Psych Test 3

Marcus is about 1-1/2 years old. His mother left him at a friend’s house to play for the first time while she took the family car in for maintenance. Marcus did not show distress when his mother left nor did he immediately approach her when she returned. What pattern of attachment is this?
a. avoidant c. disorganized
b. secure d. anxious-ambivalent
What is a teratogen?
a. A stimulus that results in heightened reflexes in the fetus
b. An abnormality in physiological development
c. A condition resulting from alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
d. A chemical agent that can harm the zygote, embryo, or fetus
Mario is a high school sophomore. His parents are strict but loving. They provide clear standards that are reasonable for his age and enforce them fairly. Their parenting style is ____.
a. authoritarian c. indulgent
b. authoritative d. uninvolved
Arthur is a retired auto mechanic who proudly owned his own auto repair shop, which his sons now run. He and his wife enjoy their grandchildren and enjoy spending the winters in Florida. In Erik-son’s stages of social development, he is likely to experience ____.
a. despair c. integrity
b. generativity d. identity
Joe’s best friend has applied for many jobs and received a few interviews, but has not had one job offer yet. Joe believes that due to the current economy, finding a job may take his friend some time. His belief is an example of ____.
a. situational attribution c. self-serving bias
b. actor-observer bias d. dispositional attribution
Which of the following reflects a problem that results from the self-serving bias?
a. Failure to learn from one’s mistakes
b. Judging oneself too harshly
c. Low self esteem
d. An increase in anxiety
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Which of the following is in the category of the most common and preventable sources of adverse effects in the developing fetus?
a. Joanne continues to take an antidepressant during her pregnancy.
b. Lucy fears contracting rubella during her pregnancy.
c. Allison and her husband drink a bottle or two of wine every night with dinner.
d. Leah is HIV-positive.
Ashley is a senior in high school. Her parents enjoy her company and have an “open door” policy where her friends are concerned. They are fine with her friends drinking and smoking in the base-ment as long as one person refrains as the designated driver. Their parenting style is ____.
a. authoritative c. authoritarian
b. uninvolved d. indulgent
During what time period does the human brain show rapid growth in gray matter?
a. During the final trimester of the pregnancy
b. In the latter months of pregnancy and for the first 18 months of life
c. From birth to age 12 months
d. For the first 18 months of life
During the economic downturn, Alejandro’s neighbor, a successful accountant, lost his job and had to sell his house. Alejandro decided that this neighbor “must have really messed up at his work-place.” This is an example of ____.
a. situational attribution c. just-world belief
b. actor-observer bias d. self-serving bias
The vast majority of genetic abnormalities in an embryo will result in ____.
a.premature birth infant with birth anomalies
b.spontaneous abortion or miscarriage d.a normal birth
Michelle has always preferred standard, run-of-the-mill milk chocolate; that is, until her sister en-couraged her to try an organic, 72% cacao, imported Belgian dark chocolate. Now, she believes that she has eaten the “wrong” kind of chocolate most of her life. Which element of her attitude does this most reflect?
a. affect c. emotion
b. cognition d. behavior
The average age at which each motor milestone is met ____.
a. applies equally to almost all children
b. falls within a wide range of normal development
c. varies greatly depending on culture
d. is a fairly precise measure of how each child is likely to develop
In which of the following situations is Molly more likely to comply with the request of Valeria, whom she is meeting for the first time?
a. Valeria is substantially older than Molly and expresses strong opinions.
b. Valeria has a serious approach to the conversation while Molly is more ebullient.
c. Valeria is an attractive and energetic woman about the same age as Molly.
d. Valeria is fairly withdrawn and tentative in her request.
Ross, a college sophomore, has no clear preference for any of the candidates running for student body president. The students he admires most are campaigning for their fraternity brother, Henry. Ross decides to support Henry as well. This most reflects ____.
a. correspondence bias c. cognitive dissonance
b.classical conditioning d.a desire for social inclusion
A mother’s use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine during pregnancy significantly reduces ____.
a.the development of the amygdala in her child’s brain
b.the volume of gray matter in her child’s brain
c.the development of the hippocampus in her child’s brain
d.the volume of white matter in her child’s brain
What term describes a developing organism between the three and eight weeks following conception in humans?
a. embryo c. zygote
b. fetus d. endoderm
Rules for behavior in social settings, which are usually unwritten or unspoken, are called ____.
a. conventional behaviors c. codes
b. social norms d. customs
Joshua is three years old. He often whines, and constantly demands attention from his parents, not venturing far from them at the park. Which of the following would most likely describe the parent-ing style of Joshua’s parents?
a.strict and punitive c.unresponsive or inconsistent
b.attentive and available d.anxious and overprotective
The study of human development considers changes in behavior ____.
a. due to genetic history
b. that correlate with growth or maturation
c. due to experience
d. that correlate with environmental factors
How does your text define prejudice?
a. Biased and unjust behavior based on stereotyping and preconception
b. A prejudgment, usually negative, of another person on the basis of his or her mem-bership in a group
c. An assumption that people generally get what they deserve
d. A simplified set of traits associated with membership in a group or category
What was a later critique or explanation of the events of the Stanford Prison Study?
a. Participants were simply responding to the investigators’ instructions.
b. Participants were psychologically unstable.
c. Participants’ roles in the study overwhelmed their individuality.
d. Participants were too immature for the study.
A period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity is called ____.
a. adolescence c. menarche
b. secondary sex characteristics d. puberty
There is a natural tendency to comply in response to perceiving a social tie with another person due to powerful norms of ____.
a. familial loyalty c. insecurity
b. peer pressure d. reciprocation
Mr. Martin, a physics teacher, is also the advisor to the high school chess team. He sees that a new student, Mariah, has beaten their top player, David. He wonders whether David let her win because she is so attractive. This is an example of maintaining a stereotype through ____.
a.viewing Mariah as an exception c.correspondence bias
b. dispositional attribution d. situational attribution
Which of the following describes Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development?
a. The stage of development beginning at the age of 6 years and ending at the age of 12 years and characterized by logical but not abstract reasoning
b. The stage of development beginning at birth and ending at the age of 2 years and characterized by active exploration of the environment
c. The stage of development beginning at age 12 and extending through adulthood and characterized by mature reasoning capabilities
d. The stage of development beginning at the age of 2 years and ending at the age of 6 years and characterized by use of symbols, egocentrism, and limits on the ability to reason logically
Why does a 40-year-old woman have a greater probability of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome than a 25-year-old woman?
a. The body of a 40-year-old woman is more likely to produce a flawed egg.
b. The eggs of a 40-year-old woman. lack a complete set of chromosomes.
c. A 40-year-old woman has been exposed to more years of environmental influence, possibly including harmful factors, that can lead to faulty cell division.
d. A 40-year-old woman cannot produce eggs rapidly enough to be fully developed at the time of ovulation.
What is the definition of assimilation?
a. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema that requires revision of the schema
b. The ability to understand that changing the form or appearance of an object does not change its quantity
c. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema, without the need to revise the schema
d. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
How can adolescence best be described?
a. A period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity
b. A period of social development ending in one’s mid-20s
c. A period of development beginning at puberty and ending at young adulthood
d. A period of increasing maturity and assumption of adult responsibilities
What is the pattern of infant-caregiver bonding that can take several different forms, but is gener-ally characterized as less desirable for the child’s outcomes than secure attachment?
a.disorganized attachment c.anxious-ambivalent attachment b.insecure attachment d.avoidant attachment
Decision making is simpler, faster, and less stressful when guided by one’s ____.
a. rational sense c. attitudes
b. genetic predispositions d. conscience
A failure to develop a typical theory of mind has been linked to the development of ____ (Gopnik, Capps, & Meltzoff, 2000).
a. Down syndrome c. autism
b. depression d. language anomalies
Ryan grew up in a family of four boys. He and his brothers have never engaged in “acting out” behaviors, such as excessive drinking or drug use. However, now in their teens, they tend to be de-pressed and withdrawn from their peers. Their parents are most likely ____.
a. authoritarian c. indulgent
b. uninvolved d. authoritative
Who is most likely to use the central route to respond to persuasive messages?
a. Emma, an anthropology major, who is taking an economics class pass/fail in order to fulfill a college requirement
b. Danielle, who notices an eye-catching billboard for a brand of beer as she drives on the highway to her grandparents’ house
c. Jorge, who plans to attend a guest lecture on worldwide water shortages, a topic about which he has read a great deal
d. Nate, who attends a dharma talk with his girlfriend because she is interested in meditation
Individual differences in temperament may emerge early in life (Thomas & Chess, 1977, 1989). These traits ____.
a. will likely be substantially modified by adulthood
b. are not valid indicators of later psychological disorders
c. are impacted very little by environmental factors
d. most likely represent genetic differences
Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s theories?
a. Piaget overestimated the capabilities of young children.
b. Viewed developing child in relative isolation from his/her family, community, and culture.
c. Piaget specified the wrong mechanisms responsible for moving from one stage to the next.
d. Piaget focused too much on the variability of individual cognitive development.
Rosa is 15 months of age. A new babysitter came to the house so Rosa’s mother could focus on her writing in her office upstairs. Rosa was fine while her mother was still in the room with them but cried and cried when she left. Her mother returned an hour later and Rosa ran over to her right away. What pattern of attachment is this?
a. avoidant c. disorganized
b. anxious-ambivalent d. secure
Which of the following is most accurate of stereotypes?
a. Stereotypes simplify complex categories into meaningful ones.
b. Stereotypes often contain an element of truth, but become inaccurate due to the in-formation they exclude.
c. Stereotypes promote our valid desires to be viewed and treated as individuals.
d. Stereotypes are exclusive and prioritize the most prevalent characteristics.
According to Erikson, one key to successful intimacy in adulthood is to ____.
a. have established a solid identity in adolescence
b. be among the majority in forms of intimacy
c. have had many relationships as a teenager
d. spend time with family as well as peers
Efforts to persuade using negative emotions are very common. When are they likely to be most ef-fective?
a. When negative consequences are depicted graphically
b. When listeners are jolted out of complacency by their anxiety
c. When they provide the most data to establish negative consequences
d. When listeners are given an action step that they can take to reduce their anxiety
Luis is eight years old. He is becoming quite good at arguing with his parents over what his bedtime should be, whether he has eaten enough of his supper to have dessert, etc. He loves toys and pro-jects that involve hands-on learning. According to Piaget, Luis is in the ____ of cognitive develop-ment.
a. formal operational stage c. preoperational stage
b. sensorimotor stage d.concrete operational stage
Complying with a request from an authority figure is called ____.
a. obedience c. conformity
b. submission d. subservience
What is the likely purpose of the palmar reflex?
a. Unknown as it disappears as nervous system matures
b. A possible evolutionary remnant allowing primates to cling to an adult’s fur
c. A possible evolutionary remnant allowing primates to cling to an adult
d. A behavior that helps the baby nurse
Which scenario best exemplifies an ecological approach to development?
a. Elias first walked on his own around the time of his first birthday.
b. Rowena was born at 40 weeks and weighed 7 pounds.
c. Liam was toilet trained at 18 months, a standard approach for his community.
d. As a newborn, Angelina would grasp her father’s finger when he placed it in her hand.
Teens begin to form an identity by asking “Who am I?” and “What kind of person do I want to be?” According to Erikson, failure to achieve a stable identity leads to ____.
a. a sense of stagnation
b. role confusion and problems with subsequent stages
c. the potential for feelings of despair
d. feelings of loneliness and isolation
Newborns show an innate preference for looking at faces. This preference ____.
a. is uniquely human
b. lacks an adaptive advantage
c. quickly recedes after the first month
d. provides advantages in social behavior and language learning
What is egocentrism in Piaget’s view?
a. The limited ability to understand the point of view of other people
b. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
c. The emotional bonding between an infant and a parent or caregiver
d. The ability to understand that others have thoughts that are different from one’s own.
What is the term for the persuasive technique in which compliance with a target request is preceded by a large, unreasonable request?
a. low-balling c. foot-in-the-door
b. door-in-the-face d. bait-and-switch
We produce many more synapses than we need, and then retain only those that are used in a “use it or lose it” fashion. What does this demonstrate?
a. The discontinuous model of development
b. The universal approach to development
c. The dominance of nature over nurture
d. The important role of experience in wiring the brain
Raising awareness of a negative stereotype about a group to which we belong has the ability to re-duce our performance, a phenomenon known as ____.
a. stereotype vulnerability c. stereotype threat
b. discrimination d. prejudicial performance
Ava, age five, and her mother are playing with clay. They make two round balls of the same size. Ava flattens one into a pancake shape and says “Look, Mommy, now this one has more clay.” In this context, Ava does not yet understand ____.
a. assimilation c. conservation
b. egocentrism d. object permanence
In whose life have epigenetic processes likely played the most dominant role?
a. Five-year-old Blanca, who is a happy girl with many friends
b. Thirty-year-old Tristan, who grew up in a neighborhood of poverty and violence and went on to became a successful architect
c. Thirty-year-old Naomi, who is from a wealthy family that has experienced a number of tragedies
d. Sixty-five old Oliver, who has worked hard as a truck driver since he was 19 years old
Jen’s best friend just got fired from her part-time job waitressing. Jen’s first thought was “I knew she lacked the patience for that job.” Jen is illustrating ____.
a. actor-observer bias c. dispositional attribution
b. situational attribution d. self-serving bias