Hypnosis involves a state of
Heightnened openness to suggestion
Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that
people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.
behaved in the same fashion as unhypnotized individuals.
In one study both hypnotized and unhypnotized subjects were told to throw acid in a researcher’s face. In this experiment, hypnotized people
posthyponic suggestion
Just prior to awakening Chinua from a hypnotic state the therapist told him that during the next few days he would feel nauseous whenever he reached for a cigarette. Chinua’s therapist was attempting to make use of
report little pain from placing their arms in an ice bath.
People can be hypnotically induced to
social influence
The claim (Lynn et al 1990) that hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious processes is associated with the theory that hypnosis reflects the power of
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Orne and Evans(1965) discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotized subjects. This finding is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves
Conscious role-playing
Ernest Hilgard (1986) believed hypnosis involves social influence and a split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called
Hilgard’s divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that
hypnotized people can endure pain(ice bath) without experiencing emotional distress.
One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by
distracting attention
Understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention distinctive brain activity, and the presence of an authoritative presence in a legitimate context, requires an integrated ________ approach.
Hypnotic pain relief may also result from another form of dual processing called ________ _________
selective attention
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called ________ drugs.
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of
The change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug is called
When Celeste was unable to obtain her regular supply of heroin she began to develop pain and an intense craving for the drug. Celeste was experiencing symptoms of
Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
physical dependence
psychological dependence
Although Max never experiences caffeine withdrawal symptoms he feels that he emotionally needs coffee every morning as part of his daily routine. Max best illustrates
Compulsive craving for and use of a drug is an indication of
Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for
enhancing memory
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
which specific area would be most interested in identfying the cortical activation patterns associated with a person’s perception of different objects
cognitive neuroscience
Dual processing
Simultaneously processing on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Compared with unsconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively
slow and especially effective for solving new problems
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the nessicity of
selective attention
The cocktail party effect or unsafe road crossing provides an example of
selective attention
In one experiment most of the participants that viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella toting woman sauntering across the screen illustrates
in-attentional blindness
man giving directions to a younger man and a construction worker interrupts by passing between with door, and the man giving the directions didn’t notice a switch in younger man illustrates
change blindness
Circadian rhythm
a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle
Circadian rhythm
influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic
Jordanna has decided to go to bed early, although her eyes are closed and she is very relaxed she has not fallen asleep
An electroencephalograph is most likely to indicate the presence of alpha waves
Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with what stage of sleep
Stage 1
Sleep spindles
rythmic burst of brain activity that occur during stage 2 sleep
Bed wetting is most likely to occur at what stage of sleep
slow wave
At 1:00 AM Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk an EEG of his brain is most likely to indicate the presence of
Delta waves
You spend about half of your night in what stage of sleep
Stage 2
At 3 in the morning John has already slept for 4 hours, if sleep continues we can expect an increase occurrence of
REM Sleep
Brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar with what stage of sleep
Stage 1
REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep because
our nervous system is highly active while our voluntary muscles hardly move
40 year old Lance insist that he never dreams, research suggest that he probably
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
The human sleep cycle repeats itself every
90 minutes
Research on sleep patterns indicates that
sleep patterns may be genetically influenced
chronic sleep deprivation is likely to
promote obesity and impair memory
sleep deprivation_____the production of body fat by____levels of the stress hormone cortisol
stimulates; increasing
From ages 3 to 6, the brain’s neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the
frontal lobes.
When Tommy’s mother hides his favorite toy under a blanket, he acts as though it no longer exists and makes no attempt to retrieve it. Tommy is clearly near the beginning of Piaget’s ________ stage
After 4-month-olds habituated to an image of a cube, they stared longer when shown
an impossible rather than a possible version of the cube.
When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants
stared longer at the outcome.
If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation, they are unable to
recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.
Mrs. Pearson cut Judy’s hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia’s into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn’t getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn’t understand the principle of
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to
the difficulty perceiving things from another person’s point of view.
Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils were able to anticipate their friend’s false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a
theory of mind.
An impaired theory of mind is most closely associated with
One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called
Asperger syndrome
Psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn
male systemizing tendency.
When people with autism watch another person’s hand movements, they display less ________ than most others
mirror neuron activity
The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children’s ability to solve problems is enhanced by
interaction with the social environment
According to Piaget, a person first comprehends that division is the reverse of multiplication during the ________ stage
concrete operational
At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates
stranger anxiety.
Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can’t assimilate unfamiliar faces into their
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called
Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with
body contact.
Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.
Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by
mere exposure.
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own
fear; similar
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us, in an aspect of our
The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of
the environment.
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as
behavior genetics.
A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on
personality traits.
DNA is a complex
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called
Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either
active or inactive.
The genome is the complete
set of genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes.
Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is influenced by
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing
less; less
Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in
all of these: extraversion, neuroticism, temperament
Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing
identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.
Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because
any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
The personalities of adopted children
are not very similar to the personalities of their adoptive parents.
Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by
genes than by home environment.
The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children’s ________ than on their ________.-
religious beliefs; personality traits
The labels “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow-to-warm-up” are used to refer to differences in an infant’s
Difficult babies with an intense and highly reactive temperament tend to be
irritable and unpredictable.
A child’s temperament is likely to be
stable over time.
Heritability refers to the extent to which
trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations.
An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are
People have always responded so positively to Alyssa’s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates
the interaction of nature and nurture.
Assessing possible links between specific chromosome segments and alcohol dependence would be of greatest interest to a(n)
molecular geneticist.
Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of
selective mating.
Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle
One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of
continuity or stages.
A teratogen is a(n)
substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
If research suggested that a pregnant mother’s use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n)
Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy. Her newborn baby will most likely be
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include
brain abnormalities.
Habituation refers to the
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.
Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants’
Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a
facelike image.
Maturation refers to
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in ________ of the major developmental milestones
the age-related timing but not the sequence
The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas of the brain at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to
infantile amnesia.
Cognition refers to -According to Piaget, schemas are
people’s conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences.
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
The first time that 4-year-old Sarah saw her older brother play a flute, she thought it was simply a large whistle. Sarah’s initial understanding of the flute best illustrates the process of
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget’s ________ stage
During which of Piaget’s stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived?
When researcher Karen Wynn showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants
stared longer at the outcome.