Psychology Ch. 12

According to the Freudian structure of personality, the id is the:
individual’s reservoir of sexual energy.
According to _____, the person, the person’s behavior, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links.
reciprocal determinism
When the ego attributes personal shortcomings, faults, and problems to others, it is referred to as the defense mechanism of _____.
projection
According to Freud, the ego acts as a mediator because it:
balances the demands of the id, superego, and the real world.
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the _____ houses an individual’s higher mental functions, such as reasoning, problem solving, and decision making.
ego
_____ is an important aspect of situationism according to Walter Mischel.
Context
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Which of the following is NOT a belief of the psychodynamic perspectives of personality?
A person’s personality can be truly understood by focusing exclusively on his or her behavior.
The most commonly used method of measuring personality characteristics is _____.
the self-report test
Self-report tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective of personality.
trait
Which of the following perspectives of personality primarily stress a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities?
Humanistic
According to Bandura, _____ is the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change.
self-efficacy
Projective tests are based on the assumption that _____.
the ambiguity of the stimulus allows individuals to interpret it based on their feelings and desires
When the ego seeks the security of an earlier developmental period in the face of stress, the defense mechanism of _____ is being used.
regression
Projective tests are theoretically aligned with the _____ perspectives on personality.
psychodynamic
According to Jung’s analytic theory, emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people are known as:
archetypes.
According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is incapable of being calm and satisfied with oneself or others is likely to be high on _____.
neuroticism
Which of the following is true about the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)?
It can be used to study people’s unconscious defense mechanisms.
According to Sigmund Freud, the _____ was the main determinant of personality development.
human sex drive
Which of the following psychologists coined the word personology?
Henry Murray
According to Alfred Adler, people are primarily motivated by:
their desire to overcome feelings of inferiority.
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the _____ evaluates the morality of an individual’s behavior.
superego
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, _____ occurs when the ego replaces a less acceptable motive with a more acceptable one.
Rationalization
_____ is a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.
Personality
Which of the following projective tests is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personality?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is generous and altruistic is most likely high on:
agreeableness.
According to Carl Rogers, which of the following is NOT an essential ingredient of healthy human relations?
Conditions of worth
According to Rogers’s humanistic theory, if Gretel receives _____ from her parents, she is least likely to face problems associated with her _____.
unconditional positive regard; self-concept
In the five-factor model of personality, _____ is most closely related to liberal values, tolerance, and creativity.
openness to experience
According to Rogers, a child who experiences regular punishment from parents and is only rewarded for good behavior is likely to develop an awareness of:
conditions of worth.
Face validity of a personality assessment technique refers to whether or not:
the test item appears to fit the particular trait it is measuring.
_____ is the study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics.
Behavioral genetics
According to Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, castration anxiety occurs during the _____.
phallic stage
Which of the following is a criticism of the humanistic perspectives of personality?
They are too optimistic about human nature.
Which of the following personality assessment techniques features 567 items and provides information on a variety of personality characteristics?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Personology refers to:
study of the whole person