Psychology Ch. 1-3 Final Exam Review

Psychology is best defined as the
a. empirical study of the human personality
b. study of individual differences in the group behavior of humans and animals
c. scientific study of the behavior and mental processes
d. scientific study of the relationsjip between mind and body
c. scientific study of the behavior and mental proccesss
Overt behavior includes
a. anything a person does
b. only those things a person does which cannot be seen by otheres
c. only those things that can be observes
d. hidden, private, interal thoughts
c. only those things that can be observed
Which of the following is the best example of covert behavior?
a. blinking in responce to light
b. imitation a friend’s gesture
c. remembering a pleasent expirience
d. rapid eye movements while sleeping
c. remembing a pleasant expirence
Ami is investigation how prople come to know the world through their visiual ability. She is also studying how people interpret this visual information in order to recognize faces. Ami is a
a. personality theorist
b. developmental psychologist
c. sensation and perception psychologist
d. learning theorist
c. sensation and perception psychologist
The study of similarities and differences in the behavior of different species is called
a. biology
b. comparative psychology
c. enviornmental psychology
d. differentail psychology
b. comparative psychology
“why” questions refer to which of psychology’s goals?
a. description
b. understand
c. perservation
d. control
b. understanding
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When current knowledge about an individual and his or her enviornment can be used to accurately forecast behavior at another time or in another setting, the scientific goal of ______ has been achieved.
a. description
b. understanding
c. prediction
d. control
c. prediction
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior is called
a. psychoanalysis
b. pseudopsychology
c. social learning
d. humanism
b. pseudopsychology
According to the textbook, which of the following is NOT a pseudopsychology?
a. psychoanalysis
b. palmistry
c. phrenology
d. astrology
a. psychoanalysis
Jane goes to a phrenologist. Whan can she expect from this pseudopsychologist?
a. the phrenologist will predict fer future by “reading” lines on her palms.
b. the phrenologist will explain her personality traits by feeling the bumps on her skull
c. the phrenologist will explain her personality traits by analysing a copy of her handwriting
d. the phrenologist will explain how her life in influenced by the position of the stars and planets at her birth.
b. the phrenologist will explain her personality traits by feeling the bumps on her skull
An elderly lady is greatly impressed by an astrologer who describes her as physically vigiourous, innovative, and artistically creative. Her reaction is an example of
a. uncritical acceptance
b. the fallacy of positive instance
c. the gall effect
d. the confusion of cause and effect
a. uncritical acceptance
The more general the predictions a fortune teller or palmist makes, the more believable are the results. This fact has been called the
a. Guilford effect
b. phrenologist’s fallacy
c. Barnum effect
d. Gall’s fallacy
c. Barnum effect
The father of psychology and founder of the first psychological laboratory was
a. Wilhelm Wundt
b. Sigmund Freud
c. John B. Watson
d. B.F. Skinner
a. Wilhelm Wundt
Wundt observed stimuli of various kinds and then tried to “look inward” to probe his reactions to these stimuli through a process known as
a. analytical logic
b. reduction division
c. transduction
d. introspection
d. introspection
Max Wertheimer is associated with which one of the following schools of thought?
a. Gestalt Psychology
b. behaviorism
c. psychoanalysis
d. functionalism
a. Gestalt psychology
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” is the motto of the
a. Gestalt psychologist
b. behaviorism
c. psychoanalysis
a. Gestalt psychologist
The founder of psycholanalytic psychology was
a. Carl Rogers
b. Abraham Maslow
c. Sigmund Freud
c. Sigmund Freud
According to Freud, unconscious thoughts are often revealed by
a. dreams, emotions, and slips of the tongue
b. self-actualization and peak experiences
a. dreams, emotions, and slips of the tongue
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow belong to which school of thought in psychology?
a. humanistic
b. psychoanalytic
a. humanistic
Frame of reference is
a. one’s image of others
b. a mental perspective used for evaluation events
b. a mental perspective used for evaluation events
The process of fully developing one’s personal potential and becoming the best person one can become is known as
a. determinism
b. self-actualization
b. self-actualization
The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective functioning is called ______ psychology.
a. postive
b. sociocultural
a. postive
Which of the following usually has a master’s degree or a doctor ate and is highly trained in the methods factual knowledge, and theories of psychology?
a. a pseudoscientist
b. a psychologist
b. a psychologist
Which type of psychologist tends to treat milder problems, such as problems at work or school?
a. clinical
b. counseling
b. counseling
Which of the following psychological professionals is allowed to prescribe drugs in all 50 states of the United States?
a. psychologist
b. psychiatrist
b. psychiatrist
The brain consists of approximately 100 billion nerve cells called
a. somas
b. neurons
b. neurons
Neurons are made up of dendrites, a soma, and
a. axons
b. synapses
a. axons
The cell body of a neuron is also called the
a. dendrite
b. soma
b. soma
The part of the nervce cell that carries information away from the cell body to other neurons is the
a. axons
b. dendrite
a. axons
The whitish, fatty substance that surrounds the axon and aids conduction of a nerve impulse down the axon is called
a. myelin
b. neurilemma
a. myelin
The tiny gaps separating neurons from one another and across which information must be transmitted are know as
a. synapses
b. receptor sites
a. synapses
The chemicals that are released at an axon terminal and can either excite or inhibit other neurons are called
a. synapses
b. neurotransmitters
b. neurotransmitters
An individual nerve cell is known as a
a. nerve
b. neuron
b. neuron
Which of the following can be seen without magnification?
a. a neuron
b. a nerve
a. a nerve
Large bundles of neuron axons that are visible to the unaided eye are
a. nerves
b. eurotransmitters
a. nerves
The central nervous system is composed of the
a. brain and spinal cord
b. autonomic and somatic systems
a. brain and spinal cord
The production of new brain cells is known as
a. depolarization
b. neurogenesis
b. neurogenesis
The study of changes in behavior from conception to death encompasses the field known as
a. gerontology
b. developmental psychology
b. developmental psychology
When psychologists attribute development to nature, they are referring to the effects of
a. mother/infant bonding
b. heredity and genetics
b. heredity and genetics
A teratogen
a. is any substance capable of causing birth defects
b. is another name for a genetic defect
a. is any substance capable of causing birth defects
Deliberately making an enviornment more stimulation, nutritional , comforting, and loving is referred to as
a. overindulgence
b. enrichment
b. enrichment
Poverty as been shown to affect
a. a child’s physical development
b. a child’s sociomotional development
c. a child’s cognitive development
d. all of these
d. all of these
Temperament refers to
a. the pattern of physical development from conception to death
b. the inherited, physical core, of one’s personality
b. the inherited, physical core, of one’s personality
According to Thomas and Chess, the largest percentage of children (40 percent) display what type of temperament?
a. easy
b. difficult
c. slow-to-warm-up
d. generic
a. easy
With regard to temperament, “difficult children”
a. are restrained and unexpressive in their behavior
b. are moody, intense, and easily angered
b. are moody, intense, and easily angered
Bobbytouches his newborn brother’s palm and his little brother takes hold of Bobby’s finger and will not let go.
This is known as the
a. Moro reflex
b. grasping reflex
b. grasping reflex
If touched on the cheek, the neonates will turn their head in that direction. This reflex is called the
a. rooting reflex
b. Moro reflex
a. rooting reflex
Which of the following is NOT one of the parental styles identified by Baurmrind?
a. proactive
b. overly permissive
a. proactive
Which parenting style gives little guidance and does not enforce rules or hold children accountable for their actions?
a. authoritative
b. overly permissive
b. over permissive
Which parently style enforces ridid rules and demands strict obedience to authority?
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
a. authoritarian
A healthy balance between the rights of parents and their children is characteristic of which parental style?
a. authoritatian
b. authoritative
b. authoritative
A child who is just starting school and trying to learn good habits and develop learning skills is is Erikson’s stage of development called:
a. inititiative versus guilt
b. industry verses inferiority
b. industry verses inferiority
When teenagers question “who they are” and “what they will become,” they are experiencing which conflict?
a. industry verses inferiority
d. identity verses role confusion
d. identity verses role confusion
College students in their 20’s, who are developing life-long friendships, are in which psychosocial stage?
a. integrity versus despair
b. intimacy verses isolation
b. intimacy verses isolation
True or False?
Psychology is best defined as the study of the human mind and nervous system?
False
True or False?
Remembering your social security number would be considered an overt behavior?
False
True or False?
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” was the motto of the behaviorists
False
True or False?
Psychoanalytic psychology emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and the self-image.
False
True or False?
The chemicals released at the axon terminal are called neurotransmitters?
True
True or False?
Neurons cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope
True
True or False?
When psychologists attribute development to nurture, they are referring to the effects of heredity.
False
True or False?
When a gene is recessive, it must be paired with a second gene of the same type before its effect will be expressed.
True
True or False?
About 40 percent of all newborns would be classified and difficult children who are moody, intense, and easily angered.
False
True or False?
Auhoritative parents enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to these rules.
False