Psych Exam #3 Practice Questions

The superego is Freud’s term for
A. the biological impulses that drive our behavior.
B. the unconscious aspect of personality.
C. the mediating agent between the other two components of personality.
D. the moral component of personality.
D. the moral component of personality.
Which of Freud’s psychosexual stages did he see as society’s first systematic effort to regulate the child’s impulses?
A. Latency stage
B. Oral stage
C. Genital stage
D. Anal stage
D. Anal stage
Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt
A. by enhancing self-insight.
B. through self-deception.
C. through rational problem-solving.
D. by making unconscious urges conscious.
B. through self-deception.
Which of Freud’s personality components is suggested to engage in secondary process thinking?
A. Id
B. Id and ego
C. Superego
D. Ego
D. Ego
Michael is well known throughout his middle school for being a bright student who frequently disrupts class by answering a teacher’s question with a somewhat appropriate wise crack. He behaves much the same when at baseball practice and Boy Scout meetings. His tendency to be a “class clown” in many situations relates to the ____ aspect of personality.
A. consistency
B. distinctiveness
C. variableness
D. appropriateness
A. consistency
An individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits is known as
A. collectivism.
B. personality.
C. an archetype.
D. individualism.
B. personality.
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Raul is 30 years old and seems to be obsessed with the image he presents to others. He buys a new sports car every year, lives in the biggest house in his neighborhood, and always buys the most expensive clothes he can find. According to Alfred Adler, Raul’s behavior may be a sign of
A. overcompensation.
B. incongruence.
C. fixation at the oral stage of development.
D. reaction formation.
A. overcompensation.
Nettle (2006) believes which trait may be adaptive because it fueled competitiveness in our ancestors?
A. Conscientiousness
B. Extraversion
C. Openness to experience
D. Neuroticism
D. Neuroticism
Freud believed that smoking, overeating, and habitual gum chewing could result from fixation in the ____ stage.
A. anal
B. phallic
C. genital
D. oral
D. oral
The variety of modern psychodynamic theories of personality all derive from the work of which of the following individuals?
A. Karen Horney
B. Sigmund Freud
C. Albert Bandura
D. Wilhelm Wundt
B. Sigmund Freud
The id is
A. the decision-making component of personality.
B. the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
C. a developmental period that leaves its mark on adult personality.
D. the moral component of personality.
B. the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ tend to be happier than other people.
A. extraversion
B. neuroticism
C. openness to experience
D. conscientiousness
A. extraversion
Fred was the highest paid news anchor in prime-time television. He had been with the same national network for 20 years. His coworkers couldn’t believe it when Fred cleared out his office one day and announced he was going to become a volunteer with an international relief agency. He explained, “I feel I need to make a fundamental change in my life if I am going to continue to grow as a person.” Fred’s actions are consistent with
A. Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism
B. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
C. Rogers’ concept of incongruence
D. Adler’s concept of overcompensation
B. Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing individuals
Howard sets extremely high standards for both himself and others. He tends to be rigid and inflexible and rarely allows himself to enjoy life. Freud would probably conclude that Howard is dominated by
A. his superego.
B. penis envy.
C. his ego.
D. his id.
A. his superego.
Sigmund Freud would have been LEAST likely to make which of the following statements?
A. Behavior is the outcome of an interaction among several components of personality.
B. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.
C. A great deal of our behavior and thoughts are symbolic of hidden motives.
D. Most behavior is rooted in the unconscious.
B. Most of our behavior is rationally directed.
The sickly child who goes on to become a forceful, physically active adult is engaging in what Adler called
A. displacement.
B. fixation.
C. regression.
D. compensation.
D. compensation.
Daryl is taking a personality test in which he is shown a series of simple scenes. He is supposed to tell a story about what is happening in each scene and suggest what the characters are feeling. The test that Daryl is taking is the
A. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS).
B. Rorschach test.
C. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
D. 16 Personality Factor (16PF) Questionnaire.
C. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).
Observational learning and self-efficacy are associated with
A. Mischel’s person-situation approach.
B. Jung’s analytical theory.
C. Roger’s person-centered theory.
D. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
D. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
A. compensation.
B. displacement.
C. fixation.
D. reciprocal determinism.
C. fixation.
_____________ is a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of self-worth and a tendency to exploit other people.
A. Mortality salience
B. Extraversion
C. Narcissism
D. Sadism
C. Narcissism
Terror management theory would predict that all of the following would occur in the United States after the terrorist attacks on 9/11 EXCEPT
A. people would become less tolerant of those who were different.
B. expressions of patriotism would become elevated.
C. prejudice would decrease.
D. religious faith would increase dramatically.
C. prejudice would decrease.
Skye is five years old, and two weeks ago, her mother had a baby boy. Since her brother was brought home, Skye has insisted on drinking all her juice from baby bottles and has started wetting her bed. According to Freud, Skye may be unconsciously dealing with her feelings toward her new brother using the defense mechanism of
A. reaction formation.
B. repression.
C. regression.
D. projection.
C. regression.
Focusing on positive feedback from others and seeing oneself as above average are characteristic of
A. an interdependent construal of self.
B. self-enhancement.
C. oral sadism.
D. collectivism.
B. self-enhancement.
Rosalind is an impulsive child who seldom waits for her turn when playing with other children. Rosalind’s father is also an impulsive individual who often seems to act before he thinks. The theorist who would MOST likely suggest that Rosalind has learned to be impulsive from watching her father is
A. Albert Bandura.
B. B. F. Skinner.
C. Carl Rogers.
D. Sigmund Freud.
A. Albert Bandura.
Bandura extended Skinner’s view of behaviorism to explain personality by adding an emphasis on
A. reinforcement.
B. unconscious processes.
C. situational factors.
D. cognitive processes.
D. cognitive processes.
Which personality theorist stated, “It’s as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half?”
A. Abraham Maslow
B. Alfred Adler
C. Carl Rogers
D. Albert Bandura
A. Abraham Maslow
If she is using the defense mechanism of projection, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
A. act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
B. believe that her son hated her.
C. direct her hatred toward her daughter.
D. act in an extremely critical way toward her son.
B. believe that her son hated her.
The Freudian period that begins with puberty is the
A. genital stage.
B. latency stage.
C. anal stage.
D. phallic stage.
A. genital stage.
The personality theory of Carl Rogers is known as
A. social comparison theory.
B. person-centered theory.
C. rational-emotive theory.
D. the Gestalt approach.
B. person-centered theory.
John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John’s behavior can be viewed as an example of
A. rationalization.
B. projection.
C. regression.
D. reaction formation.
D. reaction formation.
When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using
A. reaction formation.
B. rationalization.
C. projection.
D. displacement.
B. rationalization.
Todd was physically abused up until the age of eight. He is now 40 years old and has absolutely no memories of the early abuse that he experienced. According to Freud, Todd may be unconsciously dealing with the potential anxiety related to his abuse using the defense mechanism of
A. projection.
B. repression.
C. reaction formation.
D. regression.
B. repression.
Research in behavioral genetics has shown the family environment shared by children growing up together has ____ impact on personality.
A. little
B. no
C. a moderately large
D. a large
A. little
Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to reduce a huge list of personality traits compiled by Gordon Allport to ____ basic dimensions of personality.
A. 5
B. 27
C. 10
D. 16
D. 16
Mary just completed a personality scale designed to measure the three higher-order traits identified by Hans Eysenck. She scored low in the personality trait of neuroticism, suggesting that Mary tends to be
A. warm and sociable.
B. relaxed and high in self-esteem.
C. sensitive and caring.
D. anxious and moody.
B. relaxed and high in self-esteem.
As an adult, going back to an earlier way of gratifying needs defines
A. repression.
B. reaction formation.
C. regression.
D. fixation.
C. regression.
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her
A. superego.
B. preconscious.
C. ego.
D. id.
A. superego.
The belief that one has the ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes is referred to as
A. self-control
B. self-monitoring.
C. self-justification.
D. self-efficacy.
D. self-efficacy.
Nikolas is a nonconformist who is daring and likes to try new things. He is extremely imaginative and has a wide range of interests. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Nikolas would probably score
A. high in extraversion.
B. high in agreeableness.
C. high in openness.
D. low in neuroticism.
C. high in openness.
The findings from twin studies indicate that identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins on which of the following?
A. Neuroticism
B. Extraversion
C. Conscientiousness
D. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
D. All the personality traits in the five-factor model of personality
Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs
A. to defend our worldview and reduce mortality salience.
B. to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem.
C. for self-preservation and preserve our self-esteem.
D. for self-preservation and reduce mortality salience.
B. to defend our worldview and preserve our self-esteem.
The idea that a person’s unconscious needs will determine how he or she perceives relatively unstructured stimuli is the basis for
A. the MMPI.
B. personality trait tests.
C. the TAT.
D. personal trait checklist.
C. the TAT.
The term that Albert Bandura uses to refer to the assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other is
A. mutual dependency.
B. psychic determinism.
C. reciprocal relativism.
D. reciprocal determinism.
D. reciprocal determinism.
Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist?
A. People are dominated by unconscious conflicts.
B. People can rise above their animal heritage.
C. People are rational.
D. People are unique.
A. People are dominated by unconscious conflicts.
According to Rogers, for a child to develop a healthy personality, the parents must
A. exhibit unconditional love toward the child.
B. avoid the use of punishment.
C. address the child’s ego needs.
D. create an atmosphere of intellectual stimulation.
A. exhibit unconditional love toward the child.
The MOST optimistic view of human nature is found in the
A. psychoanalytic approach.
B. behavioral approach.
C. cognitive approach.
D. humanistic approach.
D. humanistic approach.
Both Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were especially critical of Freud’s emphasis on
A. the unconscious.
B. defense mechanisms.
C. sexuality.
D. the influence of childhood experiences.
C. sexuality.
Professor Stephenson argues that personality is the result of reciprocal determinism, that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another and determine an individual’s personality. Whose theory of personality is she presenting?
A. Albert Bandura
B. B. F. Skinner
C. John Watson
D. Carol Rogers
A. Albert Bandura
Martin sees himself primarily as part of a group, and he puts the group’s needs ahead of his own goals. It is most likely that Martin is from a(n)
A. collectivistic culture.
B. subjective culture.
C. individualistic culture.
D. independent culture.
A. collectivistic culture.
According to Freud, unresolved unconscious conflicts often produce
A. fixation.
B. pleasure.
C. archetypes.
D. anxiety.
D. anxiety.
Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck’s theory all approach the study of personality from the
A. biological perspective.
B. behavioral perspective.
C. scientific perspective.
D. psychodynamic perspective.
A. biological perspective.
Natalie is eight years old. Her parents have always spoiled her and given her anything that she has asked for. Based on Adler’s theory of individual psychology, this parental pampering may cause Natalie
A. to develop feelings of competence and self-sufficiency.
B. to be dominated by her superego as an adult.
C. to develop a weak superego.
D. to develop exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy.
D. to develop exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy.
According to Carl Rogers, when parents make their affection unconditional and show acceptance of their children’s behavior, they are promoting
A. congruence between their children’s self-concept and their actual experiences.
B. the resolution of the Oedipal conflict.
C. observational learning and identification.
D. incongruence between their children’s self-concept and their actual experiences.
A. congruence between their children’s self-concept and their actual experiences.
Defense mechanisms combat feelings of anxiety and guilt
A. through rational problem-solving.
B. through self-deception.
C. by enhancing self-insight.
D. by making unconscious urges conscious.
B. through self-deception.
Which of the following does NOT belong with the others?
A. 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire
B. NEO Personality Inventory
C. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
D. Thematic Apperception Test
D. Thematic Apperception Test
One of the problems with self-report personality inventories is that respondents may answer questions in ways that make them look good. This tendency is called a
A. perceptual set.
B. social desirability bias.
C. self-serving bias.
D. response set.
B. social desirability bias.
According to Hans Eysenck, ____ involves being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial.
A. neuroticism
B. introversion
C. extraversion
D. psychoticism
D. psychoticism
Which of the following statements regarding hindsight bias is LEAST accurate?
A. The notion of hindsight bias has been raised in criticisms of psychoanalytic theory.
B. Hindsight bias appears to be pervasive in everyday analyses of personality.
C. Hindsight bias occurs in many different settings.
D. Hindsight bias is generally restricted to thinking about issues related to personality.
D. Hindsight bias is generally restricted to thinking about issues related to personality.
According to Freud, “I want it, and I want it, now,” refers to the part of the personality he called the:
A) superego
B) id
C) ego
D) eros
B) id
Humanistic psychologists differ from psychoanalytic theorists by focusing on:
A) reinforced behaviors
B) unconscious motives
C) the healthy personality
D) early childhood influences
C) the healthy personality
Bandura called the process of interacting with the environment…
A) self-efficacy
B) social-cognitive
C) social-cultural
D) reciprocal determinism
D) reciprocal determinism
Which of the big five personality traits does the following represent?
“I pay attention to details.”
A. Openness
B. Conscientiousness
C. Agreeableness
D. Neuroticism
E. Extraversion
B. Conscientiousness
Which of the big five personality traits does the following represent?
“I have a vivid imagination.”
A. Openness
B. Conscientiousness
C. Agreeableness
D. Neuroticism
E. Extraversion
A. Openness
Which of the big five personality traits does the following represent?
“I sympathize with others’ feelings.”
A. Openness
B. Conscientiousness
C. Agreeableness
D. Neuroticism
E. Extraversion
C. Agreeableness
Which of the big five personality traits does the following represent?
“I get stressed out easily.”
A. Openness
B. Conscientiousness
C. Agreeableness
D. Neuroticism
E. Extraversion
D. Neuroticism
Which of the big five personality traits does the following represent?
“I talk to a lot of different people at parties.”
A. Openness
B. Conscientiousness
C. Agreeableness
D. Neuroticism
E. Extraversion
E. Extraversion
Matt blames his poor performance in a recent golf tournament due to his poorly fitted clubs. However, he believes that other golfers who did poorly just didn’t practice enough. Matt’s reasoning illustrates the:
A. Ultimate attribution error
B. Self-handicapping
C. Actor-observer bias
D. Self-serving bias
C. Actor-observer bias
While watching a homeless person beg on street corner, George thinks, “He must be lazy. If he would get a job, he would not have to beg.” George is illustrating:
A. Self-serving bias
B. Fundamental attribution bias
C. Actor-observer bias
D. Optimism bias
B. Fundamental attribution bias
Which of the following is an example of discrimination?
A. “I believe men cannot do men’s work.”
B. “I get angry when I see a woman doing a man’s job.”
C. “I wouldn’t hire a woman manager.”
C. “I wouldn’t hire a woman manager.”
Which of the following is an example of a stereotype?
A. “I believe men cannot do men’s work.”
B. “I get angry when I see a woman doing a man’s job.”
C. “I wouldn’t hire a woman manager.”
A. “I believe men cannot do men’s work.”
Which of the following is an example of prejudice?
A. “I believe men cannot do men’s work.”
B. “I get angry when I see a woman doing a man’s job.”
C. “I wouldn’t hire a woman manager.”
B. “I get angry when I see a woman doing a man’s job.”
People losing themselves in an angry mob is an example of:
A. self-serving bias
B. deindividuation
C. group think
D. group polarization
B. deindividuation
Assuming you have studied for the test and know the material well, you should take the test ______ because it will result in ______.
A. With others; social loafing
B. Alone; social facilitation
C. With others; social facilitation
D. Alone; evaluation apprehension
C. With others; social facilitation
When people are working in a group rather than individually, people are less likely to work hard. This is called:
A. Social inhibition
B. Deindividuation
C. Social loafing
D. Social facilitation
C. Social loafing
According to the bystander effect, if you needed help you would be more likely to get it if:
A. Many people were present
B. Scream as loud as you can
C. Few people were present
D. Nobody knew you
C. Few people were present
Tom is a new student at his university. During the first week of classes, he notices a fellow student from one of his classes getting on a bus. Tom decides to follow the student and discovers that this bus takes him right to the building where his class meets. This best illustrates what kind of conformity?
A. Normative conformity
B. Public compliance
C. Informational conformity
D. Obedience
C. Informational conformity
The experience of stress depends upon:
A. the situation
B. how life threatening situation is
C. cognitive appraisal of situation
D. whether others are involved
C. cognitive appraisal of situation
According to Selye’s general adaptation model, during which phase are we most likely to become ill from stress?
A. alarm
B. resistance
C. exhaustion
D. recovery
C. exhaustion
Stress is related to which leading cause of death in the U.S.?
A. cancer
B. coronary heart disease
C. stroke
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Social loafing is MORE likely to occur if the
A. task is unfamiliar and the members are concerned about the group’s image.
B. group leader is directive and the members are cohesive.
C. size of the group exceeds 10 members.
D. group members feel that the responsibility for getting the job done is diffused among the members of the group.
D. group members feel that the responsibility for getting the job done is diffused among the members of the group.
Sharon has met three musicians who have had full beards and three musicians who were clean-shaven. Still, she believes that MOST musicians have beards. Sharon’s belief reflects
A. the fundamental attribution error.
B. an egocentric slant.
C. attributional bias
D. an illusory correlation.
D. an illusory correlation.
In Milgram’s research on obedience, what did the experimenter do to the teacher when the teacher questioned whether the experiment should continue?
A. The teacher was given verbal prompts to continue.
B. The teacher was verbally abused.
C. The teacher was requested to change places with the learner.
D. The teacher was shocked.
A. The teacher was given verbal prompts to continue.
Which of the following people are MOST likely to be viewed as more competent?
A. People who wear conservative attire
B. People who are physically attractive
C. People who mimic our own mannerisms
D. Older people
B. People who are physically attractive
Lewis has agreed to proofread a long legal brief that Trudy has written, even though he doesn’t really like Trudy. Lewis knows that he will not receive any additional pay for his extra work, and he thinks that proofreading is one of the most boring jobs there is. However, after the legal brief is finished, Lewis decides that proofreading isn’t such a bad job after all; he feels that at times he actually enjoyed the exacting work. The change in attitude that Lewis has experienced can BEST be explained using
A. the fundamental attribution error.
B. a self-serving bias.
C. cognitive dissonance theory.
D. the matching hypothesis.
C. cognitive dissonance theory.
You would be MOST likely to accept the suggestion that the country needs a reduction in corporate taxes if it was made by
A. a manufacturer’s representative.
B. Enron’s CEO.
C. the Republican president.
D. a noted economics professor.
D. a noted economics professor.
The bystander effect should be strongest in
A. a large group when need for help is ambiguous.
B. a smaller group when need for help is unambiguous.
C. a smaller group when need for help is ambiguous.
D. a large group when need for help is unambiguous.
A. a large group when need for help is ambiguous.
Sally and Neil have been married for 15 years. They have an extremely warm and trusting relationship, and even though Neil frequently travels on business, Sally never worries about him seeing other women. According to Hatfield and Berscheid, Sally and Neil share
A. companionate love.
B. consummate love.
C. passionate love.
D. reciprocal love.
A. companionate love.
Which of the following individuals is noted for developing the theory of cognitive dissonance?
A. Daryl Bem
B. Albert Bandura
C. Sigmund Freud
D. Leon Festinger
D. Leon Festinger
Clara listens carefully to the content of an infomercial for a new software package; Joyce focuses on the fact that there are three different celebrity endorsers who are really excited about the software package. After the infomercial has ended, both Clara and Joyce think the software is worth purchasing. According to the elaboration likelihood model,
A. Joyce will have a more enduring attitude toward the software than Clara.
B. Joyce will experience less social facilitation than Clara.
C. Clara will experience more cognitive dissonance than Joyce.
D. Clara will have a more enduring attitude toward the software than Joyce.
D. Clara will have a more enduring attitude toward the software than Joyce.
Asch found that group size made little difference on conformity when
A. the task was easy.
B. the task was difficult.
C. just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.
D. the experimenter ridiculed the group’s wrong answers.
C. just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group.
Which of the following statements regarding the influence of culture on conformity and obedience is MOST accurate?
A. Conformity and obedience appear to be unique to American culture.
B. Collectivistic cultures tend to encourage more conformity than individualistic cultures.
C. Replications of Milgram’s study in other countries have generally resulted in low levels of obedience.
D. Studies of conformity and obedience have yielded virtually identical results across a variety of cultures.
B. Collectivistic cultures tend to encourage more conformity than individualistic cultures.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
A. hedonism.
B. individualism.
C. egocentrism.
D. dispositional attributional bias.
B. individualism.
If a person has a prejudice involving a group of people, it is MOST accurate to state that the person also ____ the same group of people.
A. discriminates against
B. has had direct contact with individuals from
C. has not had direct contact with individuals from
D. has a stereotype involving
D. has a stereotype involving
Denying a person equal social treatment based on his or her group membership defines
A. discrimination.
B. social scaling.
C. chauvinism.
D. prejudice.
A. discrimination.
According to Janis, what is the major cause of groupthink?
A. Diffusion of responsibility
B. The tendency of group members to grandstand
C. Strong group cohesion
D. Group conflict
C. Strong group cohesion
In Festinger and Carlsmith’s classic study of cognitive dissonance, which group of subjects experienced both a high level of cognitive dissonance and exhibited more attitude change?
A. Subjects who were offered $1 to “lie” and accepted the offer
B. Subjects who were offered $20 to “lie” and accepted the offer
C. Subjects who were offered $20 to “lie” and refused the offer
D. Subjects who were offered $1 to “lie” and refused the offer
A. Subjects who were offered $1 to “lie” and accepted the offer
Kristen scrimped and saved for over a year so that she could afford a trip to the Super Bowl if her favorite team won the title. She was excited when her team made it to the Super Bowl, but the actual game was fairly boring and Kristen’s favorite team lost. Still, when Kristen got back home, she told all her friends about the great time she had at the game. Kristen’s attitude about the game she saw can BEST be explained by
A. the matching hypothesis.
B. effort justification.
C. ingratiation theory.
D. a self-serving bias.
B. effort justification.
According to Hazan and Shaver’s model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to engage in casual sex?
A. Avoidant
B. Insecure
C. Secure
D. Anxious-ambivalent
A. Avoidant
Research has revealed that attitudes are
A. very reliable predictors of behavior in men but not women.
B. mediocre predictors of behavior.
C. very reliable predictors of behavior.
D. very reliable predictors of behavior in women but not men.
B. mediocre predictors of behavior.
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on conformity?
A. Stanley Milgram
B. Solomon Asch
C. Leon Festinger
D. Daryl Bem
B. Solomon Asch
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
A. men are more likely than women to make biased judgments of others based on physical appearance.
B. judgments of women’s personalities are affected by their physical attractiveness, but judgments of men’s personalities are not.
C. we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people.
D. most people disregard physical attractiveness when forming first impressions of people.
C. we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people.
In Milgram’s (1963) study of obedience, subjects
A. became the recipients of painful electric shocks delivered by an experimental accomplice.
B. indicated which of three lines matched a “standard line” in length.
C. were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.
D. were ordered to give consistently wrong answers to simple questions.
C. were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.
According to Hazan and Shaver’s model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are MOST likely to have satisfying, interdependent, and long-lasting relationships?
A. Avoidant
B. Insecure
C. Anxious-ambivalent
D. Secure
D. Secure
John observed Gracie, an executive for a large accounting firm, behave in an aggressive and pushy manner with her subordinates. John now believes that most women executives are aggressive and pushy with their subordinates. John’s overestimation of the link between women executives and the social traits of “pushy” and “aggressive” is referred to as
A. an illusory correlation.
B. a self-serving attribution.
C. priming
D. a heuristic overbias.
A. an illusory correlation.
LaPiere’s study from the 1930s concerning whether restaurants would serve a Chinese couple demonstrated that
A. while attitudes did predict behavior, behavior did not predict attitudes.
B. attitudes did predict behavior and behavior did predict attitudes.
C. attitudes did predict behavior very well.
D. attitudes did not predict behavior very well.
D. attitudes did not predict behavior very well.
Which statement is NOT an accurate reflection of relationships on the Internet?
A. Relationships that begin on the Internet are as stable as traditional relationships.
B. Similarity of interests assumes more power than in face-to-face relationships.
C. Internet relationships are just as intimate as face-to-face ones.
D. Internet relationships seldom evolve into face-to-face relationships.
D. Internet relationships seldom evolve into face-to-face relationships.
Most research on implicit attitudes has addressed the topic of
A. politics.
B. education.
C. sex.
D. prejudice.
D. prejudice.
Compared with attractive people, less attractive people
A. try to date people who are much more attractive than themselves.
B. are indifferent to physical appearance.
C. delude themselves into thinking their partners are more attractive than they really are.
D. place less emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness.
D. place less emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of groupthink?
A. Dividing the world into the ingroup and the outgroup
B. Gathering all the relevant information before making a decision
C. Censoring information that contradicts the group’s views
D. Censoring dissent from group members
B. Gathering all the relevant information before making a decision
According to the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change, when persuasion depends on factors such as the attractiveness and credibility of the source or emotional responses by the receiver, it is referred to as the
A. subjective route.
B. objective route.
C. peripheral route.
D. central route.
C. peripheral route.
Vanessa is working on a take-home exam and fairly certain that the answer to the fourth question should be option “C.” Based on the research by Solomon Asch into the influence of group size on conformity, Vanessa will be MOST likely to select an alternative other than “C” if she is working on the exam with
A. four other students who can’t agree on a single correct answer, but who all believe that alternative “C” is definitely wrong.
B. one other student who believes the correct alternative is actually “B.”
C. two other students who both believe the correct alternative is actually “B.”
D. four other students who all believe the correct alternative is actually “B.”
D. four other students who all believe the correct alternative is actually “B.”
Alphonse failed his geology midterm. According to Weiner’s attributional model, if Alphonse makes an external-unstable attribution for his failure, he is MOST likely to say,
A. “I was really tired during the exam because I had to work the late shift the night before the exam.”
B. “I just can’t seem to catch on in my geology classes, and I don’t think I’ll ever learn all those terms.”
C. “It was just bad luck that most of the exam was on the one chapter I didn’t study.”
D. “That professor has impossible exams; if I retake the class with a different professor, I’ll probably do much better.”
C. “It was just bad luck that most of the exam was on the one chapter I didn’t study.”
The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency of
A. observers to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
B. observers to favor external attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
C. actors to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
D. actors to favor external attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
A. observers to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others.
Asch found that two key factors influencing conformity were
A. the sex of group members and task difficulty.
B. group size and task difficulty.
C. the sex of group members and group unanimity.
D. group size and group unanimity.
D. group size and group unanimity.
Cross-cultural studies on mate preferences find that people all over the world value all of the following EXCEPT
A. passion.
B. kindness.
C. intelligence.
D. good health.
A. passion.
Which of the following is MOST likely to function as a group?
A. The board of trustees of a college
B. Passengers in an airplane
C. Shoppers at a mall
D. The audience in a theater
A. The board of trustees of a college
According to Freud, when an individual copes with stressful situations by trying to atone for unacceptable desires or behaviors, that individual is using the defense mechanisms of
A. fantasy.
B. overcompensation.
C. undoing.
D. intellectualization.
C. undoing.
Analyzing the possible gains and losses before undertaking a health-treatment program is an example of
A. listing alternative courses of action.
B. making a risk-benefit analysis.
C. seeking information to reduce uncertainty.
D. analyzing base rates.
B. making a risk-benefit analysis.
Herbert Benson has demonstrated that if you settle yourself comfortably in a distraction-free environment, focus your attention on a constant stimulus, and adopt a passive attitude, you may well experience what he called
A. an altered state of consciousness.
B. psychological disinhibition.
C. a hypnotic trance.
D. the relaxation response.
D. the relaxation response.
A major idea behind rational-emotive therapy is that stress is caused by
A. catastrophic thinking.
B. frustration.
C. pressure.
D. conflict.
A. catastrophic thinking.
Of the following individuals, who would be LEAST likely to develop heart disease?
A. Bill, who is a Type B personality
B. Dennis, who is depressed
C. Andrew, who is a Type A personality
D. Charles, who has high blood pressure and smokes
A. Bill, who is a Type B personality
In times of stress, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the ____, which then secretes ____.
A. adrenal medulla; corticosteroids
B. adrenal cortex; catecholamine
C. adrenal cortex; corticosteroids
D. adrenal medulla; catecholamines
D. adrenal medulla; catecholamines
Jim is on the brink of flunking out of school. Instead of increasing his studying, he spends his time daydreaming about how he’ll win the state lottery so he won’t need a degree. Jim is experiencing
A. frustration and engaging in acting out.
B. conflict and engaging in overcompensation.
C. frustration and engaging in fantasy.
D. conflict and engaging in denial.
C. frustration and engaging in fantasy.
Recent research suggests that chronic stress can impair people’s ability to pay attention by reducing activity in the
A. prefrontal cortex.
B. reticular activating system.
C. hypothalamus.
D. pituitary gland.
A. prefrontal cortex.
When a person’s pursuit of a goal is blocked or thwarted, the person experiences
A. conflict.
B. pressure.
C. frustration.
D. change.
C. frustration.
The key to ____ is to detect catastrophic thinking and dispute the irrational assumptions that cause it.
A. psychoanalytic therapy
B. rational emotive therapy
C. relaxation therapy
D. irrational belief therapy
B. rational emotive therapy
Physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress defines
A. burnout.
B. stress overload.
C. job-induced stress.
D. a mental breakdown.
A. burnout.
In times of stress, stimulation of the pituitary gland results in the adrenal gland secreting hormones that tend to
A. decrease emotional arousal.
B. increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation.
C. conserve energy.
D. mobilize the body for action.
B. increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation.
Which of the following is LEAST accurate in regard to defense mechanisms?
A. They are normal in that everyone uses them
B. They are aimed at protecting one from unwelcome emotions
C. They use self-deception
D. They invariably reduce coping effectiveness
D. They invariably reduce coping effectiveness.
The therapeutic technique that focuses on altering a client’s patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive emotions and behavior is
A. self-monitoring therapy.
B. behavioral therapy.
C. rational-emotive therapy.
D. constructive coping therapy.
C. rational-emotive therapy.
Which of the following is NOT a component of the broaden and build theory of positive emotions? Positive emotions
A. can undo the effects of negative emotions.
B. promote rewarding social interactions.
C. increase creativity and flexibility in problem-solving.
D. enhance the effectiveness of defense mechanisms.
D. enhance the effectiveness of defense mechanisms.
__________ refers to successful adaptation to significant stress and trauma and a lack of serious negative outcomes.
A. Approach capacity
B. Autoimmunity
C. Resilience
D. Repression
C. Resilience
Suki routinely responds to stress with a learned helplessness response. Suki’s response will involve
A. a release of emotional tension that often accompanies stress.
B. protecting oneself from unpleasant situations by refusing to acknowledge them.
C. atoning for unacceptable unconscious drives or impulses in socially acceptable ways.
D. passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
D. passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events.
In one study of over 14,000 participants, the researchers found a statistically significant association between high sodium intake and the prevalence of hypertension among normal-weight subjects. The prevalence of hypertension in the group with the lowest sodium intake was 19.1%; the prevalence of hypertension in the group with the highest sodium intake was 21.8%. This data suggests that
A. one of the main causes of hypertension is a high intake of sodium.
B. the finding has neither practical nor statistical significance, and should be ignored.
C. the finding has both practical and statistical significance, and should be reviewed in more detail.
D. even though the finding was statistically significant, it may not have much practical importance.
D. even though the finding was statistically significant, it may not have much practical importance.
Which of the following is NOT an important factor in patient nonadherence or noncompliance to medical advice?
A. Patients misunderstand the instructions
B. Patients find the instructions unpleasant to follow
C. Patients sometimes dislike their physicians
D. Patients believe the instructions are inappropriate
D. Patients believe the instructions are inappropriate
Current research on change and stress suggests that
A. both positive and negative changes are equally stressful.
B. change is not inherently or inevitably stressful.
C. too much change of whatever sort automatically makes one more vulnerable to physical and psychological problems.
D. keeping change to a minimum is an effective way to avoid the harmful effects of stress.
B. change is not inherently or inevitably stressful.
An individual gets sudden, paralyzing attacks of anxiety and fears leaving her house. Which anxiety disorder does this describe?
A. Generalized anxiety disorder
B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
C. Phobic disorder
D. Panic attack and agoraphobia
D. Panic attack and agoraphobia
Harold sits all day alone on a park bench, babbling incoherently and giggling to himself. Harold would MOST likely be diagnosed as having
A. catatonic schizophrenia.
B. disorganized schizophrenia.
C. paranoid schizophrenia.
D. undifferentiated schizophrenia.
B. disorganized schizophrenia.
Insanity is a
A. psychological diagnosis that confirms that an individual is dangerous to him- or herself or to others.
B. recognition that a person has a chronic mental illness that is not responsive to treatment.
C. psychological diagnosis that determines that an individual is unable to understand the nature and purpose of legal proceedings.
D. legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.
D. legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.
About what percentage of people who complete suicide suffered from some type of psychological disorder?
A. 30%
B. 50%
C. 70%
D. 90%
D. 90%
Seligman’s concept of preparedness BEST accounts for the development of
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
B. an elevator phobia.
C. a spider phobia.
D. posttraumatic stress disorder.
C. a spider phobia.
Alvin suffers from both major depression and generalized anxiety disrder. Alvin’s diagnoses illustrate that mental disorders can be
A. epidemiological.
B. confounded.
C. categorical.
D. comorbid.
D. comorbid.
Schizophrenia is characterized by
A. loss of memory or personal identity.
B. emotional disturbances and high levels of anxiety.
C. the presence of two or more distinct personalities.
D. a disturbance of thought processes.
D. a disturbance of thought processes.
Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with
A. disorganized schizophrenia.
B. antisocial personality disorder.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. dissociative identity disorder.
D. dissociative identity disorder.
DSM-IV uses five “axes” to describe a person’s problem. The actual diagnosis of a disorder is made on
A. Axis V.
B. Axis I and II.
C. Axis I only.
D. Axis II only.
B. Axis I and II.
The class of disorders marked by extreme and inflexible characteristics that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning are referred to as
A. personality disorders.
B. conduct disorders.
C. affective disorders.
D. mood disorders.
A. personality disorders.
Wesley has gone in for a psychiatric assessment. He tells the clinician that he has been feeling apprehensive and edgy for the last month, but so far, his anxiety hasn’t seemed to have had a major impact on either his job or his home life. The clinician should use
A. both Axis III and Axis IV of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
B. not bother recording Wesley’s current level of functioning because Wesley’s symptoms do not meet the criteria for abnormality.
C. either Axis I or Axis II of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
D. Axis V of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
D. Axis V of the DSM-IV to record Wesley’s current level of global functioning.
Individuals with antisocial personality disorder exhibit all of the following behaviors EXCEPT
A. they rarely experience genuine affection for others.
B. they are irresponsible and impulsive, and can tolerate little frustration.
C. they chronically violate the rights of others and rarely feel guilty.
D. they typically avoid social interactions.
D. they typically avoid social interactions.
Grayson seems to be preoccupied with the possibility that he might miss an important message from someone in his family. He checks for new messages on his answering machine every 15 minutes. Grayson’s constant checking for messages could be considered an example of
A. a hallucination.
B. a delusion.
C. an obsession.
D. a compulsion.
D. a compulsion.
Psychological disorders that are recognized abnormal syndromes but only found in a few cultural groups are referred to as
A. culture-bound disorders.
B. pancultural disorders.
C. unique disorders.
D. universal disorders.
A. culture-bound disorders.
In determining the probabilities associated with comorbidity (the coexistence of two or more psychological disorders), epidemiologists would need to work with
A. cumulative probabilities.
B. point prevalence rates.
C. conjunctive probabilities.
D. disjunctive probabilities.
C. conjunctive probabilities.
A person who maintains bizarre, false beliefs that have no basis in reality is said to have
A. illusions.
B. hallucinations.
C. delusions.
D. obsessions.
C. delusions.
Treit’s best friend was seriously injured in a car accident last month. Since that time, Treit has been attending all his classes, but he feels like he is unable to pay attention because he is constantly thinking about his friend. Treit finds he can’t seem to think about anything else, and he is frequently overwhelmed by feelings of helplessness. In this example, Treit’s feelings would MOST likely be considered
A. maladaptive.
B. culturally deviant.
C. personally distressing.
D. compulsive.
C. personally distressing.
Rick believes that his dog is really his sister who was given up for adoption by his mother 30 years ago. Rick’s belief is
A. a delusion.
B. a faulty perception.
C. an illusion.
D. a hallucination.
A. a delusion.
Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with someone who has a bipolar disorder?
A. Sexually reckless behavior
B. Inflated self-esteem
C. Hallucinations
D. Decreased need for sleep
C. Hallucinations
If a psychological disorder results in an individual having difficulty completing routine or necessary everyday activities, the individual’s behavior would MOST likely be considered
A. maladaptive.
B. deviant.
C. incompetent.
D. personally distressing.
A. maladaptive.
Irene occasionally experiences unpredictable episodes of intense dread, accompanied by chest pains and a sensation of smothering. Her symptoms have no apparent physical cause. She suffers from:
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. panic disorder
C. agoraphobia
D. posttraumatic stress disorder
E. antisocial personality disorder
B. panic disorder
Jason is so preoccupied with staying clean that he showers as many as 10 times each day. He suffers from:
A. major depressive disorder
B. paranoid schizophrenia
C. panic disorder
D. bipolar disorder
E. obsessive-compulsive disorder
E. obsessive-compulsive disorder
Although Lila escaped from war-torn Iraq two years ago, she still has haunting memories and nightmares. She is also severely depressed. She suffers from:
A. bipolar disorder
B. antisocial personality disorder
C. post-traumatic stress disorder
D. major depressive disorder
E. agoraphobia
C. post-traumatic stress disorder
One day Matt felt optimistic, energetic, and on top of the world. A few days later he felt hopeless and lethargic. He thought that the future looked very grim. He suffers from:
A. panic disorder
B. agoraphobia
C. major depressive disorder
D. antisocial personality disorder
E. bipolar disorder
E. bipolar disorder
Claiming she heard a voice commanding her to warn other people that eating is harmful, Sandy attempts to convince others restaurant patrons not to eat. The psychiatrist to whom she is referred finds that Sandy’s thinking and speech are often fragmented and incoherent. In addition, Sandy has an unreasonable fear that someone is “out to get her.” She suffers from:
A. paranoid schizophrenia
B. panic disorder
C. bipolar disorder
D. post-traumatic stress disorder
E. antisocial personality disorder
A. paranoid schizophrenia
Bob has never been able to keep a job. He has been in and out of jail for charges such as theft, sexual assault, and spousal abuse. He suffers from:
A. post-traumatic stress disorder
B. major depressive disorder
C. bipolar disorder
D. antisocial personality disorder
E. obsessive-compulsive disorder
D. antisocial personality disorder
Sadie is so fearful of being overwhelmed by anxiety that she rarely steps outside her apartment. The thought of going shopping and getting lost in a crowd terrifies her so she has her groceries delivered. Because of her fear, she earns her living as a freelance writer and works at home. She suffers from:
A. obsessive-compulsive disorder
B. agoraphobia
C. bipolar disorder
D. major depressive disorder
E. panic disorder
B. agoraphobia
For the last month Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. She suffers from:
A. major depressive disorder
B. antisocial personality disorder
C. paranoid schizophrenia
D. post-traumatic stress disorder
E. bipolar disorder
A. major depressive disorder
Rogers believed that client-centered therapists must provide unconditional positive regard for their clients. In other words, they must
A. communicate with clients in an honest and spontaneous manner.
B. understand the client’s world from the client’s point of view, and be able to communicate this.
C. provide warmth and caring only when clients’ behavior is appropriate.
D. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.
D. show complete, nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person.
Behavior therapies appear to be particularly effective in the treatment of
A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. major depression.
C. phobias.
D. multiple personality disorders.
C. phobias.
A classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat an individual suffering from a spider phobia is ____, while a classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat alcohol abuse is ____.
A. punishment; extinction
B. extinction; punishment
C. aversion therapy; systematic desensitization
D. systematic desensitization; aversion therapy
D. systematic desensitization; aversion therapy
No matter what Sam tells his therapist concerning his failures or successes, weaknesses or strengths, spiteful behaviors or good deeds, or vengeful feelings or positive emotions, his therapist is very accepting of him as a person. Sam’s therapist is showing him
A. genuineness.
B. empathy.
C. unconditional positive regard.
D. transference.
C. unconditional positive regard.
Dr. Spann is a psychoanalytic therapist. Over the past two weeks, his patient has begun showing increasing hostility, and he often yells and becomes threatening when Dr. Spann offers her interpretations of the things that the patient says during therapy. Dr. Spann should MOST likely deal with the patient’s behavior by
A. ignoring it and recentering on the real problem.
B. moving to a new topic for discussion.
C. allowing the patient to work through the feelings associated with transference.
D. modeling new behavior for the client.
C. allowing the patient to work through the feelings associated with transference.
Brian has been feeling anxious and tense as his final exams approach. He schedules an appointment with his doctor to find out if there is something he can take to help him feel more relaxed and less anxious. If Brian’s doctor prescribes a medication for the symptoms that Brian is experiencing, it would MOST likely be
A. Nardil.
B. Prozac.
C. Thorazine.
D. Xanax.
D. Xanax.
Placebo effects occur when
A. people recover from a mental or physical illness without any form of intervention.
B. people who originally score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls closer to the average.
C. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
D. people who originally score near the average on some trait are measured a second time, and their new score falls at the extreme high or low end of the scale.
C. people’s expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
Therapists who emphasize the application of learning principles in treatment use the ____ approach to psychotherapy.
A. emotion
B. biomedical
C. insight
D. behavior
D. behavior
Common side effects associated with antianxiety drugs include all of the following EXCEPT
A. lightheadedness.
B. muscle tremors.
C. depression.
D. drowsiness.
B. muscle tremors.
Which of the following statements BEST represents the approach of a cognitive therapist in treating a chronically anxious client?
A. “So, you feel that your world is a very scary place to be.”
B. “Let’s see if we can identify the irrational thoughts that are producing your anxiety.”
C. “Let’s look for ways in which you might actually be benefiting from your anxiety.”
D. “Do you feel that your mother adequately met your need for emotional support when you were a child?”
B. “Let’s see if we can identify the irrational thoughts that are producing your anxiety.”
In client-centered therapy, the therapist’s key task is
A. clarification.
B. interpretation.
C. cognitive evaluation.
D. behavior modification.
A. clarification.
Which of the following is NOT among the advantages of group therapy?
A. Certain kinds of problems are especially well suited to group treatment
B. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy
C. Participants often come to realize that their misery is not unique
D. It provides an opportunity for participants to work on social skills in a safe environment
B. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy
Compared to psychologists, in their provision of therapy, psychiatrists tend to
A. use group therapies more often.
B. use behavior therapies more often.
C. emphasize biomedical treatments more.
D. spend less time working with severely disturbed patients.
C. emphasize biomedical treatments more.
Which of the following academic degrees is NOT associated with being a psychologist?
A. Ed.D.
B. Psy.D.
C. Ph.D.
D. M.D.
D. M.D.
Which of the following shows the MOST appropriate matching of therapy to psychological problem?
A. Cognitive therapy for panic disorder
B. Systematic desensitization for bipolar mood disorder
C. Lithium treatment for phobic disorder
D. Xanax for depression
A. Cognitive therapy for panic disorder
Which type of therapy will MOST likely be used more frequently in the future due to economic pressures in mental health care?
A. Well-being therapy
B. Group therapy
C. Positive psychotherapy
D. Client-centered therapy
B. Group therapy
The newest drug treatments for bipolar disorder use mood stabilizers such as
A. haloperidol.
B. alprazolam.
C. valproate.
D. setraline.
C. valproate.
In which form of therapy are individuals MOST clearly viewed as part of an ecosystem that affects their behavior?
A. Role-model therapy
B. Rational-emotive therapy
C. Client-centered therapy
D. Family therapy
D. Family therapy
Which of the following factors can affect the outcome of a treatment program?
A. Regression toward the mean
B. Placebo effects
C. All of these above
D. The efficacy of the treatment itself
C. All of these above
Transference in psychoanalytic therapy may reveal itself when the patient
A. shifts social roles during the course of therapy.
B. changes the way the patient feels about people close to the patient.
C. transfers from one stage of analysis to another.
D. responds to the therapist as though he or she were the patient’s parent.
D. responds to the therapist as though he or she were the patient’s parent.
Psychoanalysis is a therapy that emphasizes
A. the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses.
B. improving interpersonal skills.
C. correcting habitual thinking errors.
D. providing a supportive climate for clients.
A. the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses.
A therapist cures a man of his sexual attraction to children by pairing pictures of children with painful electric shocks. The procedure being used here is
A. extinction.
B. aversion therapy.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. social skills training.
B. aversion therapy.
Which of the following statements concerning psychiatrists is FALSE?
A. Psychiatrists typically devote less of their time to relatively serious disorders than clinical psychologists.
B. Psychiatrists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
C. Psychiatrists frequently emphasize biomedical therapy.
D. Psychiatrists are physicians and have a medical degree.
A. Psychiatrists typically devote less of their time to relatively serious disorders than clinical psychologists.
Which of the following is NOT among the advantages of group therapy?
A. Participants often come to realize that their misery is not unique
B. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy
C. Certain kinds of problems are especially well suited to group treatment
D. It provides an opportunity for participants to work on social skills in a safe environment
B. It produces a significantly higher recovery rate than individual therapy
Taken as a whole, the results from studies investigating mental illness among the homeless indicate that, compared to the non-homeless, homeless people are
A. equally likely to suffer from mental health problems.
B. more likely to suffer from mental health problems.
C. less likely to suffer from mental health problems or substance abuse problems.
D. less likely to suffer from mental health problems, but more likely to exhibit substance abuse problems.
B. more likely to suffer from mental health problems.
“What has been learned can be unlearned” is a central assumption of
A. group therapy.
B. insight therapy.
C. biomedical therapy.
D. behavior therapy.
D. behavior therapy.
About ____ of psychotic patients respond favorably to traditional antipsychotic medication.
A. 5%
B. 40%
C. 15%
D. 70%
D. 70%
Alice has a dog phobia. Her therapist confronts her with actual dogs so that Alice learns that dogs are usually harmless. Alice is receiving
A. exposure therapy.
B. aversion therapy.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. avoidance therapy.
A. exposure therapy.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of drug therapy?
A. The therapy is typically expensive
B. Many drugs are overprescribed, and many patients are overmedicated
C. Drugs temporarily relieve symptoms without addressing the real problem
D. The side effects may be worse than the illnesses they are supposed to cure
A. The therapy is typically expensive
Bryant loves rich desserts, but he knows that eating high-fat, calorie-laden desserts is bad for his heart. However, he was unable to control his desire for these tasty treats until he read an article in a magazine. The article suggested that every time a person looked at a tempting but forbidden food, he or she should form a mental image of something disgusting. Bryant has been doing this for the past month, and he finds desserts no longer have pleasant associations for him. In this case, Bryant used ____________ to overcome his desire for rich desserts.
A. aversion therapy
B. negative reinforcement
C. systematic desensitization
D. observational learning
A. aversion therapy
Leslie has been feeling depressed for a number of weeks. She thinks she may need to see a therapist to help her overcome her depression, but she doesn’t want to see anyone who is going to dwell on her childhood and try to work through any problems she experienced years ago. She wants to see someone who will focus on direct treatment of her current symptoms. In this example, it appears that Leslie is looking for a therapist whose approach to treatment would be classified as
A. biomedical therapy.
B. noninvasive therapy.
C. hypnotherapy.
D. insight therapy.
A. biomedical therapy.
What percentage of psychiatric inpatient admissions are readmission of former patients?
A. Over 66%
B. Approximately 95%
C. Approximately 1%
D. Less than 15%
A. Over 66%
Neuroscientists are experimenting with transcranial magnetic stimulation mainly as a treatment for
A. anxiety disorders.
B. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
C. depression.
D. schizophrenia.
C. depression.
The side effect associated with taking traditional antipsychotic drugs that is characterized by chronic tremors and involuntary spastic movements is
A. infindibular recidivism.
B. tachycardia palpitations.
C. MAO inhibition.
D. tardive dyskinesia.
D. tardive dyskinesia.
Preliminary research suggest positive psychotherapy can be effective in treatment for
A. anxiety disorders.
B. depression.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. schizophrenia.
B. depression.
Colton has been taking a drug to control a psychological disorder. Some of the side effects that he has been experiencing include drowsiness, constipation, and tardive dyskinesia. In this case, Colton is MOST likely being treated for
A. schizophrenia.
B. bipolar disorder.
C. an anxiety disorder.
D. depression.
A. schizophrenia.
Clients receiving ____ are taught to detect and evaluate their negative, self-defeating thoughts and statements.
A. cognitive therapy
B. psychoanalysis
C. aversion therapy
D. social skills training
A. cognitive therapy
Felicity scored 98% on her first statistics exam, while Baxter scored only 35%. Felicity studied really hard in an attempt to score 100% on the next exam. Baxter decided he wasn’t going to be successful in the course, so he didn’t study at all. On the second exam Felicity scored 89%, while Baxter scored 42%. One explanation for this might be
A. both Felicity’s and Baxter’s scores reflect regression toward the mean.
B. Felicity is experiencing a “sophomore slump,” while Baxter is experiencing a “junior jump.”
C. both Felicity’s and Baxter’s scores reflect the impact of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
D. both Felicity and Baxter experienced a placebo effect.
A. both Felicity’s and Baxter’s scores reflect regression toward the mean.
According to Beck, which types of thought processes tend to produce depression?
A. Blaming setbacks on circumstantial factors
B. Failing to accept responsibility for one’s own actions
C. Drawing negative conclusions about one’s personal worth based on insignificant events
D. Focusing selectively on positive experiences
C. Drawing negative conclusions about one’s personal worth based on insignificant events
The therapeutic drugs used to control bipolar disorder are referred to as
A. mood stabilizers.
B. antianxiety drugs.
C. antidepressants.
D. antipsychotics.
A. mood stabilizers.
Today, ECT is MOST likely to be used as a treatment for patients with
A. major depression who have not responded to antidepressant drugs.
B. schizophrenia who have not responded to antipsychotic drugs.
C. major depression.
D. schizophrenia.
A. major depression who have not responded to antidepressant drugs.
The use of the anxiety hierarchy in systematic desensitization allows for the
A. use of real objects instead of imagination.
B. gradual approach to the feared object.
C. direct confrontation with the feared object.
D. transfer of treatment to real-life situations.
B. gradual approach to the feared object.
Ariana’s doctor has recently prescribed a drug that slows the reuptake process at serotonin synapses. Her doctor is MOST likely treating Ariana for symptoms of
A. a somatoform disorder.
B. depression.
C. bipolar disorder.
D. schizophrenia.
B. depression.
The MOST commonly cited side effect associated with antianxiety drugs is
A. insomnia.
B. drowsiness.
C. tachycardia.
D. blurred vision.
B. drowsiness.
The “behavior” that is incompatible with anxiety, and that systematic desensitization tries to recondition to phobic cues, is
A. an imagined pleasant experience.
B. deep muscle relaxation.
C. an imagined fear.
D. vigorous exercise.
B. deep muscle relaxation.
Alice has a dog phobia. She is being taught to completely relax and then mentally imagine a dog nearby. Alice is receiving
A. psychotherapy.
B. systematic desensitization.
C. aversion therapy.
D. avoidance therapy.
B. systematic desensitization.
Which of the following would Freud consider to be the MOST direct means of access to the unconscious mind?
A. The client’s attempts to hinder the progress of therapy
B. The client’s feelings toward the therapist
C. The content of dreams
D. Transference
C. The content of dreams
In comparison to lithium, mood stabilizers such as valproate are
A. more effective in treating bipolar disorder but have more adverse effects.
B. equally effective in treating bipolar disorder and have fewer adverse effects.
C. less effective in treating bipolar disorder and have more adverse effects.
D. less effective in treating bipolar disorder but have fewer adverse effects.
B. equally effective in treating bipolar disorder and have fewer adverse effects.
Approximately ______ of patients’ improvement from antidepressant medications occurs in the first two weeks after treatment begins.
A. 60%
B. 30%
C. 80%
D. 90%
A. 60%
Charlene is talking with her father and confesses that she lied about where she had been on the weekend. Her father tells Charlene that he loves her, but that he doesn’t approve of her lying. According to Carl Rogers, Charlene’s father is displaying the quality of
A. validity.
B. unconditional positive regard.
C. selective abstraction.
D. empathy.
B. unconditional positive regard.
Which of the following is LEAST accurate concerning trends in mental hospitals in this country?
A. The length of stay has increased since the 1950s
B. They serve mainly the chronically ill patient
C. More patients are now placed in local facilities instead of the mental hospital
D. The number of patients in mental hospitals has declined since the 1950s
A. The length of stay has increased since the 1950s
Which of the following therapies is MOST likely to see the symptom as the problem?
A. Client-centered therapy
B. Psychoanalysis
C. Cognitive therapy
D. Behavior therapy
D. Behavior therapy
Client: “I’ve had a bad week. I’m really down.” Therapist: “You’ve had some unpleasant experiences lately and are feeling quite depressed as a result.” The therapist’s statement in this interaction is intended to communicate
A. unconditional positive regard to the client.
B. genuineness to the client.
C. disapproval to the client.
D. empathy to the client.
D. empathy to the client.
Which of the following statements concerning antipsychotic drugs is FALSE?
A. They have an effect on dopamine synapses
B. They reduce symptoms in approximately 95% of patients
C. They usually show effect within two days to a week
D. They have many side effects such as drowsiness, tremors, and muscular rigidity
B. They reduce symptoms in approximately 95% of patients
Ethel is 75 years old and has been coping with major depression for the past six months. Based on the results reported in the Featured Study, which investigated the impact of combining insight therapy and medication, you should predict that Ethel will show the BEST response to treatment if her therapist combines
A. group therapy with antipsychotic medication.
B. interpersonal psychotherapy with electroconvulsive shock therapy.
C. interpersonal psychotherapy with a tricyclic antidepressant.
D. a tricyclic antidepressant with electroconvulsive shock therapy.
C. interpersonal psychotherapy with a tricyclic antidepressant.
Therapeutic drugs that gradually reduce symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, hyperactivity, and mental confusion are
A. antipsychotic drugs.
B. mood stabilizers.
C. antianxiety drugs.
D. antidepressant drugs.
A. antipsychotic drugs.
Consistent with the phenomenon of regression toward the mean, you would expect that the person who receives the highest grade in the class on the first psychology exam
A. will get the highest grade in the class on the second psychology exam.
B. will get a below average grade on the second psychology exam.
C. will get the highest grade in the class on their first economics exam.
D. will get a high grade, but probably not the highest, on the second psychology exam.
D. will get a high grade, but probably not the highest, on the second psychology exam.
Aversion therapy would be MOST appropriate for a client wanting to
A. overcome social anxiety.
B. quit smoking.
C. decrease negative thoughts.
D. overcome an elevator phobia.
B. quit smoking.
The use of varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavioral modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking BEST describes
A. cognitive-behavioral treatments.
B. biomedical treatments.
C. insight treatments.
D. group therapy treatments.
A. cognitive-behavioral treatments.
Dr. Stefan feels psychology has focused for too long on sickness and human weakness. He would rather study human strengths and personal growth. Dr. Stefan is MOST likely a practitioner of
A. individual psychology.
B. ontological psychology.
C. cognitive psychology.
D. positive psychology.
D. positive psychology.
A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients’ understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as
A. a biomedical therapist.
B. a homeopathic therapist.
C. a behavior therapist.
D. an insight therapist.
D. an insight therapist.
What percentage of patients show a meaningful recovery within about 20 sessions of insight therapies?
A. 90%
B. 50%
C. 75%
D. 25%
B. 50%
Which form of therapy attempts to get clients to forgive those who have wronged them?
A. Rational-emotive therapy
B. Client-centered therapy
C. Well-being therapy
D. Positive psychotherapy
D. Positive psychotherapy
Cognitive therapy originally developed as a treatment approach to
A. anxiety problems.
B. schizophrenia.
C. marital problems.
D. depression.
D. depression.
The newest antidepressant drugs such as Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft
A. act as MAO inhibitors.
B. increase levels of dopamine in the brain.
C. also reduce the manic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder.
D. slow the reuptake process at serotonin synapses.
D. slow the reuptake process at serotonin synapses.
Viewing a phobia for snakes in classical conditioning terms, the snake is ____ and the fear is ____.
A. an unconditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
B. an unconditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
C. a conditioned stimulus; an unconditioned response
D. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
D. a conditioned stimulus; a conditioned response
In terms of the relationship between therapists’ professional background and therapeutic efficacy, researchers have found that
A. most individuals show the best progress when they are treated by a clinical psychologist.
B. most individuals show the best progress when they are treated by a certified psychiatrist.
C. most individuals show the best progress when they are treated by a therapist trained in multiple approaches.
D. there is no reliable connection between therapists’ professional background and therapeutic efficacy.
D. there is no reliable connection between therapists’ professional background and therapeutic efficacy.
A client in psychoanalysis has been arriving late for sessions, acting hostile toward the analyst, and making up dreams. This is MOST likely
A. transference.
B. frustration.
C. resistance.
D. projection.
C. resistance.
Claude has been seeing a therapist in an attempt to finally stop smoking. The therapist has described a number of specific techniques that they might try to eliminate Claude’s behavior of smoking. In this case, his therapist’s approach to treatment would MOST likely be classified as
A. biomedical therapy.
B. homeopathic therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. insight therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
Earl is an extremely aggressive child who often hits other children when he can’t get his own way. Earl is now seeing a behavioral therapist who has discussed appropriate ways of interacting with peers and has shown Earl several videotapes of children resolving conflicts in nonaggressive ways. Earl has also engaged in “role play,” during which the therapist has provided corrective feedback and positive reinforcement. In this case, the therapist is using ___________ to develop Earl’s ability to interract with his peers.
A. rational-emotive therapy
B. systematic desensitization
C. aversion therapy
D. social skills training
D. social skills training
The different approaches to psychotherapy
A. are all equally appropriate for all kinds of psychological problems.
B. have developed due to tension between competing theories.
C. overlap so much that there is little basis for differentiating one from another.
D. can be used interchangeably for the majority of psychological disorders.
B. have developed due to tension between competing theories.
What do psychoanalytic and client-centered therapies have in common?
A. They both require an M.D. degree to practice
B. They both prescribe drugs as part of the treatment
C. They both deal with psychotic problems
D. They both stress insight into the self
D. They both stress insight into the self
Drug therapy is classified as ____ therapy; electroconvulsive shock therapy is classified as ____ therapy.
A. an aversion; a biomedical
B. a behavior; an insight
C. a biomedical; a biomedical
D. a biomedical; a behavior
C. a biomedical; a biomedical
Dr. Dieringer is a behavior therapist. Her major concern in treating an abnormal behavior would be to discover
A. the ways in which the behavior keeps the client from becoming self-actualized.
B. the childhood unconscious conflict that led to the behavior.
C. the inappropriate thought patterns that underlie the behavior.
D. how situational factors are evoking the troublesome behavior.
D. how situational factors are evoking the troublesome behavior.
Clients receiving ____ are taught to detect and evaluate their negative, self-defeating thoughts and statements.
A. aversion therapy
B. social skills training
C. cognitive therapy
D. psychoanalysis
C. cognitive therapy
Therapies that involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge, and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior, are known as
A. emotive therapy.
B. behavioral therapy.
C. psychopharmacological therapy.
D. insight therapy.
D. insight therapy.
Many specific therapies have turned out to be irrelevant or counterproductive when used with different cultural groups. This finding illustrates that
A. our experience of the world is highly subjective.
B. psychology is theoretically diverse.
C. psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.
D. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
D. our behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage.
The idea that interactions designed to help a client develop self-knowledge and thus progress to healthy changes in personality and behavior is the basis for
A. emotive therapy.
B. psychopharmacological therapy.
C. insight therapy.
D. behavioral therapy.
C. insight therapy.
Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy grew from the
A. humanistic tradition.
B. cognitive tradition.
C. psychoanalytic tradition.
D. behaviorist tradition.
A. humanistic tradition.
Of the following, which is NOT a closely related pair of terms?
A. Biomedical therapy and aversion therapy
B. Behavior therapy and systematic desensitization
C. Psychoanalysis and free association
D. Client-centered therapy and clarification
A. Biomedical therapy and aversion therapy
Juan has an intense fear of snakes. His therapist treats the phobia by having Juan approach a small snake from a distance and wait each time he becomes anxious. As the anxiety subsides, Juan takes a step closer. Juan’s therapist is using
A. empathic behaviorism.
B. exposure therapy.
C. latent analysis.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. exposure therapy.
Nelson, a schizophrenic patient, has just begun taking antipsychotic medication. He took his first dose about 12 hours ago, but so far his family sees no change in his condition. What advice should they be given?
A. If he doesn’t show improvement in another 12 hours, a different kind of medication should be tried
B. He may have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenic
C. Early changes due to antipsychotic medication are usually not apparent to nonprofessionals, who are unfamiliar with the signs of improvement
D. Patients usually don’t begin responding to antipsychotic drugs for at least a few days
D. Patients usually don’t begin responding to antipsychotic drugs for at least a few days
Dr. Benz always tries to be honest with her clients and never becomes defensive, even if the clients ridicule her feedback or her methods of therapy. According to Carl Rogers, Dr. Benz is displaying the quality of
A. empathy in dealing with her clients.
B. validity in dealing with her clients.
C. genuineness in dealing with her clients.
D. unconditional positive regard in dealing with her clients.
C. genuineness in dealing with her clients.
According to Rogers, personal distress occurs when
A. a person is lacking in self-control.
B. a person engages in negative thinking.
C. there is incongruence between a person’s self-concept and reality.
D. unconscious conflicts threaten to rise to the surface of conscious awareness.
C. there is incongruence between a person’s self-concept and reality.
The basic learning principle used in Wolpe’s systematic desensitization is
A. negative reinforcement.
B. operant conditioning.
C. counterconditioning.
D. positive reinforcement.
C. counterconditioning.
Which of the following statements is FALSE? ____ are more likely than ____ to receive psychotherapy.
A. Divorced and separated people; married people
B. People with medical insurance; people without medical insurance
C. Women; men
D. People with less education; people with more education
A. Divorced and separated people; married people
Joseph Wolpe launched behavior therapy in 1958 with his description of
A. the token economy.
B. aversion therapy.
C. social skills training.
D. systematic desensitization.
D. systematic desensitization.
Different approaches to psychotherapy are designed to accomplish different outcomes. Which of the following correctly lists three types of therapy that are designed to change the thinking, change the physiological functioning, and change the knowledge of unconscious conflicts of a client, respectively?
A. Cognitive therapy, drug therapy, psychoanalysis
B. Client-centered therapy, aversion therapy, psychoanalysis
C. Group therapy, drug therapy, social skills training
D. Cognitive therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, client-centered therapy
A. Cognitive therapy, drug therapy, psychoanalysis
An important goal of client-centered therapy is to
A. modify clients’ maladaptive behavior patterns.
B. change the ways clients think.
C. help clients achieve a greater understanding of how long-repressed childhood conflicts can affect their adult behavior.
D. help clients realize they don’t have to worry constantly about approval from others.
D. help clients realize they don’t have to worry constantly about approval from others.
Compared to traditional antipsychotic drugs, the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs
A. seem to produce fewer unpleasant side effects.
B. seem to produce more severe side effects, but they work much more quickly.
C. can be used to treat depression and anxiety, in addition to schizophrenia.
D. are more effective in treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
A. seem to produce fewer unpleasant side effects.
Freud’s approach for the treatment of psychological disorders is
A. unconscious therapy.
B. psychoanalysis.
C. client-centered therapy.
D. psychotherapy.
B. psychoanalysis.
In the Featured Study, which investigated the impact of combining insight therapy and medication, the researchers found that the relapse rate for participants who received the combination of interpersonal therapy and medication was
A. higher than that for either medication alone or interpersonal therapy alone.
B. higher than that for medication alone but lower than that interpersonal therapy alone.
C. lower than that for medication alone but higher than that for interpersonal therapy alone.
D. lower than that for either medication alone or interpersonal therapy alone.
D. lower than that for either medication alone or interpersonal therapy alone.
Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that panic disorders respond BEST to
A. behavior therapy or medication.
B. cognitive therapy.
C. group therapy.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. cognitive therapy.
Which of the following disorders would be LEAST likely to be treated by psychiatrists?
A. Marital problems
B. Mood disorder
C. Anxiety disorder
D. Schizophrenia
A. Marital problems
Contemporary psychodynamic approaches to therapy tend to do all of the following EXCEPT
A. focus on the therapeutic relationship.
B. address early childhood experiences.
C. identify recurring life patterns.
D. neglect emotional experience.
D. neglect emotional experience.
The goal of cognitive therapy is to
A. use verbal interactions to expand the client’s self-knowledge .
B. use observational learning to overcome maladaptive behavior .
C. use positive reinforcement to change maladaptive behaviors.
D. change the clients negative thought and maladaptive beliefs.
D. change the clients negative thought and maladaptive beliefs.
Today, psychoanalysis is MOST likely to be practiced by
A. social workers.
B. counseling psychologists.
C. clinical psychologists.
D. psychiatrists.
D. psychiatrists.
Researchers can try to control for regression toward the mean and placebo effects through the use of
A. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.
B. longitudinal testing, random assignment, and naturalistic observation.
C. cross-sectional studies, statistical adjustment, and case study research.
D. double-blind testing, correlational research, and random sampling.
A. control groups, random assignment, and statistical adjustment.
Most experts believe that for certain types of psychological problems, some treatment approaches are more effective than others. Martin Seligman asserts that obsessive-compulsive disorder responds BEST to
A. cognitive therapy.
B. behavior therapy or medication.
C. group therapy.
D. systematic desensitization.
B. behavior therapy or medication.
Which of the following psychologists is MOST likely to deal with the most severe mental health problems?
A. Research psychologist
B. Clinical psychologist
C. School psychologist
D. Counseling psychologist
B. Clinical psychologist
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
A. allows scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in specific areas of the brain.
B. passes a low electric current through the forehead using a small paddle.
C. involves surgically implanting an electrode in the brain.
D. uses electric shock to relieve severe depression.
A. allows scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in specific areas of the brain.
John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy, believing that if he can learn to calm himself down when he finds himself in anxiety-producing situations (like taking a psychology exam), he will be better able to cope. Based on John’s beliefs, he is MOST likely to seek a therapist who emphasizes the ____ approach.
A. behavior therapy
B. insight therapy
C. emotion therapy
D. biomedical therapy
A. behavior therapy
Behavior therapy requires that
A. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.
B. the client’s concrete complaints be translated into abstract constructs.
C. the client develop insight into his or her irrational thought processes.
D. the client passively accept suggestions for change.
A. the client’s vague complaints be translated into concrete behavioral goals.
When Brett was only six years old, his older sister hid in his closet, then unexpectedly jumped out and scared him when he came into his dark bedroom. As an adult, Brett is still terrified of the dark. Based on principles of classical conditioning, Brett’s current fear of the dark is
A. a result of observational learning.
B. an unconditioned response.
C. a conditioned response.
D. a result of counterconditioning.
C. a conditioned response.
Lange tells his therapist, “My whole world is a mess, and nobody cares for me or is concerned about what happens to me.” Lange’s therapist knows that he has many friends who are concerned about him, but she tells him, “I understand why you might feel that way right now, and it must be difficult for you to deal with your feelings of abandonment.” In this interaction, Lange’s therapist is displaying the quality that Carl Rogers termed
A. unconditional positive regard.
B. genuineness.
C. clarification.
D. empathy.
D. empathy.
Which of the following statements concerning homeless individuals is true?
A. Approximately 2/3 of the homeless have a severe drug or alcohol problem.
B. Approximately 1/2 of the homeless are minorities.
C. Approximately 1/3 of the homeless have a violent criminal past.
D. Approximately 1/3 of the homeless suffer from a severe mental illness.
D. Approximately 1/3 of the homeless suffer from a severe mental illness.
The practice of therapy that involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one is known as
A. a behavioral approach to therapy.
B. a Gestalt approach to therapy.
C. an eclectic approach to therapy.
D. a psychoanalytic approach to therapy.
C. an eclectic approach to therapy.
Dissatisfaction with the system of public mental hospitals led to the
A. development of psychotherapy techniques in the 1900s.
B. “rebirth” of mental institutions in the 1960s.
C. community mental health movement of the 1960s.
D. managed care movement of the 1990s.
C. community mental health movement of the 1960s.
Nancy is very nonassertive and is often “taken advantage of” by others. Nancy decides to seek treatment to learn to be more assertive and asks you for advice. You tell her that the ____ therapy of ____ is appropriate to help with her problem and is likely to result in positive changes in her behavior relatively quickly.
A. behavior; systematic desensitization
B. cognitive; rational-emotive therapy
C. behavior; social skills training
D. insight; psychoanalysis
C. behavior; social skills training
The idea that you can’t be profoundly relaxed and fearful at the same time is basic to
A. psychodynamic activation.
B. behavior modification.
C. successive goal approximations.
D. systematic desensitization.
D. systematic desensitization.
The theoretical difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist is that
A. only the clinical psychologist can prescribe drugs.
B. clinical psychologists are trained to provide behavior therapy; counseling psychologists are trained to provide insight therapy.
C. the clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders; the counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems.
D. the clinical psychologist has a doctorate; the counseling psychologist has a master’s degree.
C. the clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders; the counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems.
Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics that Carl Rogers believes is necessary in client-centered therapy to encourage client growth?
A. Unconditional positive regard
B. Directedness
C. Empathy
D. Genuineness
B. Directedness
In the rich diversity of psychodynamic approaches to therapy available today, recent research reviews suggest that
A. transference still plays a role, but not interpretation.
B. interpretation still plays a role, but not transference.
C. interpretation, resistance, and transference still play key roles.
D. free association no longer plays a role.
C. interpretation, resistance, and transference still play key roles.
Electroconvulsive therapy and drug therapy for psychological disorders are two types of
A. cognitive therapy.
B. emotion therapy.
C. behavior therapy.
D. biomedical therapy.
D. biomedical therapy.
Largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy are referred to as
A. frustration.
B. projection.
C. resistance.
D. transference.
C. resistance.
A psychotherapist who participates in complex verbal interactions with clients in order to enhance clients’ understanding of themselves and their problems would be classified as
A. a behavior therapist.
B. a biomedical therapist.
C. an insight therapist.
D. a homeopathic therapist.
C. an insight therapist.
Heather is a smoker who is unable to quit, even though she knows that smoking is ruining her health. Finally, she decides to enter therapy in an attempt to control her desire for cigarettes. In this case, the best behavioral therapy technique to use in helping Heather eliminate her smoking habit would be
A. negative reinforcement.
B. social skills training.
C. systematic desensitization.
D. aversion therapy.
D. aversion therapy.
While Ann is in a hospital she receives poker chips for making her bed, being punctual at meal times, and maintaining her physical appearance. The poker chips could be exchanged for privileges such as television viewing, snacks, and magazines. Ann received:
A. behavior therapy
B. cognitive therapy
C. cognitive-behavior therapy
D. psychoanalysis
E. biomedical therapy
A. behavior therapy
A therapist helps Rebecca overcome her fear of water by getting her to swim in the family’s backyard pool three times a day for two consecutive weeks. Rebecca received:
A. family therapy
B. humanistic therapy
C. behavior therapy
D. cognitive therapy
E. cognitive-behavior therapy
C. behavior therapy
In order to help Janet overcome her nearly irresistible craving for chocolate, a therapist provides her with a supply of chocolate candies that contain solidified droplets of a harmless but very bitter-tasting substance. Janet received:
A. psychoanalysis
B. group therapy
C. behavior therapy
D. humanist therapy
E. cognitive therapy
C. behavior therapy
After George tripped and fell down in front of a large group of people (causing them to laugh), he called himself “stupid.” Later, when Nicole rejected his request for a date, George saw this as evidence that he would never find love or success. The campus psychologist suggested George keep a notebook, detailing similar upsetting situations and including how they made him feel as well as how he could reinterpret them in a more reasonable way. George received:
A. biomedical therapy
B. humanist therapy
C. cognitive therapy
D. behavior therapy
E. psychoanalysis
C. cognitive therapy
When Rubin received a well-deserved job promotion, he told his therapist it was just a lucky break. The therapist responded, “Let’s work together, Rubin, on helping you see that you deserve some credit for your successes.” Rubin received:
A. behavior therapy
B. cognitive therapy
C. psychoanalysis
D. humanist therapy
E. group therapy
D. humanist therapy
Melanie’s therapist suggests that when she feels anxious, Melanie should attribute her arousal to her highly reactive nervous system and then shift her attention to playing a game with her preschool child. Melanie received:
A. behavior therapy
B. cognitive-behavior therapy
C. cognitive therapy
D. family therapy
E. psychoanalysis
B. cognitive-behavior therapy
After Darnel dropped a pass in an important football game, he became depressed and vowed to quit the team because of this athletic incompetence. The campus psychologist challenged his illogical reasoning and pointed out that Darnel’s “incompetence” had earned him an athletic scholarship. Darnel received:
A. group therapy
B. biomedical therapy
C. humanistic therapy
D. behavior therapy
E. cognitive therapy
E. cognitive therapy
When Freda told her therapist that she wanted to get his advice about what she should do about her relationship problems, he replied: “It sounds to me as though your friends do not want to be as close to you as you want to be to them. That must make you feel lonely and confused.” Freda received:
A. biomedical therapy
B. humanistic therapy
C. cognitive-behavior therapy
D. psychoanalysis
E. group therapy
B. humanistic therapy
Dr. Rassmunsen uses medication and other medical procedures, including electroconvulsive therapy, to treat the symptoms of psychological disorders. Dr. Rassmunsen practices:
A. behavior therapy
B. cognitive-behavior therapy
C. biomedical therapy
D. cognitive-behavior
E. humanistic therapy
C. biomedical therapy
Joe’s therapist tells him “just say the first thing that pops into your head.” Joe received:
A. biomedical therapy
B. humanistic therapy
C. cognitive-behavior therapy
D. psychoanalysis
E. group therapy
D. psychoanalysis