course also meant that she would have to attend meetings of the honors professors, go to honors- oriented conventions, and take on special advising duties. Maria had fallen victim to the_______technique.
lowball
Some researchers believe that Milgram’s results were a form of the________ technique of persuasion.
foot-in-the-door
Sandy loves to play pool and has become quite good at the game. Lately she has noticed that she seems to play better when there are people watching her than which she is playing alone. This difference in Sandy’s playing is most likely the result of_______.
social facilitation
Jerry goes to a lot of dog races because he enjoys them and loves to see the dogs run. For Jerry, going to the dog races a lot represents the___________component of an attitude.
behavioral
The public service messages that encourage parents to sit down with their children and talk frankly about drugs are promoting which method of attitude formation?
direct instruction
Researchers have found that a________ degree of fear in a message makes it more effective particularly when it it combined with __________.
moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences.
Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The defendant was not very well spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. Sandy was using_______ processing.
central-route
Which of the following is not one of the three things people do to reduce cognitive dissonance?
ignore the conflict
Gerard goes to his job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn t-shirt, and sandals. His hair is uncombed and he hasn’t shaved in a few days. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about.
impression formation
Sets of assumptions that people have about how different types of people, personality traits, ion
implicit personality theories
If behavior is assumed to be caused by internal personality characteristics, this is known as___________.
a dispositional cause
The people with whom a person identifies most strongly are called the________.
in-group
Prejudice and discrimination are least likely to develop in which of the following situations?
two different groups dealing with the aftermath of a hurricane
The______explanation of prejudice assumes that the same processes that help form other attitudes form prejudiced attitudes.
social cognitive
Patrick is very proud of his Irish heritage and thinks of himself as an Irish American. Patrick has a strong_____.
social identity
The self-fulfilling prophecy is a negative outcome of______.
stereotype vulnerability
The “Robber’s Cave” experiment showed the value of _____in combating prejudice.
equal status contact
Sarah found her soul mate, Jon, when she moved to a small town in Florida. According to research in interpersonal attraction, the most likely explanation for them to “find” each other is______.
proximity
According to Sternberg, married (committed) people who also have intimacy and passion are in the form of love called______love.
consummate
The concept of aggression as a basic human instinct driving people to destructive acts was part of early_____theory.
psychoanalytical
The neurotransmitter that seems most involved in aggression is_________.
serotonin
Violent video games have been blamed for all but which of the following?
increased levels of altruism in children
To which two processes do most social psychologists attribute the failure of Kitty Genovese’s neighbors to help her?
bystander effect and diffusion of responsibly
Cries for help, shouting, and loud noises all help with which step in the decision process for helping?
defining an emergency
Cults use all of the following except_______to gain new members.
talking with parents of the recruit
Studies have found that the __________is particularly active when people have made a decision
left frontal cortex
Studies have shown that when participants “shock” a virtual human on the computer,
they have the same emotional responses as if it were a real person.
In Sternberg’s theory, _______ encompasses the physical aspects of love.
Passion
_________ is common in college settings, where students and instructors from many different backgrounds live, work, and study together.
Intergroup contact
As we interact with others on a daily basis, our behavior, feelings, and thoughts are often guided by
social influence.
The that’s-not-all technique activates
the norm of reciprocity.
The door-in-the-face technique involves
asking for a large commitment and then, after being refused, asking for a smaller commitment.
Sheri’s coworker, Stephanie, is extremely scared of spiders and screams every time she sees one in the warehouse. After a few weeks of working closely with Stephanie in the warehouse, Sheri is scared of spiders, too. This is
vicarious conditioning.
When member of a group devote their lives to obtaining physical pleasure and immediate satisfaction of their needs, according to Freud, this group is dominated by their
id
Freud believed that children adopt their parents’ moral beliefs during the _______ stage of personality development.
phallic
The Oedipus complex refers to
a child developing a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and displaying jealousy of the same-sex parent.
According to Freud, children in the latency stage
develop intellectually, physically, and socially.
The image of oneself, which is based on information from significant people in one’s life, is that person’s
self-concept
Surface traits
are seen in the outward actions of a person.
With regard to the Big Five traits of personality, when someone is creative, artistic, non-conforming, and curious, he or she tends to score high on the _______ trait.
openness
One of the major problems associated with personality inventories is that they are
dependent on the honesty of the person taking the test. 521
The advantage of personality inventories over projective tests is that inventories are
standardized
Sigmund Freud’s ideas were probably shaped by the historical era in which he lived, a time known as the
Victorian Age
Freud believed the mind was divided into three parts: the _________, the ________, and the preconscious
unconscious; conscious
Turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior is known as
sublimation
According to Freud, the oral stage
involves the conflict of weaning
_______ believed that there was not only a personal unconscious, but a collective unconscious as well.
Jung
Which of the following perspectives on personality focuses on aspects that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice?
humanistic
_______ are more concerned with describing personality and predicting behavior than with the explanation of personality development
Trait theorists
Jim and Jose were studying for their psychology test. Jim asked Jose to name a test developed by Cattell based on factor analysis to measure one’s personality characteristics. Jose knew right away that Jim was talking about the
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
The assumption that the particular circumstance of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed is known as
trait-situation interaction
The tendency to form a favorable or unfavorable impression of someone at the first meeting that affects later interpretation of that person is
halo effect
The ______ consists of 20 black and white pictures of people in ambiguous situations
Thematic Apperception Test
Tests in which people are asked to tell what they see in ambiguous visual stimuli are
Projective tests
The _____ specifically test for abnormal behavioral patterns in personality.
MMPI-2
Joe complains that his coworker, George, is irritating because George never has a nice thing to say about anyone or anything. Joe believes George’s problem is an enduring characteristic with which George was born.In other words, Joe dislikes George’s
temperament
Heidi is exploring her options and trying to decide where her best potential and abilities lie. She has a good idea of who she is and what she wants out of life. Carl Rogers would say that Heidi is a
fully functioning person
A music teacher wants to test her students on their piano skills. She then proceeds to administer a multiple choice test. This test lacks
validity
The process girls experience, with their father as the object of their affections and their mother as the rival, is
the Electra complex
Rogers believed that ___________ is necessary if one is to become a fully functioning person.
having the unconditional positive regard of one’s loved ones
According to the five-factor model, a person who is calm and stable would score low on the trait of
neuroticism
The Victorian Age was a time of
sexual repression
The acronym _____ can be used to remember the core trait dimensions of the big five trait approach.
OCEAN
Which type of assessment are psychoanalysts most likely to use
Rorschach inkblot test
Jung called collective, universal human memories
archetypes
In rogers’ view, problems arise when
the ideal self is impossible to attain
Sophie has a chance to interview for a promotion at work. She is sure she will do poorly anyway, so she decides against it. Bandura would say that Sophie has
low self-efficacy.
In examining the five-factor model (or the Big Five) Costa and McCrae believed that these traits are not ____. In other words, knowing someone’s score on one trait would not give any information about scores on the other four traits.
interdependent
Carl Jung, unlike Freud, Believed that ____ held much more than personal fears, urges, and memories
the personal unconscious
In the behaviorists’ view, personality is simply a set of
habits.
Leslie continues to eat fast food every day even though it is causing her diabetes and high cholesterol to become worse. Her behavior is an example of
the pleasure principle
A trait theorist would most likely use which of the following personality assessments?
the California Psychological Inventory
One criticism of Freud is that his clients were
almost all wealthy women
The _____ comes from those important, significant others in a person’s life, most often the parents
ideal self
According to the humanistic view, internal conflict can be avoided by
having a realistic view of one’s real self
According to Horney, a child might deal with anxiety by
withdrawing from personal relationships
Devon is taking a personality test that includes a long list of questions. For each question, Devon must choose from a limited set of answers. Devon is taking a
personality inventory
One of the main proponents of the humanistic view was
Carl Rogers
When assessing personality, trait theorist are most likely to use
personality inventories
The _______ represented the final process in Freud’s personality theory.
genital stage
The office of one of your professors is extremely neat and tidy. All the books are carefully arranged on the shelves, and there are no papers lying about. Freud might suggest that this person has a(n)
anal fixation
According to Rotter, the key factors influencing a person’s decisions to act in a certain way in a particular circumstance are reinforcement value and
expectancy.
The neo-Freudians
retained many of Freud’s original concepts.
Some believe that humanistic theory is
more of a philosophical view than a psychological explanation.
When an assessor literally counts the number of times a behavior is performed, it is called a
frequency count.
Hofstede’s dimensions differ from the Big Five in that they are
based on the traits of a culture rather than an individual.
When a therapist asks questions and writes down the answers in a survey process, what assessment method is the therapist using?
interview
Shortly after her daughter is born, Anna’s three-year-old son wants to start sleeping in the crib again. This is an example of
regression.
Freud would say that a man who bites his fingernails is
orally fixated.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is based on the ideas of
Carl Jung.
Cattell would call shyness a
surface trait.
According to Freud, the ________ mind is where we keep events, information, concerns, and thoughts of which we are not currently aware but can readily access.
preconscious
The Minnesota twin study showed
a possible genetic component to some aspects of personality.
A person’s personality should not be confused with their character, which is the person’s
morals or ethics.
The ego works
to satisfy needs while avoiding negative consequences.
Trait theories differ from other theories of personality development in that they
are less concerned with how personality develops than they are with describing personalities and the actions that result from them.
Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism consists of
environment, behavior, and personal factors.
Researchers have looked for evidence of genetic influences on personality by comparing identical twins to
fraternal twins.
___________ studies how much of an individual’s personality is inherited.
Behavioral genetics
During the latency stage, children are in a state of
repression.
Sigmund Freud is considered the founder of
the psychodynamic movement in psychology.
According to Freud, the ______ contains the conscience.
superego
_________ see personality as nothing more than a set of learned responses.
Behaviorists
One way in which the social cognitive view differs from psychoanalytic theory is that it
can be and has been tested under scientific conditions.
Cattell’s personality questionnaire is based on
16 source traits.
In Freud’s theory, the id, the ego, and the superego
are in constant conflict.
Jim is unconsciously attracted to Max but outwardly voices an extreme hatred of homosexuals. Which defense mechanism is Jim exhibiting?
reaction formation
Hofstede found that the United States is low in
power distance.