Personological and life story perspectives
Theoretical views stressing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story.
Social cognitive perspective
Theoretical views emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, and expectations, and goals.
The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive change.
Cognitive affective processing systems
Mischel’s theoretical model for describing that our thoughts and emotions about ourselvs and the world affect our behavior and become linked in ways that matter to behavior.
The study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics.
Also called an objective test or an inventory, a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits.
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Empirically keyed test
A type of self-report test that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some central way.
Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory
The most widely used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test.
The quality of seeming, on the surface, to fit a particular trait in question.
A personality assessment test that presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or tell a story about it, to project their own meaning onto the stimulus.
Rorschach inkblot test
A famous projective test that uses an individual’s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality.
Thematic Apperception Test
A projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personality.