Psychology- Ch13

An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feelings, and acting is his or her
Personality
Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive
Personality
Free association is central to the process of
Psychoanalysis
According to Freud, the unconscious is
The thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients’ dreams?
Free Association
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
id.
When 2-year old Matthew was told he would get no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he thew his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. Freud would have suggested that Matthew was unable tot resist the demand of his
id.
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
superego.
Janine is repulsed by the thought of watching a pornographic video. Freud would have attributed these feelings to Janine’s
superego.
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the _____ stage
Phallic
The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe
boys’ feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.
Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his best for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy’s behavior best illustrates
regression
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
Projection
The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
Rationalization
A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates
Denial
The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to
Meaningless Inkblots
Survivors’ vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud’s concept of
Repression
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
Self Determination
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
Self-Actualization
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
Unconditional Positive Regard
Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective?
Humanistic Theorists
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
Underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
Characteristic patters of behavior and conscious motives are called
Traits
Personality inventories are designed to assess several_____ at once
Traits
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
The Barnum effect
The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
Factor Analysis
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
Conscientiousness
Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trusts, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates
Reciprocal Determinism
The perception that your fate is determined by luck reflects
An external locus of control
Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
An internal locus of control
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
Learned helplessness
The body’s disease-fighting system is most likely to be dampened by
A pessimistic attributional style
Martin Seligman’s postive psychology differs form the humanistic perspective in that
It emphasizes the use of scientific methods.
Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider____ to be of pivotal importance to personality.
The sense of self
Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
The spotlight effect
Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda’s part?
“I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing”
Accepting ourselves without undue dependence on the approval of others best illustrates
Secure self-esteem