Psych Ch.1

Psychology
an empirical science with a broad scope due to its various roots in Medicine, Philosophy, and the biological and physical sciences
perspective
Different ways of viewing people
How psychology influences science
1) advances occur since our existing beliefs are challenged
2) Debate as debates ensue, scientists try to seek new evidence to resolve the debate.
3) supporting elements of contrasting perspectives are merged into new framework, which is also challenged by newer viewpoints.
mind body problem
is the mind an inner agent of consciousness and thoughts separate from the body, or is it part of bodies activities?
mind body dualism
-mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body
-research on physical body cannot unravel mysteries of the non-physical mind
Rene Descartes
proposed that mind and body interact through pineal gland in the brain: the mind can become aware of the body and sensations and take control of physical functions. also a supporter of dualism, although considered mind as brain
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monism
-mind and body are one, not a separate spiritual entity.
-mental events correspond to physical events in the brain.
-research on physical brain processes could be used to study the mind
Hobbes, John Locke and others
from school of british empiricism:
all ideas and knowledge are gained through experience/senses
modern science
observation is more valid than reason, since reason can be faulty
brain stimulation expmnt. 1870
-electrically stimulate areas of the brain to map areas that control body movements.
-can also link brain damage in certain areas to behavioural and mental issues
-shows empirical natsci methods can be used to study mental processes
psychophysics (mid1800’s German)
physiological sensations depend on physical stimuli
Charles Darwin
-Theory of evolution (against religion and philosophy) supports monism: brain is not spiritual but rather a continuation of other species * we can study other species to help.
Early Schools: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
First psychology lab by WUNDT at uni of leipzig Germany
Wundt
taught students KIRSCHMANN and BALVIN who were founders of psych dept and Humphrey, who began the tradition of psych research at all cdn uni’s
TITCHENER and WUNDT exp
analyzed mind in terms of basic components-structualism died out decades before but left its mark.
Structuralists
used introspection (looking within) to study sensations and basic elements of consciousness and structure.
Functionalism
-study the functions of consciousness rather than structure.
-influences by darwin and his theory.
-Why do we have hands? as opposed to lets study movement using tendons muscles etc.
William JAMES
-widened scope of psych by including study of bio and mental processes + overt behaviour
-taught Mary CALKINZ (female prez of APA)
Functionalism no more
died out but still endures in cognitive psychology (mental processes) and evolutionary psychology (adaptiveness of behaviour)
Psychodynamic perspective
-searches causes for behaviours within inner workings of personality.
-emphasizes role of sub-conscious processes.
Sigmund Frued 1st and most important P.D. theory
-traumatic childhood memories (usually sexual) can cause symptoms such as blindness, pain paralysis and phobias.
Freud+phobia
he believed sub-conscious part of the mind influenced behaviour.
Free association-Freud
patient talks about whatever they want which helps improve symptoms
psychoanalysis
-analysis of internal and mostly unconscious psychology forces.
-humans are born with sexual and aggressive drives, and if they are punished in childhood, we learn to fear them and become anxious around them. defend with repression.
defence mechanism
psychological technique which helps us cope with pain or anxiety of painful situations. ex. repression
-ALL BEHAVIOUR, NORMAL OR ABNORMAL, REFLECTS AN UNCONSCIOUS CONFLICT BETWEEN DEFENCES AND INTERNAL IMPULSES.
Modern psychodynamic theory
focus more on early relationships with family members and other people shape the views of someone rather than sexual and aggressive motives.
still focuses on how conscious and unconscious affects behaviour.
ex. shy teen caused by fear of parental rejection as a child.
modern psychodynamic theory+freud
largely unaccepted theory now, however modern research proves that brain mechanisms and processing happens outside awareness.
behavioural perspective
-agrees with empirical theory “blank slate”
-PAVLOV expmnt proved learning occurs when events are associated with each other. Ex. dogs salivating (also in the office) when they hear a specific tone.
Law of effect-Thorndike
organisms learn through consequence of their actions positive + negative reinforcement.
Behaviourism
-laws of learning applies to all organisms
Watson
argued proper subject matter of psych was observable behaviour, not un observable inner consciousness. humans are products of their experiences.
-this opposed mentalists like functionalists structuralists and psychoanalysts.
-said he could raise a child to be anything
Skinner
behaviour influenced by outside world only:
ex ray gets turned down * doesnt ask people out. until a girl asks him out which reinforces his behaviour, increasing odds ray will date again.
Social engineering
AKA radical behaviourism, was considered extreme but skinner persisted and was esteemed for contributions on how env. forces affect human welfare.
known as behaviour modification. still used today
Cognitive behaviourism+Bandura
env. affects behaviour by affecting thoughts.
learning exp tells us how to act by telling us how to behave effectively.
Humanistic perspective
emphasized free will, personal growth and attempt to find one’s meaning in existence.
-rejects psychodynamic concept of humans being controlled by unconscious forces and rejects behaviourism’s view of reactors to the env.
Abaraham MASLOW
-proposed we search for self actualization: reaching our potential
Belongingness
basic human need for social acceptance and companionship.
Carl ROGERS
identified key aspects of psychotherapy that led to good changes in clients.
positive psychology movement
humanisms focus on self actualization, emphasizes the study of strengths, fulfilment’s and optimal living vs. whats wrong with the world
The cognitive perspective
examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour. (structuralism and functionalism reflected this *remember F’s explored purpose of consciousness, S’s studied basic elements of consciousness)
Gestalt psychology
examines how the mind organizes elements of experience into unified or whole perception. “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. idea built into our nervous system (Kohler)
cognitive psychologists
study process by which people reason, decide, solve problems, understand language+nature of consciousness and unconsciousness on behaviour
cognitive neurosceince
technology and brain imaging to look at brain activity during cognitive tasks.
cognitive revolution 1960’s and 70’s
includes Jean Piaget’s theory that thinking becomes more sophisticated with age. helped develop artificial intelligence
Sociocultural perspective
social env. and cultural learning influence behaviour thoughts and feelings.
social psychologists
study how influence of other people affect behaviour.
culture
enduring values, norms beliefs, behaviours, shared traditions by a large group passed down generations.
socialization
culture passed to new members and internalized by them
cultural psychology
aka cross cultural psychology. How culture is transmitted to members, also and psychological sim and differences between cultures.
Individualism
an emphasis on personal goals and self identity based on ones achievements.
collectivism
individual goals and identity overpowered by group.
biological perspective
how brain processes and other body functions regulate behaviour. influence life experiences and vice versa
behavioural neuroscience
AKA-physiological psychology
examines brain processes and other physical responses that underlie our behaviour, sensory experiences emotions and thoughts.
Karl Lashley
he trained rats to run mazes then measured how brain damage affected rats learning and memory. Inspired brain mapping to specific functions
olds and milner
areas of brain provide animals with pleasure
Donald Hebb
changes in connections between nerve cells are the biological basis for learning memory and perception.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals released by nerve cells allowing them to communicate.
behaviour genetics
influence of genetics on behaviour
natural selection
inherited trait will be more likely to survive if its in response to environment. Will be passed to offspring.
evolutionary psychology
explains how evolution shaped modern behaviour, mental abilities and behaviour evolved as body did.
ancestors with mentally more adaptive brain characteristics passed on (natural selection).
sociobiology (controversial)
social behaviours built into humans through evolution. says that evolution favours ability in humans to pass on one’s genes. ex aggression in males and nurture in females.
behavioural analysis (biological)
in terms of brain function, genetics, evolution and hormones.
behavioural analysis (psychological)
cognitive perspective, thought, memory, planning influence behaviour.
behavioural analysis (env)
how stimuli in surroundings influence our thoughts, behaviours and feelings.
Interaction
how one factor influences behaviour can depend on presence of other factors. (ex genetic predisposition for depression makes them more vulnerable)