Psychology Ch. 4 States of Consciousness

stream of consciousness
Term used by William James to describe the mind as a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings.
consciousness
An individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one’s experiences.
controlled processes
The most alert states of human consciousness; individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal.
automatic processes
States of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities. Requires less conscious effort than controlled processes.
unconscious thought
Freud’s concept of a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.
biological rhythms
Periodic physiological fluctuations in the body, such as the rise and fall of hormones and accelerated/decelerated cycles of brain activity, that can influence behavior.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
A small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark; the body’s way of monitoring the change from day to night.
circadian rhythms
Daily behavioral pr physiological cycles that involve the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
manifest content
According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning.
latent content
According to Freud, a dream’s hidden content; its unconscious and true meaning.
cognitive theory of dreaming
Theory proposing that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind.
activation synthesis theory
Theory that dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower brain and that dreams result from the brain’s attempts to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep.
psychoactive drugs
Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
tolerance
The need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect.
physical dependence
The physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued.
psychological dependence
The strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and reduction of stress.
addiction
Either a physical or psychological dependence, or both, on a drug.
depressants
Psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity.
alcoholism
Disorder that involves long term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker’s health and social relationships.
barbiturates
Depressant drugs, such as Nembutal and Seconal, that decrease central nervous system activity.
tranquilizers
Depressant drug that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.
opiates
Opium and its derivatives; narcotic drugs that depress the central nervous system’s activity and eliminate pain.
stimulants
Psychoactive drugs, including caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine, that increase the central nervous system’s activity.
hallucinogens
Psychoactive drugs that modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
hypnosis
An altered state of consciousness or a psychological sate of altered attention and expectation in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions.
divided consciousness view of hypnosis
Hilgard’s view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two separate components, one of which follows the hypnotist’s commands and the other of which acts as a “hidden observer”.
social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis
The perspective that hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behave.
REM sleep
An active stage of sleep during which dreaming occurs.