Psych Quiz 1

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of
Behavior and mental processes
Platos assumption that certain ideas are inborn is most directly relevant to the controversy regarding
Nature and Nuture
In its early years, psychology focused on the study of _______; from the 1920’s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of_______
Mental illness; effective psychotherapy
The first psychological laboratory was establish by
Wilhelm Wundt
The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
William James
Psychology developed from the more establish fields of philosophy and biology. For example, _______ was an American philosopher and ________ was an Austrian physician
William James; Sigmund Freud
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The nature-nurture issue refers to the debate over the relative contributions that _______ make to the development of psychological traits
Behavior and mental processes
Janna has low self esteem because she is often teased for being overweight. Appreciating the complexity of Janna’s difficulties requires
A biopsychosocial approach
Which perspective would help us understand the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory
Neuroscience
Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?
Evolutionary
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
Unconscious conflicts
Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a ________ perspective
Social-cultural
Dr. Caleigh conducts research on the relationship between adults language skills and their capacity to solve mathematical problems. Dr. Caleigh is most likely a _________psychologist.
Cognitive
Clinical psychologists specialize in
Providing therapy to troubled people
The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
Psychiatrist
The hindsight bias refers to peoples tendency to
Exaggerate their ability to have forseen an outcome
Jamie was sure she had answered most of the multiple choice questions correctly because the questions were only common sense. They scored very badly, this best illustrates
Overconfidence
Lee heard about experimental evidendence that drinking orange juice triggers hyperactivity in children- she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to the experimental conditions. Her reaction best illustrates
Critical Thinking
Psychological Theories:
-Organize scientific observations
-Explain observed facts
-Generate hypotheses
After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions. What type of research did she use to deduce this?
The case study
In which type of research is a representative, random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes
The survey
A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between
School grades and school absences
A negative correlation between degree of wealth and likelihood of suffering home a psychological disorder would indicate that
Psychological disorders usually prevent people from accumulating wealth
A correlation of +93 between children’s physical height and their popularity among their peers indicates that
Higher levels of popularity among peers is associated with greater physical height in children
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor and observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?
Experimentation
Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order to
Increase chances that participants are representative of people in general
In an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on memory, exercise is the
Independent variable
In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self esteem, anxiety would be the _________variable
independent
An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates
An operational definition
In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
Placebo