Psychology-Ch 14 15 16

What does the term “menarche” refer to?
A girl’s first menstrual period
Puberty usually lasts ______ years.
3-5
Puberty begins with a hormonal signal from the __________ to the _________.
ovaries; testicles
For both boys and girls, early puberty correlates with:
early sexual activity
The hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty is:
leptin
Living in a stressful environment has been found to:
result in earlier puberty.
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About ____ of adult bone mass is acquired between the ages of 10 and 20.
half
Which of the following is a symptom of bulimia nervosa?
A) Binging and purging at least once a week for three months
B) An uncontrollable urge to overeat.
C) A distorted body image.
D) All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

The last part(s) of the adolescent body to be fully formed is (are) the:
torso
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
maturation of the testes
Teenage girls are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections than mature women are because:
fully developed women have some natural biological defenses against STIs.
What is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection?
chlamydia
Why do emotions rule behavior for many teens?
A) The onset of puberty is earlier
B) The amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex does
C) The complexities of emotional restraint are beyond them
D) All of these answers are correct.

Answer D All

The sex glands in a female are called ______, and the sex glands in a male are called ______.
ovaries; testicles.
The years of rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood is called:
puberty
The first VISIBLE sign of puberty in boys is:
growth of the testes.
An organic chemical substance produced in the body and conveyed via the bloodstream is called a:
hormone
Which of the following is another name for the sex glands?
gonads
At adolescence, the gonads increase the production of sex hormones: ___________ in girls and __________ in boys.
estradiol; testosterone
Sexual development before age 8 is referred to as:
precocious puberty
In what way does stress affect puberty?
Stress increases the hormones that start puberty
Early-maturing girls
tend to have lower self-esteem than late-maturing girls
According to the text, adolescents are deficient in their intake of necessary vitamins and minerals because
A) healthy foods cost more.
B) unhealthy foods are more desirable
C) they eat from vending machines in schools
D) All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

Which of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa as defined by the American Psychiatric Association?
A refusal to maintain a body weight that is at least 85 percent of normal for age and height
The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty is referred to as
a growth spurt
During adolescence, the lungs will _________ in weight and the heart will ___________ in size
triple; double
Physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity are referred to as:
secondary sex characteristics
Which complication is associated with teen pregnancy?
spontaneous abortion
Which statement concerning a teenager’s brain growth is true?
The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does
What is adolescent egocentrism?
The thinking that leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others
At which of the following ages would you expect acute self-consciousness to be at its highest?
12
The invincibility fable and the imaginary audience are both related to
adolescent egocentrism
Julie is obsessed with how others will react to her behavior and appearance. It takes her several hours to dress in the morning as she considers what both her friends and her enemies will think of her. Julie’s behavior reflects the power of
the imaginary audience
Randy is in the stage of _______ if his thinking is no longer dependant on concrete experiences
formal operational thought
The thought process that involves using one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion is called
inductive reasoning
The notion that two networks exist within the brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, describes the
dual-process model
In a study of adolescent thinking, Klaczynski concluded that
teenagers can use logic, but most did not
Marrisa decided to drive her car to Las Vegas rather than fly after reading a story about a plane crash. This common fallacy is called
base rate neglect
When it comes to religion
most adolescents feel close to God
“Secondary education” refers to
grades 7 through 12
The “low ebb” of learning occurs in
middle school
The findings of a study of middle school students in Los Angeles suggest that __________ makes students feel safer and less lonely
having someone to blame
Which of the following statements about the use of the Internet and other forms of technology is true?
They can be used as tools for learning
High schools today
often require most students to take two years of math beyond algebra
The individual who engages in hypothetical thought clearly demonstrates an understanding of the word
“if.”
A common fallacy in which a person ignores statistical information about the frequency of a phenomenon and instead makes an emotionally based decision is called
base rate neglect
Vern just entered high school this year. Recently he has been skipping a lot of classes and is starting to vandalize property at night with his friends. These behaviors could be a sign that Vern is experiencing
stress
Which theorist first described adolescent egocentrism?
David Elkind
What is the aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by the adolescent’s belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique?
personal fable
The adolescent’s belief that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal is called the
invincibility fable
Thirteen-year-old Mark refuses to go to school because he has a pimple. He is convinced that everyone will make fun of him. Mark’s behavior is an example of
the imaginary audience
Although concrete operational thinkers might succeed on the balance-a-scale test of formal reasoning, they are less likely to do so because of their reliance on
trial and error
Concluding that a four-legged furry animal that wags its tail when it is happy and that likes to fetch sticks is a dog would be an example of
inductive reasoning
What type of thought begins with a prior belief, past experience, or common assumption, rather than a logical premise?
intuitive
“Throwing good money after bad” is a phrase often used when we put more and more money into something that really was not worth it in the first place. Which of the following best explains why we often do not choose to “cut our losses”?
sunk cost fallacy
The mistaken assumption that, because a person has already spent time, money, or effort on some endeavor that has failed, more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal is referred to as
cost-effectiveness fallacy
According to a study by Smith and Denton (2005), what percentage of adolescents report that they are not religious?
16
The period after primary education and before tertiary education is called
secondary education
Developmentalists suspect that one reason for the slowdown in academic achievement that is seen in middle schools is
the lack of connection to teachers
Today’s “digital divide”:
separates young from old
Bullying that occurs when one person spreads insults or rumors about another by means of e-mails, text messages, or the Internet is called
cyberbullying
High-stakes testing as a requirement for high school graduation potentially results in
more dropouts
During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question
Who am I?”
The ultimate goal in resolving the crisis of identity achievement is to
reconsider the goals and values set by parents and culture, accepting some and rejecting others
A person who adopts his or her parents’ values without question or analysis is said to be in
foreclosure
Erikson described four aspects of identity as being the religious, the sexual, the vocational, and the
political
Teens are less likely to abuse drugs, leave school, and take unnecessary risks when
they feel valued by their communities
Petty, peevish arguing, usually repeated and ongoing, is called
bickering
An experiment comparing teens’ and emerging adults’ risk behaviors when playing the video driving game Chicken with and without their peers revealed that
teens were more willing to take chances when playing with peers than were the adults
Adolescent sexual behavior is strongly influenced by
A) sexual information received from peers
B) whether or not an adolescent is in an ongoing romantic relationship
C) early puberty and physical attractiveness
D) All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?
Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not
One reason why adolescent suicides have decreased since 1990 may be that
there is more effective use of antidepressants
The category “psychoactive drugs” refers to
A) prescription medicine
B) illegal drugs such as marijuana
C) legal drugs such as cigarettes
D) All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

With some exceptions, adolescent boys use ____ drugs, and use them ______ often, than girls do
more; more
The most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers is
alcohol.
In terms of drug use, “generational forgetting” refers to
the idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned about drugs
Few adolescents notice when they move from _____ (experimenting) to __________ (experiencing harm) to _____________ (needing the drug to avoid feeling ill).
use; abuse; addiction
Jessica is 16-years-old and smokes marijuana every day. Which of the following could be affected by her behavior?
a. her memory
b. her motivation
c. her language proficiency
d. All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

Showing students a black lung damaged by smoking as a way to try to prevent teens from smoking would be considered what type of prevention strategy?
scare tactic
During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused as to which of the many possible roles to adopt is said to be
experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion
A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care about his or her identity is called
role confusion
Which of the following is the MOST likely indicator of moratorium?
joining the Peace Corps
“Gender identity” refers to
a person’s self-definition as male or female
Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when
there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control
What is a clique?
a group of close friends who are loyal to one another and who exclude outsiders
Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms is referred to as
deviancy training
High school romances
are short-lived, rarely lasting more than a year
Research has shown that the dip in self-esteem during adolescence
is experienced by both sexes
Any deliberate action of self-harm that could have been lethal but was not is referred to as
parasuicide
Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child’s becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.
life-course-persistent offender; adolescent-limited offender
Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent’s becoming a shorter and heavier adult?
tobacco
Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to
A) drop out of school.
B) become teenage parents
C) be unemployed
D) All of these answers are correct

Answer D All

Which of the following attempts to decrease teen drug use appears to INCREASE use?
antismoking ad campaigns designed to appeal to the young
The only drug category used more by eighth-graders than by twelfth-graders is:
inhalants