Psych101: Chapter 9 Stress and Health

Which of the following is NOT true regarding optimists?
They have a 75% lower risk of premature death.
The method of coping with stress in which a person changes the way he or she feels or emotionally reacts to a stressor is the ______ method.
emotion-focused coping
According to Lazarus’s cognitive appraisal approach, the first step in appraising a stressor is called ______ appraisal.
primary
Miller and Rahe found that overall stress associated with many of the items on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale had ________ from the original 1967 ratings.
increased about 45%
During the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the adrenal glands release hormones that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and the supply of blood sugar.
alarm
The ______ returns the body to normal functioning after the stress has ended.
parasympathetic nervous system
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A person dealing with acculturative stress by choosing to maintain a sense of the original culture identity while also trying to form a positive relationship with members of the majority culture is using the _______ method.
integration
The phases of the general adaptation syndrome are alarm, resistance, and
exhaustion.
________ are types of sexual problems caused by physical disorders or psychological stress.
Organic or stress-induced dysfunctions
_______ is a sexual dysfunction in which a male cannot maintain an erection long enough to complete the sexual act.
Male erectile disorder
Adults find the hassle of _______ to be the greatest source of stress.
fighting among family members
Psychologist Hans Selye’s three stages of the body’s physiological reaction to stress are called the
general adaptation syndrome.
People facing _________ conflict are dealing with two or more goals or events that are unpleasant.
avoidance-avoidance
___________ results when people experience unpleasant stressors.
Distress
Holmes and Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale focuses on
how life events cause stress in one’s life.
Claire’s boss picked on by her in front of her coworkers in a meeting. When she got home, she started a fight with her roommate. What form of coping with this frustration did Claire demonstrate
displaced aggression
If Tom has been adapting to a stressor and is now experiencing fatigue due to prolonged muscle tension, according to psychologist Selye, Tom is in the _____ stage.
exhaustion
When Ravi found out that he didn’t get a high enough grade on his final for an A in his psychology course, he experienced stress from
frustration.
Howard was upset that he got a B in Biology, but he felt better knowing that the average grade was a C. Howard was using _______ to make himself feel better.
downward social comparison
When Ben found out his girlfriend had been unfaithful, he didn’t say anything to her but he was furious on the inside. Ben is personality type
C.
Which of the following is a typical first response to a source of frustration?
persistence
Stress has been shown to
put people at higher risk for heart attacks.
Marge is easygoing, slow to anger and usually relaxed. Marge’s personality type is
B.
Drug abuse, as a reaction to a source of frustration, is a form of
withdrawal.
The prolonged secretion of the stress hormones during the exhaustion stage
can lead to the most harmful effects of stress.
In _______, people who have identified a threat or harmful effect must estimate the resources that they have available for dealing with the stressor.
secondary appraisal
Day-to-day hassles
are predictors of short-term illnesses such as headaches and colds.
When it is not possible to change or eliminate a stressor, or when worrying about the stressor is becoming another problem, the best emotion-focused way to cope is
to ignore the stressor.
______ is the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging.
Stress
Stress-causing events are called
stressors.
When white blood cells encounter an infection in the body, they create chemicals and enzymes that activate receptor sites on the _______ that then signals the brain that the body is sick.
vagus nerve
_______ is a pattern in which a minority person rejects the majority culture’s ways and tries to maintain the original cultural identity.
Separation
The immune system consists of cells, organs, and
chemicals in the body.
During the _______ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the person or animal may begin to feel better because the body releases hormones that resist the stressor and affect the brain’s processing of pain.
resistance
Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by the ___________ to control the levels of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the whole body.
pancreas
Religion is associated with all of the following EXCEPT
reducing people’s numbers of negative life events.
Ryan’s friends believe he has the “golden touch.” He is hardworking, charismatic, and driven by his commitment to his principles. Whenever he is faced with a challenge, especially in his career, he sees it as an opportunity and figures out a way to make money, even if there is none to be made. Ryan is a _______ personality.
Type H
Carl and Kathleen just moved to Germany from the United States for Carl’s job. Carl chooses to dress exactly as his German coworkers and friends do, makes a point of going only to German restaurants and bars, and insists that German only be spoken at home. Meanwhile, Kathleen continues to wear clothes she brought from home, seeks out American restaurants when she goes out, and will get healthcare only from doctors recommended by or available at the American Embassy. Carl is coping with accultural stress by _______ while Kathleen is coping by ________.
assimilation; separation
Elizabeth is told by her mother that her interest in sex is evil. Elizabeth can no longer feel pleasure when she has sex. This sexual dysfunction is attributed to
sociocultural factors.
Allen has low self-esteem and has a lot of anxiety about his ability to perform the sex act well. His sexual dysfunction probably stems from
psychological factors.
According to psychoneuroimmunology, the act of ______ has many stress-relieving and health benefits such as increasing levels of beta-endorphins, decreasing levels of cortisol, enhancing the immune system, and lowering blood pressure.
laughing
Which hormone secreted by the pancreas signals hunger by lowering blood sugar levels?
insulin
Which activity, according to recent studies, should be more widely prescribed by mental health professionals to help ease anxiety and depression disorders and reduce stress and anger?
exercise
Which of the following ailments are commonly associated with the stress of hassles?
colds
More than anything else, Kendra wants to be the lead singer in a rock band and become famous. However, during her singing lessons her music teacher has told her that her voice is flat and she has no future as a singer. This is an example of
internal frustration.
Scores between 150 and 199 on the SRRS indicate
a “mild life crisis.”
The type of stress experienced when positive events require the body to adapt is called
eustress.
The ______ type of conflict, also called a “win-win situation,” is easy to resolve and doesn’t cause a great deal of stress because a person experiences a desire for two goals.
approach-approach
The response to frustration in which a person will repeatedly continue efforts to get around the cause of frustration is
persistence.
An unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat is a
catastrophe.
Sam, a preschooler, overheard his parents fighting loudly after he went to bed. The next day at school, Sam got into a fistfight with one of his friends. This is an example of
displaced aggression.
______ can produce lowered blood pressure in people with hypertension.
Meditation for 20 minutes
Concentrative meditation
focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus.
Which of the following is NOT true of concentrative meditation?
Delta brain waves increase.
Which of the following is NOT a social factor that causes stress?
personality type
According to the general adaptation syndrome, when the body’s resources are gone,
exhaustion occurs.
Type 2 diabetes is a common result of prolonged stress due to which common behavior?
overeating
Which personality type is associated with cancer?
C
According to the general adaptation syndrome, when a body first reacts to a stressor during the alarm stage, the body activates the ________ system, causing increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and supply of blood sugar.
sympathetic nervous
Anna never feels there is enough time to study, even though she has straight As. She finds it hard to relax because she always feels she should be studying. What personality type is Anna?
A
Dropping out of school or quitting a job are forms of
escape or withdrawal.
_____ occurs when people are blocked or prevented from achieving a desired goal or fulfilling a perceived need.
Frustration
Urgent demands or expectations from a person’s behavior coming from an outside source is a type of stress called
pressure.
The phrase “out of the frying pan, into the fire,” describes which type of conflict?
avoidance-avoidance
People scoring between 200 and 299 on the Social Readjustment Scale
have a 50% increased risk of experiencing an illness or accident in the near future.
Researchers found that _______ were much more strongly affected by hassles such as shopping, doctor’s appointments, and bad weather.
elderly people
Which of the following is NOT among the physical or mental illnesses associated with scores of 300 or higher on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
bursitis
Sonja has an exam coming up and she is beginning to worry about it. According to the cognitive mediational theory, how should Sonja try to perceive the exam to make her coping ability more successful?
Sonja should perceive the exam as a challenge or an opportunity to do well.
Obesity is a condition in which the body weight of a person is _____ percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height.
20-30
Even if Lily eats a late breakfast, she still “feels” hungry at noon. This is an example of
classical conditioning.
If life gives a Type A personality lemons, he or she will
get enraged and throw the lemons back, having a minor heart attack while doing so.
A.J. is waiting for a flight at the airport and learns it will be delayed. If A.J. were a Type B personality, how would he react?
A.J. would smile at the clerk, thank her politely, and then take the opportunity to relax, grab the meal he thought he didn’t have time for, and read a magazine.
Emily is an exchange student living in Japan. She is happy to be there, but lately she has been feeling a lot of stress associated with feelings of not belonging in the Japanese culture and often feelings of homesickness. Emily is experiencing
acculturative stress.
The sequence of physiological reactions that the body goes through in response to a stressor is described by the
general adaptation syndrome.
When Wes learned that his wife had been diagnosed with cancer, his heart rate and blood pressure increased, he experienced a burst of energy, and he felt nauseous. These symptoms describe the ______ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
alarm
_______ is a pattern in which a minority person rejects the majority culture’s ways and tries to maintain the original cultural identity.
Separation
Which physiological system reacts when the human body is subjected to stress?
sympathetic nervous system
Researchers have found that laughter
boosts the immune system by increasing the number of natural killer cells.
It has been suggested that concentrative meditation
can reduce levels of chronic pain.
Organic factors, sociocultural factors, and psychological factors influence
sexual dysfunction.
Which of the following is an example of a situation in which a psychological factor may lead to sexual dysfunction?
Jennie was molested as a child and suffers from low self-esteem.