Psychology Chapter 10

Puberty
The period of psychological change that takes place in the sexual organs and reproductive system during late middle childhood and adolescence.
Female Primary Sex Characteristics
Vagina: the tube leading from the outside of the body to the opening of the womb.
Uterus: the womb.
Ovaries: the female sex glands.
Male Primary Sex Characteristics
Penis: the organ through which males urinate and while delivers the male sex cells or sperm.
Testes or Testicles: the male sex glands.
Scrotum: the external pouch that holds the testes.
Prostate Gland: a gland that secretes most of the fluid that carries the sperm.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Develop during puberty and are only indirectly involved in human reproduction; these characteristics serve to distinguish the male from the female and may act as attractants to members of the opposite sex, ensuring that sexual activity and reproduction will occur.
Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
Growth spurt that begins at about ages 10 to 12 and finishes 1 year following the first menstrual cycle, in which the blood and tissue lining of the uterus exit the body through the vagina if there is no pregnancy to support.
Menarche
The first cycle for females when they receive a growth spurt and their menstrual cycle; occurs at an average age of about 12 in more developed countries such as the United States.
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Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
Include Enlarged Breasts about 2 years after the growth spurt, wider hips allow the passage of the fetus through the pelvic bones, pubic hair, and fat deposits on the butt and thighs; also involve the growth and development of the primary sexual organs.
Mammary Gland
Growth and development of the primary sexual organs occur when this gland in the breasts becomes capable of producing milk for an infant and when the menstrual cycle begins.
Male Secondary Sex Characteristics
Includes a deepening voice, emergence of facial, chest, and pubic hair, and the development of coarser skin texture; Large increase in height that continues beyond the growth spurt of the female.
Male Secondary Sex Characteristics
The male growth spurt occurs about 2 years later than the female growth spurt, but males continue to gain height until the late teens; Although the voice box increases in size in both sexes, it increases so much in males that part of the tissue forming it becomes visible under the skin of the neck in a structure known as the Adam’s apple.
Androgen
Male hormones.
Estrogen
Female hormones.
Intersexed or Intersexual
On rare occasions, an infant is born with sexual organs that are ambiguous-not clearly male or female; meaning “between the sexes”.
Gender
The psychological aspects of being male or female.
Gender Roles
Culture’s expectations for behavior of a person who is perceived as male or female, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with a particular gender within that culture.
Gender Typing
Process by which people learn their culture’s preferences and expectations for male and female behavior.
Gender Identity
A sense of being male or female (influenced by both biology and environment).
Transgender
People’s sense of gender identity does not always match their external appearance or even the sex chromosomes that determine whether they are male or female.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
Brain scanning technique researchers used to find that amygdala and hypothalamus areas of the limbic system were more strongly active in men than in women who viewed sexual images.
Social Learning Theory
Emphasizes learning through observation and imitation of models, attributes, gender-role development to those processes.
Gender Schema Theory
A theory of gender-role development that combines social learning theory with cognitive development.
Stereotype
Concept that can be held about a person or group of people that is based on very superficial characteristics.
Gender Stereotypes
Concept about males or females that assigns various characteristics to them on the basis of nothing more than being male or female.
Sexism
Prejudice about males and females.
Benevolent Sexism
Prejudice that is more socially acceptable but still leads to men and women being treated unequally.
Androgyny
Describes a characteristic of people whose personalities reflect the characteristics of both male and female, regardless of gender.
Cognitive Differences
May be present but are possibly due to psychological and social issues rather than biology.
Social and Personality Differences
Often the result of stereotyped thinking about sexes.
Phases of Sexual Response
1. Excitement
2. Plateau
3.Orgasm
4. Resolution
Orgasm
The third phase of sexual response is the shortest of the three stages and involves a series of rhythmic muscular contractions.
Semen
The fluid that contains the male sex cells, or sperm.
Resolution
The final phase of sexual response; the return of the body to its normal state before arousal began.
Sexual Response Stages
Similar in both females and males but not identical.
The Kinsey Study
Published a controversial report on the results of a massive survey of sexual behavior-findings concerning the frequency of behavior such as masturbation, anal sex, and premarital sex.
The Janus Report
Published the results of the first large-scale study of human sexual behavior since the Kinsey study-reporting on masturbation, premarital sex, and homosexuality.
Sexual Orientation
Refers to a person’s sexual attraction and affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex.
Heterosexual
The most common sexual orientation; people are sexually attracted to members of the opposite physical sex.
Homosexual
Sexual attraction to members of one’s own sex.
Bisexual
May be either male or female and it attracted to both sexes.
Alfred Kinsey
Pioneered the study of different types of sexual behavior through face-to-face surveys; study was highly controversial; sampling/representativeness questioned.
Suggested sexual orientation occurred on a continuum, not an either/or basis.
Samuel S. Janus and Dr. Cynthia L. Janus
Examined both normal and deviant sexual behavior.
Sexual Orientation
Likely the product of both biology and environment; presence of biological foundations has implications for societal definitions of diversity among deviance.
Sexual Dysfuntion
Problem with sexual functioning, or with the actual physical workings of the sex act.
Sexual Interest, Arousal, and Response
Sexual Dysfunctions involve problems in these three possible areas of sexual activity.
Paraphilia
A condition in which the person either prefers to, or must, achieve sexual arousal and fulfillment though sexual behavior that is unusual or not socially acceptable.
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)
One of the consequences of unprotected sexual contact; an infection spread primarily through sexual contact.
AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Caused by a viral infection, specifically the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV.
STIs
Affect sex organs or have broader, life-threatening effects; bacterial infections may be treatable with antibiotics if cause early; viruses are difficult to treat and may be incurable.
AIDS
Onset often associated with opportunistic infections; has no known cure, can affect females and males of all sexual orientations, and continues to impact cultures world-wide.
Male Secondary Characteristic
Voice Changing
Male Hormone
Anthrogens
Gender Identity
Sense of how a person develops being boy or girl
Gender Role
Cultural expectations of boys and girls.
No
Is gender stereotyping always a bad thing?
Sandra Bem
Who developed the concept of androgyny?
Androgyny
“All inclusive” concept
Kinsey Study
What study involved the researchers participating in the sexual relations?
Nearly half of the men but less than 20% of women reported having bisexual experiences.
What was the results of bisexual experiences in Kinsey’s Study?
21% of men and 6% of women
What was the results of sexual intercourse by age 16 for men and women in the Kinsey Study?
Men
Who are more likely to participate in premarital sex, extramarital sex, and masturbation according to the Kinsey Study?
10% of men and 2-6% of women.
What was the results of being predominately homosexual between men and women in the Kinsey Study?