Psychology Ch 8&9

Human Development
is the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception to death
Three Special Designs Used in Researching Age-Related Changes
1.)Longitudinal design
2.)Cross-Sectional design
3.)Cross-Sequential design
Longitudinal design
researching method, in which one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages
Cross-Sectional design
researching method, in which several different age-groups are studied at one time
Cross-Sequential design
researching method, which is a combination of the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs
Cohort Effect
the particular impact on development that occurs when a group of people share a common time period or common life experience
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Nature
refers to heredity, the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
Nurture
refers to the influence of the environment on all of those same things(characteristics of nature) and includes parenting styles, physical surroundings, economic factors, and anything that can have an influence on development that does not come from within the person
Behavioral genetics
is a field in the investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person’s experiences
Genetics
is the science of hereditary
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
is a very special kind of molecule (the smallest particle of a substance that still has all the properties of that substance). Consists of two phosphate strands, each linked together by certain chemical elements called amines or bases arranged in a particular pattern
Gene
each section of DNA containing a certain sequence of the amines is called this
Chromosomes
genes are located on these rod-shaped structures, which are found in the nucleus of a cell
Autosomes
most characteristics are determined by 22 such pairs, known as these
Sex chromosomes
this last pair of autosomes determines the sex of the person. The two chromosomes of this pair are known as these.
Two X-shaped chromosomes indicate a female while an X and a Y indicate a male
Dominant
some genes that are more active in influencing the trait, are known as this. This kind of gene will always be expressed in the observable trait
Recessive
these types of genes are less active in influencing the trait and will only be expressed in the observable trait if they are paired with another less active gene. These genes tend to recede, or fade, into the background when paired with a more dominant gene
Polygenic Inheritance
almost all traits are controlled by more than one pair of genes in a process known as this.
In this process, certain kinds of genes tend to group themselves with certain other genes, like the genes for blond hair and blue eyes. Other genes are so equally dominant or equally recessive that they combine their traits in the organism
Down Syndrome
a disorder in which there is an extra chromosome in what would normally be the 21st pair. Symptoms commonly include the physical characteristics of almond-shaped, wide-set eyes, as well as intellectual disability
Klinefelter’s syndrome
in which the 23rd set of sex chromosomes is XXY, with the extra X producing a male with reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, obesity, and excessive height
Turner’s syndrome
in which the 23rd pair is actually missing an X, so that the result is a lone X chromosome. These females tend to be very short, infertile, and sexually underdeveloped
Ovum
an egg
Fertilization
the process by which the egg and the sperm unite
Zygote
a single cell that will eventually have a total of 46 chromosomes. Is produced through fertilization
Monozygotic twins
identical twins, meaning that the two babies come from one (mono) fertilized egg (zygote)
Dizygotic twins
two eggs are fertilized, resulting in fraternal twins. This is more likely to happen to women who are taking fertility drugs to help them get pregnant
Conjoined twins
twins that will be joined at the point where the two cell masses remained “stuck”
Uterus
the muscular organ that will contain and protect the developing organism. After fertilization has taken place, the zygote begins dividing and moves down to this location
Germinal period
The 2 week period by which the zygote moves to the uterus, forms a hollow ball, and firmly attaches itself to the wall of the uterus
Placenta
begins to form during the germinal period. Is a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away the developing baby’s waste products
Umbilical cord
begins to develop during the germinal period, connecting the organism to the placenta
Stem cells
have the capability of becoming any type of cell. Stay in a somewhat immature state until needed to produce more cells
Embryo
once firmly attached to the uterus, the developing organism is known as this
Embryonic period
this period will last from 2 weeks after conception to 8 weeks, and during this time the cells will continue to specialize and become the various organs and structures of a human infant
Critical periods
times during which some environmental influences can have an impact-often devastating-on the development of the infant
Teratogen
any substance such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that can cause a birth defect
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, particularly during the critical embryonic period, can lead to this. A series of physical and mental defects including stunted growth, facial deformities, and brain damage
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
permanent birth defects due to maternal alcohol use during pregnancy
Fetal Period
is a period of tremendous growth lasting from about 8 weeks after conception until birth. The length of the developing organism increases by about 20 times and its weight increases from about 1 ounce at 2 months to an average of a little over 7 pounds at birth
Fetus
the embryo is now referred to as this when it reaches the fetal period
Preterm
babies born before 38 weeks are called this, and may need life support to survive
Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion
the loss of the child, while in the womb. The most likely time for this is in the first 3 months, as the organs are forming and are first becoming functional
Two methods of researching infants
1.)Preferential looking
2.)Habituation
Preferential looking
assumes that the longer an infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant prefers that stimulus over others
Habituation
is the tendency for infants (and adults) to stop paying attention to a stimulus that does not change
Innate
existing from birth
Reflexes
involuntary behavior patterns
Synaptic pruning
the development of the infant brain after birth involves a necessary loss of neurons, known as this. Through this process, unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells
Cognitive development
including the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
Schemes
mental concepts.
Piaget believed that children form mental concepts as they experience new situations and events
Assimilation
Piaget believed that children first try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess, a process known as this.
For example, the child might see an orange and say “apple” because both objects are round
Accommodation
the process of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences.
For example, the child might see and orange and say “apple” because both objects are round. When corrected, the child might alter the scheme for apple to include “round” and “red.”
Sensorimotor stage
is the first of Piaget’s stages, it concerns infants from birth to age 2. In this stage, infants use their senses and motor abilities to learn about the world around them.
At first, infants only have the involuntary reflexes present at birth to interact with objects and people. As their sensory and motor development progresses, they begin to interact deliberately with objects by grasping their toes, to complex patterns, such as trying to put a shape into a sorting box
Object Permanence
by the end of the sensorimotor stage, infants have fully developed a sense of this, or the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight
Preoperational stage
ages 2-7, is a time of developing language and concepts
Egocentrism
a limitation, which can be defined as the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but one’s own
Centration
focusing only on one feature of some object rather than taking all features into consideration is called this
Conservation
the ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its amount, its volume, or its mass, is known as this
Irreversibility
A feature of preoperational thinking, where preoperational children fail at conservation not only because they centrate (focus on just one feature) but also because they are unable to “mentally reverse” actions
Concrete Operations Stage
in this stage (ages 7-12), children finally become capable of conservation and reversible thinking
Concrete Concepts
are the kind of concepts understood by children of this age (7-12), are about objects, written rules, and real things
Formal Operations
the last of Piaget’s stages, (age 12-adulthood), abstract thinking becomes possible
Scaffolding
Vygotsky believed that children develop cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leading questions and providing examples of concepts in a process known as this. In this process, the more highly skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learner’s skills improve
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky proposed that each developing child has this. This zone is the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher
Child-Directed Speech
the way adults and older children talk to infants and very young children, with higher pitched, repetitious, sing-song speech patterns
Universal stages of language development in infants
1.)Cooing
2.)Babbling
3.)One-Word Speech
4.)Telegraphic Speech
5.)Whole Sentences
Cooing
the first stage of language development in infants. Occurs around 2 months of age and babies begin to make vowel-like sounds
Babbling
the second stage of language development in infants. Occurs at about 6 months, when infants add consonant sounds to the vowels to make a babbling sound, which at times can almost sound like real speech. Deaf children actually decrease their babbling after 6 months while increasing their use of primitive hand sign and gestures
One-word speech
the third stage of language development in infants. Occurs just before or around age 1, when most children begin to say actual words. These words are typically nouns and may seem to represent an entire phrase of meaning. They are called holophrases (whole phrases in one word)
For example, a child might say “Milk!” and mean “I want some milk!” or “I drank my milk!”
Telegraphic speech
the fourth stage of language development in children. Beings at around a year and a half, toddlers begin to string words together to form short, simple sentences using nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
For example, “Baby eat,” “Mommy go,” and “Doggie go bye-bye”
Whole sentences
the fifth stage of language development in children. Beings as children move through the preschool years, when they learn to use grammatical terms and increase the number of words in their sentences, until by age 6 pr so they are nearly as fluent as an adult, although the number of words they know is still limited when compared to adult vocabulary
Temperament
the behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth
Three basic temperament styles of infants
1.)Easy
2.)Difficult
3.)Slow to warm up
Easy Temperament
“easy” babies are regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, and eating and are adaptable to change. Easy babies are happy babies and when distressed are easily soothed
Difficult Temperament
“difficult” babies are almost the opposite of easy ones. Difficult babies tend to be irregular in their schedules and are very unhappy about change of any kind. They are loud, active, and tend to be crabby rather than happy
Slow to warm up temperament
this kind of temperament is associated with infants who are less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult children but who are slow to adapt to change. If change is introduced gradually, these babies will “warm up” to new people and new situations
Attachment
the emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver
Stranger anxiety
wariness of strangers
Separation Anxiety
fear of being separated from the caregiver
Four attachment styles
1.)Secure
2.)Avoidant
3.)Ambivalent
4.)Disorganized-disoriented
Secure attachment type
infants with this attachment type are labeled as secure and were willing to get down from their mother’s lap soon after entering the room with their mothers. They explore happily, look back at their mothers and return to them every now and then (sort of like “touching base”). When strangers were introduced, these infants were wary but calm, as long as their mother was nearby. When the mother left, the infants got upset. When the mother returned, the infants approached her, were easily soothed, and were glad to have her back
Avoidant attachment type
these types of babies, although somewhat willing to explore, did not “touch base.” They did not look at the stranger or the mother, and reacted very little to her absence or her return, seeming to have no interest or concern
Ambivalent attachment type
these types of babies in Ainsworth’s study were clinging and unwilling to explore, very upset by the stranger regardless of the mother’s presence, protested mightily when the mother left, and were hard to soothe. When the mother returned, these babies would demand to be picked up, but at the same time push the mother away or kick her in a mixed reaction to her return
Disorganized-disoriented attachment type
in some research studies, researchers found that some babies seemed unable to decide just how they should react to the mother’s return. These infants would approach her but with their eyes turned away from her, as if afraid to make eye contact. In general, these infants seemed fearful and showed a dazed and depressed look on their face
Self-concept
is the image you have of yourself, and it is based on your interactions with the important people in your life
Adolescence
is the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
Puberty
the clearest sign of the beginning of adolescence is the onset of this, or the physical changes in both primary sex characteristics (growth of the actual sex organs such as the penis or the uterus) and secondary sex characteristics (changes in the body such as the development of breasts and body hair) that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
Personal fable
in this, adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special, one of a kind, and that no one else has ever had these thoughts and feelings before them
Imaginary Audience
shows up as extreme self-consciousness in adolescents. Individuals become convinced that everyone is looking at them and that they are always the center of everyone else’s world, just as they are the center of their own
Identity role versus role confusion
the psychological crisis that must be faced by the adolescent, according to Erikson, is this. In this stage, the teenager must choose from among many options for values in life and beliefs concerning things such as political issues, career options, and marriage. From these options, a consistent sense of self must be found. Erikson believed that teens who have successfully resolved the conflicts of the earlier four stages are much better “equipped” to resist peer pressure to engage in unhealthy or illegal activities and find their own identity during the adolescent years
Climacteric
the physical/hormonal changes that occur in a women’s body as she ages
Perimenopause
the period of 5-10 years, when the physical/hormonal changes occur over time
Menopause
the cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle. The average age is 51
Andropause
in males (similar to menopause-although less drastic) many hormones begin to decline in their 40s, primarily testosterone
Intimacy
is an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care (an ability developed during the earlier stages such as trust versus mistrust), while still maintaining one’s sense of self
Generativity
in middle adulthood, persons who have found intimacy can now turn their focus outward, toward others. Erikson saw this as parenting the next generation and helping them through their crises
Stagnated
those who are unable to focus outward and are still dealing with issues of intimacy, or even identity, are said to be this
Authoritarian Parenting
this type of parenting tends to be overly concerned with rules. It is stern, rigid, controlling, and uncompromising.
Permissive Parenting
this type of parenting occurs when parents put very few demands on their children for behavior
Permissive Neglectful parenting
parents simply aren’t involved with their children, ignoring them and allowing them to do whatever they want, until it interferes with what the parent wants. At this point, this relationship may become an abusive one
Permissive Indulgent parenting
parents seem to be too involved with their children, allowing their “little angels” to behave in any way they wish, refusing to set limits on the child’s behavior or to require any kind of obedience
Authoritative Parenting
involves combining firm limits on behavior with love, warmth, affection, respect, and a willingness to listen to the child’s point of view
Ego integrity
if people can look back and feel that their lives were relatively full and are able to come to terms with regrets and losses, then a feeling of this, or wholeness results
Cellular-clock theory
one of the biologically based theories. States that cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage.
Evidence for this theory is the existence of telomeres, structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces. When telomeres are too short, cells cannot reproduce and damage accumulates, resulting in the effects of aging
Wear-and-Tear Theory of aging
this theory points to outside influences such as stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage. In this theory, the body’s organs and cell tissues simply wear out with repeated use and abuse. Damaged tissues accumulate and produce the effects of aging
Collagen
is a natural elastic tissue that allows the skin to be flexible
Free-Radical theory
is actually the latest version of the wear-and-tear theory in that it gives a biological explanation for the damage done to cells over time.
Free radicals
are oxygen molecules that have an unstable electron
Activity theory
proposes that an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining active in some way
Elisabeth Kubler Ross
theorized that people go through five stages of reaction when faced with death
1.)denial
2.)anger
3.)bargaining
4.)depression
5.)acceptance
Denial
Ross’s first reaction to death, in which people refuse to believe that the diagnosis of death is real
Anger
Ross’s second reaction to death, in which the individual is angry at death itself and the feelings of helplessness to change things
Bargaining
Ross’s third reaction to death, in which the dying person tries to make a deal with doctors or even with God
Depression
Ross’s fourth reaction to death, in which sadness from losses already experienced and those yet to come are felt
Acceptance
Ross’s last reaction to death, when the person has accepted the inevitable and quietly awaits death
Motivation
is the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met
Extrinsic motivation
in this type of motivation a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from the person
Intrinsic motivation
in this type of motivation a person performs an action because the act itself is fun, rewarding, challenging, or satisfying in some internal manner
Instincts
early attempts to understand motivation focused on the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior called these, which exist in both people and animals
Need
is a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism
Drive
when an organism has a need, it leads to a psychological tension as well as a physical arousal that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension. This tension is known as this
Drive-reduction theory
proposed the connection between internal physiological states and outward behavior. There are two kinds of drives in this theory:
1.)primary
2.)acquired (secondary)
Primary drives
are those that involve survival needs of the body such as hunger and thirst
Acquired (secondary) drives
are those that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval, or the need of recent former smokers to have something to put in their mouths
Homeostasis
the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state
Need for affiliation
according to McClelland, human beings have a psychological need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others, called this. People high in this need seek to be liked by others and to be held in high regard by those around them
Need for power
a second psychological need proposed by McClelland, is this. Power is not about reaching a goal but about having control over other people. People high in this need would want to have influence over others and make an impact on them
Need for achievement
involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones. People who are high in this need, look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them because these high achievers also need to have feedback about their performance in addition to the achievement of reaching the goal
Locus of control
an older notion, in which people who assume that they have control over what happens in their lives are considered to be internal in locus of control, and those who feel that their lives are controlled by powerful others, luck, or fate are considered to be external in locus of control
Stimulus motive
is one that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation
Examples, curiosity, playing, and exploration
Arousal theory
in this theory, people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension.
Yerkes-Dodson law
the relationship between task performance and arousal. Law was referring to stimulus intensity not arousal level.
Task performances, for example, may suffer if the level of arousal is too high (such as severe test anxiety) or even if the level of arousal is too low (such as boredom). For many kinds of tasks, a moderate level of arousal seems to be best
Sensation seeker
person who needs more arousal. These people seem to need more complex and varied sensory experiences than do other people. The need does not always have to involve danger
Incentives
are things that attract or lure people into action
Incentive approaches
in these approaches, behavior is explained in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding properities
Self-actualization
is the point that is seldom reached-at which people have satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential
Peak experiences
times in a person’s life in which self-actualization is achieved, at least temporarily
Self-determination theory
Richard Ryan and Edward Deci proposed this theory (similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs). In this theory, there are three inborn and universal needs that help people gain a complete sense of self and whole, healthy relationships with others.
The three needs are:
1.)autonomy-or the need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals
2.)competence-or the need to be able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life
3.)relatedness-or the need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others
Individualistic
some cultures, such as the United States and Great Britain, are this, This kind of thinking stresses the needs of the individual over the group, independence, and self-reliance
Insulin
a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the whole body. Also reduces the level of glucose in the bloodstream.
Glucagon
a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the whole body. Also increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream
Leptin
a hormone that has been identified as one of the factors that controls appetite. When released into the bloodstream, this hormone signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full, or satiated
Ventromedial hypothalamus
may be involved in stopping the eating response when glucose levels go up
Lateral hypothalamus
another part of the hypothalamus, located on the side, seems to influence the onset of eating when insulin levels go up
Weight set point
the hypothalamus affect the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain, or this
Basal metabolic rate
the rate at which the body burns energy when a person is resting is called this. Is directly tied to the set point
Emotion
can be defined as the “feeling” aspect of consciousness, characterized by three elements; a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the feeling to the outside world, and an inner awareness of the feeling
Amygdala
a small area located within the limbic system on each side of the brain, is associated with emotions such as fear and pleasure in both humans and animals
Display rules
although the emotions and the related facial expressions appear to be universal, exactly when, where, and how an emotion is expressed may be determined by culture. These rules vary from culture to culture
Display rules between cultures
are different between cultures that are individualistic (placing the importance of the individual above the social group) and those that are collectivistic (placing the importance of the social group above that of the individual)
Physiological arousal
is created by sympathetic nervous system and is associated with brain activity in specific areas and right or left hemisphere activity
Subjective labeling of emotion
is largely a learned response, influenced by both language and culture
Cognitive-mediational theory
Lazarus proposed this theory, which places the emphasis on the cognitive appraisal and interpretation of the stimulus that causes the emotional reaction
Facial feedback hypothesis
based on ideas from Darwin, this hypothesis suggests that facial expressions (and other behaviors) provide feedback to the brain that can intensify or cause a specific emotion
James-Lange theory
suggests that specific stimuli result in physical arousal and leads to labeling of the emotion
Cannon-Bard theory
suggests that emotion and physiological arousal occur simultaneously
Cognitive-arousal theory
(Schacter-Singer) suggests that physiological arousal and the actual interpretation of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion itself is experienced