PSYCH Chapter 10

Some research suggests that ______ is one of the main factors that influence people’s choices for selecting people they want to know better.
physical attractiveness
In Sternberg’s model, intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present in
consummate love.
Studies have shown more conformity
in collectivist cultures.
When a person changes his or her own behavior to more closely match the actions of others, this is
compliance.
Nick wanted his friend Jason to go skiing with him for the day. Jason didn’t want to go because he said it would cost too much money. Nick said it would just cost $20. When they got there, lift tickets cost $20 as Nick said, but Jason also had to pay for ski rentals and rental insurance. Nick used the
lowball technique.
To minimize the possibility of groupthink,
leaders should remain impartial.
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Julie is a psychologist involved in figuring out how to get people to purchase a certain brand of computer. Julie is involved in
consumer psychology
People are less likely to be susceptible to the foot-in-the-door technique
in collectivist cultures.
Most people associate the term cult with
a fringe group.
The fundamental attribution error is less likely
in collectivist cultures
When parents tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, and the children develop negative attitudes toward smoking, it is an example of
direct instruction.
Social categorization is
a natural process.
A police officer comes to Jane’s office to discuss personal safety with the employees there. Despite the seriousness of his message, the police officer jokes and laughs with the employees. Jane nonetheless takes what she learned seriously and begins to pay more attention to her safety. Jane used ______ when receiving the officer’s message.
central-route processing
Lia becomes afraid of dogs after she sees her mother jump away from dogs every time they pass her on the sidewalk. Lia formed her attitude about dogs by
observational learning
Karen is late for work, and her co-worker, Jeff, assumes it is because she is careless and lazy. Jeff is assuming a
dispositional cause.
In explaining our own behavior, we tend to use situational attributions rather than personal, which is
the actor-observer bias.
Harry’s friend Logan studies a lot, so Harry assumes that Logan is smart. Harry’s belief is based on
implicit personality theory.
Jackson has decided that the best way to help his friend who just lost his job is to loan him some money. What stage of the helping decision process has Jackson just completed?
planning a course of action
In the Latane and Darley smoke-filled room study, participants were most likely to report the smoke when
they were the only ones in the room.
Ryan sees a woman collapse in the mall. He doesn’t run over to help her because he assumes there is probably someone else in the crowd who is a doctor or nurse and who can provide better assistance. This is an example of
diffusion of responsibility.
Alcohol has an impact on aggressive behavior by
releasing inhibitions.
Zimbardo’s prison guard experiment supports the idea that
taking on particular social roles can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior
The “us” versus “them” mentality and the competition between these groups over common resources is part of the
realistic conflict theory.
One way to reduce prejudice is to promote personal involvement with people from other groups that is cooperative and occurs when all groups are equal in terms of power or status. This is known as
equal status contact.
The “jigsaw classroom”
works at the college level and in the lower school grades
In Solomon Asch’s study, confederates were instructed to
give the incorrect answer to the line-matching task.
A person demanding _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change.
obedience
In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
61 and 66
A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
persuasion.
_____ is the attitude about members of a particular social group and _____ is the behavior that can result from that attitude.
Prejudice; discrimination
The formation of in-groups and out-groups
begins in childhood.
The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
stereotype vulnerability
According to Sternberg, love consists of intimacy, passion, and
commitment.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
intimacy and commitment
_______ occurs when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.
Diffusion of responsibility
The “learner” in Milgram’s study
was an actor following a carefully arranged script.
If your roommate asks you for a ride to campus and you agree, and then the next day asks if he can borrow your car, it is an example of the
foot-in-the-door technique.
Cindy tastes peas for the first time and realizes she does not like them. Cindy formed her attitude about peas through the process of
direct contact.
Justin walks into the morning meeting 15 minutes late. His boss, Marco, assumes that traffic was bad this morning. Marco is using an example of
situational cause.
Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
proximity
Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
aggression.
Jim jumped into the ocean to save a drowning man, risking his own life in the process. This is an example of
altruism.
The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to _____.
the presence of multiple witnesses
Research on conformity suggests that if a _____ response is required, ______ show more conformity than ______.
public; women; men
The war in Iraq, the design of the ship Titanic, and the Challenger disaster are all given in the textbook as examples of
groupthink.
Attitudes
are learned through experiences and contact with others
People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
forming new cognitions to justify their behavior.
Scapegoats are
typically members of the out-group.
Strategies for overcoming prejudice include
education and equal status contact.
The sadistic behavior of the “guards” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people
Carol is told by a police officer to move her car, and she does so. Carol is showing
obedience.
Nicole thinks of herself as an honest, trustworthy person. However, when she doesn’t get time to study, she cheats on her history test. Nicole will probably experience
cognitive dissonance.
Shawn and Tanya start talking after they’ve ridden on the dorm elevator several times together. This is an example of which rule of attraction?
proximity
Karen intentionally tries to hurt Lisa by spreading rumors about her. Karen is engaging in
aggression.
Julie is a psychologist involved in figuring out how to get people to purchase a certain brand of computer. Julie is involved in
consumer psychology
Groupthink can be minimized by
voting by secret ballot
The Challenger disaster is a classic example of groupthink because
some people knew the shuttle was not OK to launch but did not speak up and therefore disrupt group cohesion.
The sadistic behavior of the “guards” in Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study
highlighted the influence that a social role can have on ordinary people
Studies have shown that when a person is happy in a marriage, they attribute ________ to dispositional cause.
their spouse’s positive actions
People can reduce cognitive dissonance by
forming new cognitions to justify their behavior.
The presence of others is especially important in influencing helping behavior when a situation is
ambiguous
As we interact with others on a daily basis, our behavior, feelings, and thoughts are often guided by
social influence.
A person tries to change the belief, opinion, or course of action of another person through
persuasion.
Sigmund Freud believed that aggression is
a basic human instinct.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love says that companionate love consists of
intimacy and commitment.
Sherif’s 1936 study of conformity involved
asking participants to report the movement of a single point of light in a darkened room.
In the Milgram study and several similar studies, between _____ percent of the participants went all the way up to the 450-volt shock level.
61 and 66
A person demanding _______ has power or authority to command a behavioral change, rather than just ask for a change.
obedience
According to your textbook, the _____ theory explains prejudice and discrimination between the Nazi soldiers and Jewish people during WWII.
realistic conflict
When one person meets another person for the first time, ________ occurs.
impression formation
In Sternberg’s theory, _______ encompasses the physical aspects of love.
passion
The effect that people’s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior is
stereotype vulnerability
In his experiment on conformity, Asch found that
conformity increased with each new confederate, up to four.
The formation of in-groups and out-groups
begins in childhood.
The fact that Kitty Genovese did not receive help was most likely due to _____
the presence of multiple witnesses