Psych Chapter 12

Psychology’s concern with people’s sense of self dates back to
William James
There is evidence that behavior is the result of the interplay between external and internal influences; that behavior is the product of biology, social experience, and unconscious thought processes. This evidence suggest that personality should be studied from a:
biopsychosocial approach
Katrina is a worrier, She worries about her family, her friends, and herself. She is particularly aware of potential hazards in the environment, and she sees the world as a dangerous place. Her personality is shaped by how the interprets and reaches to events . Albert Bandura called this process.
reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive perspective highlights the importance of
reciprocal determinism
Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This BEST illustrates
reciprocal determinism
Some psychologist believe that human _________ is influenced by people’s biology, social experiences, and cognition and personality
behavior
This psychologist proposed the social-cognitive perspective
Albert Bandura
In a psychology class debates on the social-cognitive perspective, the students are asked to take the opposing view and repute its positive aspects
This perspective focuses to much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits
Garrick is a calm, self satisfied man who appears to be secure. Which “Big Five” personality factor would BEST describes his personality
emotional stability
This psychologist objected to the religious doctrine that humanity problems arise from excessive self love or pride
Carl Rogers
Displays of self effacing humility are Most characteristic of those who value
collectivism
defining ones identity in terms of ones extended family or work group is most closely associated with
collectivism
The (MMIP) has been translated into more ___________ languages and groups the questions into ________
100: 10
People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain
the behavior of strangers who have been observed in only one type of situation
Academic Success/personal traister
talents and creativity
spotlight effect
overestimating
Vada is sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate she would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures
extraversion
Frieda is organized, careful, and disciplined. She would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures
ConscientiousnessV
People’s acceptance of stock, positive descriptions of themselves from psychics and from palm readers is known as
the Braum effect
The feel good, do good phenomenon refers to the impact of
happiness on helpfullness
After receiving approval to begin a long-awaited consulting project, Dr. Morris was much more inclined to contribute to the local giving campaign in town. This BEST illustrates:
Feel good, do good phenomenon
After receiving exciting news about his grandson’s healthy birth, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This BEST illustrates:
feel good, do good phenomenon
After receiving exciting news about his grandson’s healthy birth, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This BEST illustrates:
feel good, do good phenomenon
Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study was approved for publication. However, his joyful feelings quickly dissipated when he heard his colleague recently had three different research articles approved for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is BEST explained by the:
relative deprivation principle
Psychologists would MOST likely use biofeedback to help clients reduce:
tension headaches
A teacher prepares a lecture on the benefits of exercise that will NOT highlight which of these?
Exercise provides decreased warmth and body arousal
Julie believes that only she can turn her life around and be responsible for her choices. Julie has a(n):
internal locus of control
Gail believes that she controls her own destiny. She is independent and does well in school. Her health is excellent, and she is able to cope with various stresses. Gail has a(n):
internal locus of control
Which of these does NOT describe people with an internal locus of control versus people with an external locus of control?
believe that their fate is decided by luck
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by:
exhaustion
The correct order of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is:
alarm reaction
resistance
exhaustion
Mick never seems to be satisfied with his achievements. He is not depressed; he does celebrate those achievements, but his achievements become normal after some time, and he moves on to the next big thing. This is BEST explained in terms of the:
adaptation level phenomenon
Roger has a full-time job, a part-time job, and a new consulting company in response to his son’s special needs. He seems to be coping with everything quite well, for the moment anyway. According to Hans Selye, he is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
Phase 2
Resistance
People have a tendency to judge stimuli relative to those previously experienced. For example, if a man’s current income level increases, he feels an initial surge of pleasure. However, as he adapts to that income level, he comes to consider it normal. He then requires something better to feel another surge of happiness. This is known as:
adaptation level phenomenon
___ is the scientific study of optimal human functioning. This field aims to discover and promote the strengths that allow people and communities to thrive.
positive psychology
Derek’s psychologist has asked him to write about a personal trauma he experienced as a child. How might this writing exercise influence his health?
he will have fewer health problems in the coming months
In a senior writing seminar, students were asked to write a brief autobiography. Sixty years later, if a researcher were to analyze these autobiographies, what would be the MOST likely outcome in terms of their longevity? More specifically, which group is likely to live an average of seven years longer?
those who had expressed happiness and love in their autobiographies
Sadie’s father-in-law had a serious heart attack several weeks ago. She is concerned because he lives alone. After his heart attack, which acquisition would increase his odds of survival?
a dog
Ariana believes that yelling at her husband serves to calm her feelings of anger toward him. Her belief is MOST clearly consistent with:
catharsis
Once again, the director of an ancillary department has interfered with Durinda’s project. She has even accused her of illegal activities when she knows that Durinda has committed none. Durinda discusses this situation with her boss who helps her to reframe the situation and put things into perspective. The mere discussion helps relax Durinda and serves as:
catharsis
The idea that anger is reduced through aggressive action or fantasy is known as:
catharsis
People who are competitive, super-motivated, impatient, and verbally aggressive are likely to be classified as:
Type A
Type A personality is to Type B personality as _____ is to _____.
irritable
calm
Donald takes 15-minute lunch breaks, has his cell phone with him at all times, checks his tablet the moment he wakes up, and puts in 14-hours a day at the office. Donald is a:
Type A personality
People who are easygoing, relaxed, and do not let things get to them are classified as:
Type B
A local religious organization has taken an interest in reaching out to community members with AIDS. They were prompted to do this when they learned that religiously active AIDS patients seem to _____ than do their nonreligious counterparts.
survive longer
People experiencing learned helplessness tend to _____.
have a reduced immune responce
Zach’s wife complains that every time he practices his guitar he loses track of time and of the needs of the family (e.g., crying baby, hungry toddler, dirty dishes). She thinks it is like he is in another world where nothing else matters to him. This focused state of consciousness is called:
learned helplessness
After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her situation. Her reaction BEST illustrates:
learned helplessness
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one’s stress reaction is known as:
emotion focused coping
_____ is to addressing work problems with a colleague as _____ is to talking to one’s hair stylist about all of the problems at work.
problem focused coping; emotion focused coping
T lymphocytes are formed in the:
thymus
_____ is a focused state of consciousness that occurs when someone is completely involved in an activity, with diminished awareness of self and time.
flow
Shane’s doctor suggests that he begin an aerobic exercise program in addition to the psychotherapy for his depression. As a result, Shane will experience all of the following EXCEPT that he will:
becomes more depressed from the stress of the exercise program
Aerobic exercise _____ the body’s production of serotonin and _____ its production of the endorphins.
increase
increase
_____ instruments mirror the results of a person’s own efforts, enabling the person to learn which techniques do (or do not) control a particular physiological response.
Biofeedback
Roger has a full-time job, a part-time job, and a new consulting company in response to his son’s special needs. He seems to be coping with everything quite well, for the moment anyway. According to Hans Selye, he is in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
phase 2 in a state of resistance
Anders has just received devastating news about the copy shop he owns. Things seem very bleak because a nationally-known competitor is moving in on the same block. Anders has many debts to pay off, and his wife is expecting their fourth child. When he hears the bad news, his heart rate zooms and he feels faint, like he is in shock. According to Hans Selye, he is in:
Phase 1 Alarm reaction
he second phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by:
resistance
The third phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by:
exhaustion
The interdisciplinary field of _____ integrates behavioral and medical knowledge, applying this knowledge to health and disease.
behavioral medicine
At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This BEST illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:
cultural norms
When Matt went to Mexico, he brushed up on his knowledge of the culture. He knew that he should shake hands with the men, and kiss the cheek of the women with whom he would be meeting. This BEST illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:
cultural norms
_____ represent(s) the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
culture
This theory proposes that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
scapegoat theory
After the attacks on the United States in September 2001, some Americans began boycotting Arab-American stores and lashing out at any Middle Eastern person they saw. This behavior is BEST explained in terms of:
scapegoat theory
At a meeting in Manny’s office, three of his colleagues agree that the plan is correct as is; Manny feels the pressure to get the plan out today and agree. His behavior illustrates:
informational social influence
In Stanley Milgram’s experiments, the level of obedience was highest when the “teacher” was _____ the experimenter and _____ the “learner.”
Close to; far from
His experiments on obedience at Yale University are some of the most infamous and involved deception.
Stanley Milgram
In a follow-up obedience experiment, Stanley Milgram used 40 new teachers to determine whether participants obeyed because the learners’ protests were not convincing. Once again, the new teachers complied fully, to the last switch, _____ percent of the time.
65
The Stanford Prison experiment consisted of male college students who volunteered to participate in a simulated prison. Half of the students became guards, the other half prisoners. Who is the psychologist who had to call off the study in only six days because of the degrading behaviors displayed by the guards as well as the psychological damage to prisoners?
philip zimbardo
_____ are feelings that are based on beliefs. They predispose people to react in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
attitudes
The _____ indicates that, although people often cannot directly control all of their
feelings, they can influence their feelings by changing their behavior.
attitudes
follow behavior principle
Will has very strong opinions about the tuition increase. However, once he is the student representative for the College Board, he develops a more favorable attitude about the tuition increase. Which theory BEST explains why?
cognitive dissonance theory
People tend to feel discomfort when their thoughts are inconsistent, and so they act to reduce that discomfort. This is known as:
cognitive dissonance theory
Cognitive dissonance theory is MOST helpful in understanding the impact of:
role playing on attitude change
This is the deep affectionate attachment people feel for those with whom their lives are intertwined.
companionate love
John and Julie have been married for 10 years. Their love may be BEST explained as:
companionate love
When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference BEST illustrates the importance of:
mere exposure effect
While visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian is said to have remarked, “What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment!” This reaction is BEST explained in terms of:
just world phenomenon
A person in a group tends to exert MORE effort when he is individually accountable than when he is working with others toward a common goal. This is known as:
social loafing
In a study on social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students pulled hardest when they thought:
no others were pulling with them
In Stanley Milgram’s experiments, the level of obedience was highest when the “teacher” was _____ the experimenter and _____ the “learner.”
close to
far from
People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain
the behavior of strangers who have been observed in only one type of situation
Shortly after learning he did not make it onto his high school football team, Alex vandalized the team’s locker room and broke several of the school’s windows. His behavior is BEST explained in terms of:
frustration aggression principle
Although Natalie receives slightly greater rewards from her marriage than her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This BEST illustrates the significance of:
equity
Alexandra is well liked by her friends. When one watches her, one can see that she mimics her friends’ gestures and seems to match their moods. Tanya Chartrand would suggest that this automatic mimicry is a component of:
empathy
Persist when faced with a difficult task
self esteem
Big Five Personality Factors
CANOE
Behavior is influenced by
biology
A person’s inner traits (cognitive perspective)
Bandura
Lately, 5-year-old Liam has been acting strangely. He clings to his mother and expresses jealous feelings towards his father, almost as if his father is a rival for his mother’s love. Sigmund Freud would suggest that Liam is experiencing:
Oedipus Complex
A principal is looking for advice on how to improve his relationships with the teachers in his school. Carl Rogers might suggest which of these?
be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard
Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This BEST illustrates:
reciprocal determinism
Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant’s phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. However, in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:
reciprocal determinism
Sigmund Freud suggested that three interacting systems can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:
The Id, the ego, and the superego
emotional stability
calm, self-satisfied, secure
Carl Rogers
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
Heritability of demensions
50%
The spotlight effect
overestimations