Psychology 101 Chapters 1-2 TEST!

Wilhem Wundt
established the first psychology research laboratory
Edward Titchener
Structuralism- involving introspection and studying basic components of conscious experiences.
•focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes
•measured reaction times
William James
started psychology at Harvard in 1870s
-opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach
-his ideas shaped school of functionalism – also influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician that focused on illness
-psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
-Psychology should focus on the Unconscious Mind
personality theory and form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior – Founded by Sigmund Freud
emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning
– Pavlov, Watson and Skinner
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emphasizes each person’s unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction
– A. Maslow and C. Rogers
Biological Perspective
Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior
•Focus may be at various levels
-individual neurons
-areas of the brain
-specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning
•Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
Psychodynamic Perspective
View of behavior based on experience treating patients
Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud)
both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind
-behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences
-drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior
-early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations
classical conditioning
Learning by association: associating an reflex response with a stimulus. Ivan Pavlov
Operant conditioning
reinforcement or consequences are used to change, start or stop a behavior. B.F. Skinner
Key Influences in the Development of Behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
-Behaviorism grew out of his work with dogs associating a neutral stimulus with an automatic behavior
John B. Watson
psychologists should study overt behavior
B. F. Skinner
American psychologist at Harvard
-studied learning and effect of reinforcement
Humanistic Perspective
Developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
-behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’
-focus on conscious forces and self perception
-more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s
Cognitive Perspective
How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior?
•Influences include
the belief that one’s own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one’s own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
Individualistic cultures—
those that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group
Collectivistic culture
those that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual
Evolutionary Perspective
Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns
•Scientific Method
Formulate testable questions
-Develop hypotheses
•Design study to collect data
•Analyze data to arrive at conclusions
-Use of statistical procedures
-Use of meta-analysis
•Report results
Empirical evidence
based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation
tentative statement about the relationship between variables
factors that can vary in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified (independent versus dependent)
Operational definition
precise description of how the variables will be measured
Strategies for observing and describing behavior
strategies for interferring cause and effect relationships among variables
large (potentially infinite) group represented by the sample. Findings are generalized to this group.
selected segment of the population
Representative sample
every member of larger group has equal change of being selected for the study sample
Random selection
every member of larger group has equal change of being selected for the study sample
Correlational Study
Collects a set of facts organized into two or more categories
-measure parents’ disciplinary style
-measure children’s behavior
Correlation cannot prove causation
Positive correlation—
two variables vary systematically in the SAME direction
Negative correlation
two variables vary systematically in OPPOSITE directions
Independent Variable
the controlled factor in an experiment (i.e. the one you manipulate)
Dependent variable
the measured facts
Experimental vs. Control group
experimental gets treatment
-control does not
•Random sample
every member of the population being studied should have an equal chance of being selected for the study
Random assignment
every subject in the study should have an equal chance of being placed in either the experimental or control group
Placebo control group
exposed to a fake IV (placebo), the effects of which are compared to group receiving the actual IV
Double-blind study
technique in which neither the experimenter nor participant is aware of the group to which participant is assigned