Psychology Brain study guide

hindbrain
an area of the brain that coordinates info coming in + out of the spinal cord
medulla oblongata
part of the hindbrain; controls basic functions such as respiration, blood pressure, digestion, heart rate, reflexes: respiratory, gagging, pupil dilation (involuntary)
reticular formation
part of the hindbrain, inside the medulla; regulates sleep, wake + alertness levels
cerebellum
part of the hindbrain; control of motor function, motor memory
pons
part of the hindbrain;relays info from the cerebellum to rest of brain, sleep process
midbrain
contains the tectum and tegmentum
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tectum
part of midbrain; orients an organism in its environment, receives stimulus input from eyes, ears, skin + moves organism tpwards the stimulus
tegmentum
part of midbrain; involved in movement
forebrain
highest level of brain: complex, cognitive, emotional, sensory + motor processes occur here, divided into left and right hemispheres, each hemisphere controls opposite sides of the body
contralateral
Since each hemisphere controls opposite sides of the body, the body operates with ___________ control.
corpus callosum
part of forebrain; massive bridge of millions of axons that allow the hemispheres to communicate with each other
cerebral cortex
part of forebrain; outermost layer of forebrain, divided into two cerebral hemispheres
subcortical structures
areas of the forebrain housed under cerebral cortex
thalamus
subcortical structure; receives almost all incoming sensory info, organizes it to all parts of the cortex, filters info, omits smell however
hypothalamus
subcortical structure; master regulatory structure, indispensable for survival, maintains body temperature, proper blood sugar level, keeps metabolism in an optimal range, regulates motivational behaviors: thirst, hunger, aggression, lust; part of limbic system
limbic system
border between older and newer, more advanced parts of the brain
hippocampus
subcortical structure; critical for creating new memory and getting these memories into permanent retention; part of limbic system
amygdala
subcortical structure; “alarm system of the brain” serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotions, intensifies memory during a time of emotional arousal, plays a specific role in responding to stimuli that elict fear
basal ganglia
subcortical structure; plans and produces movement, receives inputs from entire cerebral cortex and projects that input to the motor cortex
occipital lobe
lobe of the forebrain; rear of brain; devoted to processing visual info
parietal lobe
lobe of the forebrain; processes all touch into in the somatosensory cortex
temporal lobe
lobe of the forebrain; contains primary auditory cortex where all sounds processed
frontal lobe
lobe of the forebrain; planning and movement, primary motor cortex in back areas that have fine motor control (hands, mouth) have more space
prefrontal cortex
part of the forebrain; 30% of the brain; responsible for directing and maintaining attention, keeping thoughts in mind when you’re distracted, developing and acting on plans, indispensable for ration activity
association areas
groups of neurons of the prefrontal cortex that help produce sense, give meaning to registered info in the primary areas of the brain
left hemisphere
contains language functions for nearly all right-handers
left hemisphere
68% of lefties have language functions in the
right hemisphere
20% of lefties have language functions in the
left hemisphere
within the dominant ____ ___________ there are 2 key language areas and damage to these areas is likely to cause aphasia
aphasia
difficulty in producing and comprehending language
Wernicke’s Area
located in left temporal lobe; involved in language comprehension; damage leads to Wernicke’s Aphasia
Wernicke’s Aphasia
leads to difficulty in produce speech that makes sense
Broca’s Area
left frontal lobe; involved in production of spoken or signed language
Broca’s Aphasia
speech in short, staccato sentences, usually missing some words
brain plasticity
brain’s ability to change by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience, restructuring, (more when we are young)
lateralization
hemispheric specialization
Philip Vogel and Joseph Brown
first neurosurgeons to sever corpus callosum
Mike Gazzaniga and Roger Sperry
studied split-brain patients
left hemisphere
____ ________ more active when a person deliberates over decisions
right hemisphere
more active in perceiving objects, copying drawings, recognizing faces, perceiving emotions
left hemisphere
When a person speaks or calculates, activity increases in ____ _______.
left hemisphere
the interpreter, wants to make sense of the world and explain things
left hemisphere
mainly controls language
right hemisphere
mainly controls emotional perception
both hemispheres
control logic and creativity/intuition
cognitive neuroscience
study of brain activity linked with mental processes
parallel processing
brain does multiple things at a time
dual processing
brain operates on 2 levels at once
blindsight
normal activity in areas of the brain concerned with recognizing objects, consciousness working on two levels
lesioning
selective destruction of brain tissue
electrical stimulation
measuring the brain’s electrical activity by using an EEG (electro-electroencephalogram)
neuroimagery
CAT Scan- examines brain by taking x-ray photos which can reveal brain damage
PET scan
form of neuroimagery; depicts brain activity by showing each brain area’s consumption of glucose
MRI
form of neuroimagery; gives detailed pictures of the soft tissue of the brain
fMRI
functional MRI; gives detailed picture + tells about brain functions