PSYCH 460-Exam 2

Indicate any principle here that is NOT derived from the psychological studies on competition and cooperation.
People are born either competitive or cooperative
Coakley defines cooperation as…
social process through which performance is rewarded in terms of the collective achievements of the group.
Cooperative reward structures are more effective in which of the following situations?
During work on tasks that are complex and involve problem solving.
Deutsch’s study on competition and cooperation found that.
(a.) Communication patterns differed significantly based on wether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions (c.) Students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information.
The first experiment investigating the effects of competition on performance was conducted in 1898 by..
Triplett
In the field experiments conducted by Sherif and Sherif, the experimenters first…
created strong group identity
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In the field experiments conducted by Sherif and Sherif, the only thing that worked to bring the campers back together was..
Superordinate Goals
Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than competition.
b. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than individualistic behavior.
c. There is no difference in achievement produced by competition and cooperation.
d. a and b

D.
a. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than competition.
b. Cooperation produces a higher level of achievement than individualistic behavior.
In Kelley and Stahelski’s study using the prisoner’s dilemma game, they found that

a. competitors drew cooperators into competition
b. cooperators drew competitors into cooperation
c. cooperators cooperated and competitors competed
d. a and c
e. b and c

a. competitors drew cooperators into competition
Of all the experimental games used by psychologists to study the effects of competition and cooperation, the most often-used game is

a. zero-sum
b. prisoner’s dilemma
c. cooperative means
d. cooperative means, competitive ends
e. competitive means

*b. prisoner’s dilemma
Coakley defines competition as

a. a situation in which rewards are distributed equally among the participants
b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance
c. a situation in which the goals of the participant are mutually interdependent
d. b and c

*b. a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance
Which of the following behaviors would not support a cooperative learning environment?

a. effort valued
b. success defined in terms of individual progress
c. extrinsic rewards emphasized
d. mistakes viewed as part of learning
e. activity engaged in for challenge

*c. extrinsic rewards emphasized
According to Coakley, which of the following is (are) characteristic of unstructured youth sport?

a. Personal involvement in the action is maximized.
b. It provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships.
c. Teams are relatively uneven.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
Which of the following is NOT a stage in Martens’ model of competition?

a. objective competitive situation
b. subjective competitive situation
c. response
d. social comparison
e. consequences

*d. social comparison
In relation to the subjective competitive situation (stage 2), which of the following is (are) true?

a. Males score lower than females on win orientation.
b. Females score lower than males on goal orientation.
c. Athletes score higher than nonathletes in competitive orientation.
d. b and c
e. a and b

*c. Athletes score higher than nonathletes in competitive orientation.
The key part of Martens’ definition of competition is

a. social comparison
b. observational learning
c. objective outcome
d. positive reinforcement

*a. social comparison
Which of the following is a competitive situation according to Martens’ definition of the objective competitive situation?

a. a runner competing in a 100-yard dash
b. a swimmer working out by himself
c. a swimmer working out with his coach watching him
d. a and c

d. a and c
The team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?

a. competitive means-competitive ends
b. cooperative means-competitive ends
c. individual means-individual ends
d. cooperative means-cooperative ends
e. cooperative means-individual ends

*b. cooperative means-competitive ends
Which of the following is (are) characteristic of cooperative games?

a. They require little equipment or money.
b. They emphasize increased participation by the best players.
c. Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c
In his study of the effects of a 14-week program of cooperative games, Orlick found that

a. kids exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did kids in the control group
b. games played by the control group tended to emphasize individualistic concerns
c. kids exposed to cooperative games had higher self-esteem at the end of the program than kids in the control group
d. a and b

*d. a and b
One athlete looks forward to competition while another dreads the upcoming event. This is an example of

a. the objective competitive situation
b. the subjective competitive situation
c. response
d. consequences

*b. the subjective competitive situation
Which of the following is NOT a type of competitive orientation measured by the Sport Orientation Questionnaire?

a. competitive orientation
b. goal orientation
c. fear-of-failure orientation
d. win orientation

*c. fear-of-failure orientation
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Varsity athletes have lower GPAs than nonathletes.
b. Varsity athletes have higher rates of deviant behavior than nonathletes.
c. Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.
d. b and c

*c. Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.
Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?

a. Boys play competitive games more frequently than girls.
b. Boys’ games are less aggressive and involve less risk taking than girls’ games.
c. Girls play games in predominantly male groups more often than boys play games in predominantly female groups.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c
Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Competitors cause cooperators to compete.
b. Cooperators cause competitors to cooperate, regardless of whom they are competing against.
c. Competitors see the world as 50% competitors and 50% cooperators.
d. a and b

*a. Competitors cause cooperators to compete.
Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Elite athletes are high on both win and goal orientations.
b. Research by Weinberg and colleagues has indicated that the most important goal for athletes is to improve performance.
c. Elite athletes are high on win orientation and low on goal orientation.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c
Competition and cooperation require similar attributes as noted by Charles Garfield. These include

a. a strong preparation ethic
b. a love of challenge and change
c. a clear winner and loser
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
What happened to the two U.S. sailing teams that competed and cooperated with each other while training for the Olympics?

a. Only one team went to the Olympics and earned a medal there.
b. Both teams went to the Olympics but neither won a medal.
c. They finished in first and fourth place at the Olympic Trials.
d. The second-place team members were disappointed but had gained new confidence in their ability to compete at a world-class level.
e. a and d

*e. a and d
Competitiveness of athletes appears to be enhanced when

a. watched by coaches
b. social comparison is high
c. performing fine-motor tasks
d. performing strength tasks
e. performing endurance tasks

*b. social comparison is high
According to Johnson and Johnson, appropriate competition has the following characteristics

a. it is involuntary
b. everyone must have a reasonable chance to win
c. the rules must be clear and fair
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c
According to Mariah Burton Nelson, an opponent should be viewed

a. as someone to beat
b. as someone to help us perform better
c. as someone to learn from
d. a and c
e. b and c

*e. b and c
In a review of studies investigating the effects of performance feedback, it was found that performance increased approximately

a. 10%
b. 80%
c. 50%
d. 25%
e. 100%

*c. 50%
Which of the following is not one of the psychological needs included in self-determination theory?

a. relatedness
b. autonomy
c. confidence
d. effectance

*c. confidence
The principles of reinforcement are complex because

a. different people react differently to the same reinforcement
b. people are unable to repeat the desired behavior
c. they apply to males but not females
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
Results of a behavioral program involving junior high school basketball players indicated that

a. free-throw shooting in practice increased significantly
b. criticism among players decreased dramatically
c. there was no difference in field-goal percentage during practice
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
In the study of a team of swimmers by McKenzie and Rushall,

a. an attendance board was used to track attendance at swim practice
b. the swimmers showed a significant increase in attendance after the intervention
c. the swimmers won more races after the intervention
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
Backward chaining (as used by O’Brien & Simek in their golf study) refers to

a. pairing the last step in a series of movements with the next-to-last step all the way through the movement until the second step is paired with the first step
b. reversing the order in which positive feedback is provided
c. reversing the order in which negative feedback is provided
d. a and c

*a. pairing the last step in a series of movements with the next-to-last step all the way through the movement until the second step is paired with the first step
According to the results of Komaki and Barnett’s study of a Pop Warner football team,

a. the team won more games after the intervention period
b. the team performed three plays more effectively after the intervention
c. there was no significant difference in performance after the intervention
d. the team exhibited higher levels of enjoyment after the intervention

*b. the team performed three plays more effectively after the intervention
Behavioral coaching, behavior modification, and contingency management have in common the goal of

a. structuring practices through the systematic use of reinforcement
b. changing practices monthly to increase learning
c. changing practices daily to increase performance
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. structuring practices through the systematic use of reinforcement
In a recent study on the relationship between holding scholarships and levels of intrinsic motivation in collegiate athletes, Amorose, Horn, and Miller found that

a. males in team sports exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation in general than females in team sports
b. athletes on scholarship had lower levels of intrinsic motivation in general than athletes not on scholarship
c. male athletes exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than female athletes
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. athletes on scholarship had lower levels of intrinsic motivation in general than athletes not on scholarship
Which of the following is (are) NOT among the principles of punishment?

a. Punish the behavior, not the person.
b. Do not use physical activity as a punishment.
c. Impose punishment in a personal way.
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. Impose punishment in a personal way.
The additive approach to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that

a. internal and external motivation are unrelated
b. intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equal more motivation
c. extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
d. a and b
e. a and c

*b. intrinsic plus extrinsic motivation equal more motivation
Feedback can provide instructional information about

a. the players’ important psychological traits and states
b. the levels of proficiency to be achieved
c. the performers’ current level of proficiency in the desired skills
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
In a recent study, which type of feedback (especially after failure) produced more task persistence, more enjoyment, and better performance?

a. praise for high ability
b. praise for high effort
c. criticism of any type of performance
d. a and c
e. b and c

*b. praise for high effort
Besides rewarding the outcome of a person’s performance (success), other areas that should be rewarded include

a. effort
b. emotional and social skills
c. correct performance of the skill itself
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above
Shaping occurs when

a. rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response
b. rewards are given only after success
c. rewards are given intermittently
d. rewards are withdrawn after failure

*a. rewards are given to behaviors that approximate the correct response
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. A continuous reinforcement is best in the early stages of learning.
b. An intermittent schedule of reinforcement is best once the skill is well learned.
c. Behaviors reinforced on a continuous schedule persist longer than those reinforced on an intermittent schedule.
d. a and b

*d. a and b
A smile or pat on the back is known as what type of reinforcer?

a. material
b. social
c. activity
d. tangible
e. esoteric

*b. social
Potential negative side effects of punishment include its

a. arousing a fear of success
b. acting as a reinforcer
c. hindering the learning of skills
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Most coaches approach reinforcement by

a. a combination of positive reinforcement and punishment
b. relying mostly on punishment
c. relying mostly on positive reinforcement
d. relying on cognitive-behavioral techniques

*a. a combination of positive reinforcement and punishment
Which of the following is (are) NOT true of reinforcement?

a. If a consequence of doing something is positive, we try to repeat this behavior in the future.
b. If a consequence of doing something is negative, we tend not to try to repeat this behavior in the future.
c. The consequences of behavior are not as important as one’s personality.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*c. The consequences of behavior are not as important as one’s personality.
A study on reducing inappropriate tennis behaviors using behavior modification techniques revealed that

a. inappropriate behaviors were significantly reduced for all five players
b. three of the five players had a reduction in their inappropriate behaviors
c. two players had increases in inappropriate behaviors
d. there was no effect based on the behavior modification intervention

*a. inappropriate behaviors were significantly reduced for all five players
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. The amount of positive feedback is less important than receiving some type of positive feedback.
b. Getting positive feedback produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than getting no feedback.
c. Athletes receiving more positive feedback have higher levels of intrinsic motivation than athletes receiving less positive feedback.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b
Which of the following statements regarding flow is (are) true?

a. Most athletes think that flow is an uncontrollable state.
b. Athletes can learn to get into a flow state.
c. Flow is related to improvements in psychological states.
d. b and c
e. a and b

*d. b and c
Individuals higher on mindfulness as opposed to those lower on mindfulness score higher on which dimension(s) of flow?

a. skills-challenge balance
b. merging of action and awareness
c. confidence
d. a and b

*d. a and b
Which of the following is (are) a factor(s) deemed important to achieving flow?

a. optimism
b. maintaining appropriate focus
c. optimal environmental conditions
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Flow is maximized when you are competing against an opponent

a. of equal ability
b. of better ability than yours
c. of worse ability than yours
d. of the same gender

*a. of equal ability
Which of the following is NOT a dimension of flow?

a. balance of skill and challenge
b. clear goals
c. merging of action and awareness
d. high levels of arousal
e. loss of self-consciousness

*d. high levels of arousal
Which of the following is seen as the most extrinsically motivated behavior?

a. introjected regulation
b. external regulation
c. identified regulation
d. integrated regulation
e. internal regulation

*b. external regulation
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are now seen as varying along a continuum. Aspects of intrinsic motivation include which of these?

a. compatability
b. accomplishment
c. stimulation
d. b and c
e. a and b

*d. b and c
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for implementing behavior programs?

a. Consequences should be stated clearly.
b. Target behaviors must be defined in observable terms.
c. Behaviors should be recorded.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above
Which of the following is (are) a method(s) for increasing intrinsic motivation?

a. Vary the content and sequence of practice drills.
b. Give rewards that are not contingent on performance.
c. Set easy performance goals.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*a. Vary the content and sequence of practice drills.
The study by Lepper and Greene investigating the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation of children found that

a. the type of reward was important regarding its effects on intrinsic motivation
b. the expected reward condition had the lowest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
c. the expected reward condition had the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (compared to no reward and unexpected rewards)
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
According to McAuley’s and Tammen’s study on intrinsic motivation and subjective versus objective outcomes,

a. winning or losing is the most important determinant of intrinsic motivation
b. subjective perceptions of performance are the most important determinants of intrinsic motivation
c. objective outcome is the best predictor of intrinsic motivation
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. subjective perceptions of performance are the most important determinants of intrinsic motivation
According to Weinberg’s study on intrinsic motivation in a competitive setting,

a. success produces higher levels of intrinsic motivation than does failure
b. males exhibit higher levels of intrinsic motivation after success than after failure
c. females exhibit higher levels of intrinsic motivation after failure than after success
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
A study (Amorose & Horn, 2000) showed that changes in intrinsic motivation occurred primarily because of

a. coaching behaviors
b. scholarships
c. gender
d. athlete’s ability
e. athlete’s experience

*a. coaching behaviors
Ryan’s studies on the relationship between scholarships and intrinsic motivation revealed that

a. football players on scholarship exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than football players not on scholarship
b. wrestlers on scholarship exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than wrestlers not on scholarship
c. female athletes on scholarship exhibited higher levels of intrinsic motivation than female athletes not on scholarship
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c
An individual will have a higher level of intrinsic motivation when

a. the controlling aspect is more salient than the informational aspect
b. the informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect
c. the controlling aspect is more salient than the external aspect
d. a and b

*b. the informational aspect is more salient than the controlling aspect
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Every reward has both controlling and preparation aspects to it.
b. A negative coaching style (mostly critical in nature) can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation.
c. Rewarding for mere participation in a sport will typically undermine the participant’s intrinsic motivation.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c
Receiving a reward that provides feedback concerning an athlete’s sense of competence is an example of

a. the controlling aspect of reward
b. the informational aspect of reward
c. the behavioral aspect of reward
d. the intuitive aspect of reward

*b. the informational aspect of reward
Rewards typically undermine intrinsic motivation when the reward is

a. for mere participation
b. tied to the quality of one’s performance
c. informational in nature
d. a and b
e. a and c

*a. for mere participation
Research by psychologists such as Edward Deci has shown that

a. extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
b. extrinsic rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation
c. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are additive
d. a and c

*a. extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
According to the TARGET acronym, which of the following is not a measure to use to foster a mastery-oriented environment?

a. grouping
b. timing
c. evaluation
d. affiliation

*d. affiliation
The ratio of positive to negative behaviors recommended to coaches by the Positive Coaching Alliance is

a. 3:1
b. 5:1
c. 10:1
d. 2:1
e. 1:1

*b. 5:1
Tkachuk, Leslie-Toogood, and Martin suggested a number of ways to select behaviors to be changed and how to monitor behaviors. These included

a. athlete self-monitoring
b. behavioral checklists
c. videotape of practice and competition
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above
Social factors affecting intrinsic motivations include

a. success and failure
b. focus of competition
c. anxiety level
d. a and b

*d. a and b
The most effective type of feedback for retention of a skill is

a. continuous
b. intermittent
c. positive
d. negative

*b. intermittent
The Method of Amplification Error is based on the assumption that participants can learn to correct their movements through their

a. thoughts
b. physiological feedback
c. mistakes
d. neurological connects
e. a and c

*c. mistakes
Which of the following is (are) NOT a feedback trap?

a. telling performers what not to do
b. undermining automatic processes
c. giving too little feedback
d. giving too much feedback
e. a and d

*c. giving too little feedback
Which of the following are reasons supporting the use of punishment?

a. Individuals experiencing punishment are at negligible risk for emotional problems.
b. Punishment will deter future cheating or other wrongdoing.
c. Punishment lets teammates know that others are being held accountable for their actions.
d. all of the above
e. b and c

*d. all of the above
Which of the following is (are) NOT a finding regarding passion and sport?

a. obsessive passion is related to negative emotions
b. harmonious passion is related to high quality coach-athlete relationships
c. harmonious passion predicts rigid persistence to ill-advised activities (e.g., gambling)
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. harmonious passion predicts rigid persistence to ill-advised activities (e.g., gambling)
Which of the following is (are) a principle(s) for the effective use of external rewards?

a. Rewards should not be contingent on behavior.
b. The best types of external rewards are creative, novel, and simple.
c. External rewards should be used regularly.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*b. The best types of external rewards are creative, novel, and simple.
In Asch’s experiment of line-comparison judgments, approximately _____ of the subjects conformed to the group norm.

a. all
b. none
c. half
d. one quarter
e. one third

*e. one third
Team building is considered part of which stage of team development?

a. forming
b. storming
c. norming
d. performing
e. joining

*a. forming
Which of the following is (are) true?

a. Pendular theories emphasize shifts in interpersonal relationships during the growth of groups.
b. The book A Season on the Brink is an example of a life cycle model.
c. Life cycle models emphasize the birth and death of groups.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c
In the pendulum example of the Indiana basketball team, which of the following is (are) a stage(s) of group development?

a. orientation
b. differentiation and conflict
c. information and knowledge
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
Which of the following is (are) part of the norming stage?

a. role acceptance
b. increase in cooperation and solidarity
c. conflict resolution
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above
Formal roles, in contrast to informal roles, are a set of behaviors that are required or expected of persons in a group and

a. evolve based on interpersonal interactions among group members
b. include such roles as “the enforcer” and “the go-between” for coach-athlete communications
c. are dictated by the nature and structure of an organization
d. include such roles as team captain, coach, and athletic trainer
e. c and d

*e. c and d
Dean Smith, former basketball coach at the University of North Carolina, often played his reserves as a unit early in the game. This is an example of emphasizing

a. role acceptance
b. role reversal
c. group norms
d. group cohesion
e. group solidarity

*a. role acceptance
Role clarity refers to

a. accepting and being willing to carry out your specific role for the team
b. understanding exactly what your role is for the team
c. the formal roles of a team or organization
d. a and c

*b. understanding exactly what your role is for the team
Role acceptance depends on

a. autonomy
b. feedback and role recognition
c. team norms
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
A level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief that is formally or informally established as appropriate by a group is called a

a. norm
b. sanction
c. role
d. team climate
e. standard

*a. norm
According to Christian Buys, there are several negative aspects of group formation. These negative aspects include

a. conformity
b. social loafing
c. deindividuation
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above
If a rookie tried to take charge and exert leadership in critical games despite the fact that there was a veteran leader on the team, this would be considered a violation of

a. group norms
b. group cohesion
c. group solidarity
d. group identity

*a. group norms
One way athletes interpret whether they are being treated fairly is based on

a. the amount of time reserved for social activities and special privileges
b. the coach’s manner in communicating her views to the athletes
c. the degree of compatibility between the coach’s and athlete’s skill assessments of the athlete
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
One effective method for establishing positive group norms is to

a. enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples
b. dictate exactly what norms are expected from each athlete without any exceptions
c. eliminate decision-making opportunities for all team members
d. a and b

*a. enlist the formal and informal leaders of a team to set positive examples
Team climate can be defined as

a. the coach’s portrayal of what is to be expected from each player
b. a representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members
c. a representation of how the team is collectively seen by others, especially in the media
d. a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief that is formally or informally established as appropriate by a group

*b. a representation of how an individual perceives the interrelationships among the team members
Which of the following is NOT a type of social support?

a. emotional-challenge support
b. task-appreciation support
c. reality-confirmation support
d. communication support
e. task-challenge support

*d. communication support
Having athletes eat together or live together is an example of which factor that is important in developing an effective team climate?

a. social support
b. distinctiveness
c. proximity
d. fairness
e. similarity

*c. proximity
Research has indicated that social support can have a positive impact on which of the following?

a. recovery from injury
b. coping with stress
c. team performance
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
Having members of an exercise class all wear special T-shirts with special logos is a way of enhancing group

a. distinctiveness
b. similarity
c. proximity
d. attractiveness

*a. distinctiveness
The key ingredient in Steiner’s model of productivity is

a. the actual amount of productivity a group has
b. the amount of potential productivity a group has, independent of the actual productivity
c. the losses due to faulty group processes and their impact on actual productivity
d. the actual productivity minus the losses due to faulty potential productivity plus the losses due to potential productivity

*c. the losses due to faulty group processes and their impact on actual productivity
A team’s actual performance usually falls short of its potential productivity because of

a. faulty group processes
b. motivation losses and coordination losses
c. coaching style
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
The phenomenon in which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases is known as the

a. Ringelmann effect
b. New York effect
c. Steiner effect
d. weakest link effect

*a. Ringelmann effect
The results of a study by Ingham and colleagues (1974) using rope pulling, in which confederates were thought to be pulling on the rope but in fact were not, indicated that differences between actual and potential performances were due to

a. a decrease in coordination
b. a decrease in motivation
c. a decrease in both coordination and motivation
d. a decrease in neither coordination nor motivation
e. an increase in both coordination and motivation

*b. a decrease in motivation
Which of the following can help reduce the occurrence of social loafing?

a. increasing identifiability
b. breaking down the team into smaller units
c. increasing the arousal level of the athletes
d. a and b

*d. a and b
Social loafing is increased under which of the following conditions?

a. task is perceived high in meaningfulness
b. the individual’s teammates are low in ability
c. a comparison against group standards is not possible
d. a and b
e. a and c

*c. a comparison against group standards is not possible
Which of the following can facilitate team transition when an athlete disengages from a team?

a. clarifying role differentiations
b. increasing an individual’s awareness of disengagement
c. formalizing the group’s goals
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
The idea that a level of performance is established by a group as acceptable has been called a

a. sanction for formal role expectations
b. problem of role definition
c. lack of social support network
d. norm for productivity

*d. norm for productivity
Which of the following is NOT a defining characteristic of sport teams?

a. a collective sense of identity
b. structured modes of communication
c. specific leadership styles
d. norms
e. distinctive roles

*c. specific leadership styles
Role clarity is a multidimensional concept including all of the following except

a. evaluation of performance
b. behavioral responsibilities
c. perceived locus of causality
d. consequences of not fulfilling responsibilities
e. scope of responsibilities

*c. perceived locus of causality
Which of the following is (are) true regarding two-person teams?

a. Athletes felt greater responsibility than larger teams did.
b. Only task cohesion was important to success.
c. Athletes had both team- and individual-oriented attitudes.
d. a and c
e. and b

*d. a and c
Olympic Women’s basketball coach Tara Vanderveer created an expectancy of success by simulating a mock ceremony of the team winning the gold medal at the Georgia Dome. This was an example of creating a strong

a. norm for productivity
b. role acceptance
c. attributional reconceptualization
d. group identity
e. team climate

*a. norm for productivity
Which of the following is (are) a suggestion(s) for enhancing peer relationships in sport?

a. enable athletes to engage in shared decision-making
b. generate competitive goals
c. select peer leaders on other criteria (e.g., leadership skills) than athletic ability
d. a and c

*d. a and c
Which of the following is (are) a principle(s) of applying work team results to sport teams?

a. cross-training
b. communication training
c. team self-correction
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above
A sociogram can measure

a. friendship choices within the group
b. the presence or absence of cliques in groups
c. group integration-task
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
The common thread among the definitions of cohesion is that cohesion is made up of what two basic dimensions?

a. task and social cohesion
b. task and organizational cohesion
c. social and organizational cohesion
d. psychological and organizational cohesion
e. psychological and social cohesion

*a. task and social cohesion
Which of the following is NOT an antecedent to cohesion according to Carron’s model?

a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors

*c. organizational factors
The number of athletes holding scholarships and the eligibility requirements are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?

a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors

*a. environmental factors
Task and affiliation motivation are examples of which antecedent of cohesion?

a. environmental factors
b. team factors
c. organizational factors
d. leadership factors
e. personal factors

*e. personal factors
According to Carron and Dennis, the most important personal factor regarding the development of social and task cohesion is

a. socioeconomic status
b. gender
c. individual satisfaction
d. age
e. race

*c. individual satisfaction
Which of the following statements regarding antecedent factors affecting cohesion is (are) FALSE?

a. Larger groups have higher cohesion than smaller groups.
b. More distinctive groups have higher levels of cohesion.
c. Compatibility between a coach and players is related to cohesion.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*a. Larger groups have higher cohesion than smaller groups.
The questionnaire used most often in the early research on cohesion in sport was called the

a. Group Environment Questionnaire
b. Sport Cohesiveness Questionnaire
c. Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument
d. Unidimensional Sport Cohesion Survey

*b. Sport Cohesiveness Questionnaire
Which of the following is NOT a construct identified in the Group Environment Questionnaire?

a. group integration-task
b. group integration-social
c. group attraction-environmental
d. individual attraction to group-task
e. individual attraction to group-social

*c. group attraction-environmental
Michael Jordan spoke about everyone on the team coming together (cohesion) when they “stepped between the lines.” This belief and confidence in one another is known as

a. collective efficacy
b. group similarity
c. group norm
d. group role
e. collective ability

*a. collective efficacy
Using the Group Environment Questionnaire, research has revealed that group cohesion is related to which of the following?

a. reduced absenteeism
b. increased satisfaction of members
c. attributions for responsibility for performance outcomes
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above
Individuals holding stronger beliefs about the cohesiveness of exercise classes are

a. more likely to attend more classes
b. more likely to drop out
c. more resistant to group disruption
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c
According to the latest definition provided by Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer, cohesion is seen to be

a. unidimensional
b. static
c. instrumental
d. a and c
e. a and b

*c. instrumental
The Group Environment Questionnaire was developed to distinguish between

a. individual and group concerns
b. task and social concerns
c. normative and role relations
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b
Which of the following is NOT one of the principles underlying the team-building model developed by Carron and colleagues?

a. role clarity and acceptance
b. autocratic leadership style
c. distinctiveness and togetherness
d. group goals
e. conformity to group norms

*b. autocratic leadership style
A sociogram is

a. a measure of task cohesion
b. an illustration of affiliation and attraction among team members
c. a sociological measure of antecedent factors affecting groups
d. a social psychological inventory to measure group dynamics

*b. an illustration of affiliation and attraction among team members
Which of the following statements about cohesion is (are) true?

a. Higher normative expectations are associated with higher levels of cohesion.
b. More sacrifices are made by players when cohesion is high.
c. Higher cohesion is related to a more autocratic decision-making style.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. There is a positive relationship between both task and social cohesion and performance.
b. There is a positive relationship between only social cohesion and performance.
c. There is no relationship between task cohesion and performance.
d. There is a negative relationship between task cohesion and performance.
e. a and b

*a. There is a positive relationship between both task and social cohesion and performance.
Which of the following statements is true?

a. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for both interactive and coactive sports.
b. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for only interactive sports.
c. The cohesion-performance relationship is negative for only interactive sports.
d. The demands of the sport do not influence the cohesion-performance relationship.

*a. The cohesion-performance relationship is positive for both interactive and coactive sports.
Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between cohesion and performance?

a. This relationship is circular.
b. Cohesion has a stronger effect on performance than performance has on cohesion.
c. Cohesion has no effect on performance.
d. Cohesion is negatively related to performance.

*a. This relationship is circular.
Which of the following statements is (are) FALSE?

a. There is a negative relationship between cohesion and satisfaction.
b. There is a positive relationship between cohesion and conformity.
c. Higher team cohesion is related to higher resistance to disruption.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. There is a negative relationship between cohesion and satisfaction.
Which of the following tips can build team cohesion?

a. Develop pride within subunits.
b. Avoid excessive turnover.
c. Encourage participation in social cliques.
d. a and b

*d. a and b
Which of the following statements about building cohesion is (are) true?

a. Set goals that are only moderately difficult to accomplish to keep up spirit.
b. Keep meetings to a minimum to avoid complaints.
c. Encourage team identity.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c
From an athlete’s perspective, to help build team cohesion you should

a. give teammates positive reinforcement
b. avoid conflicts to keep issues from escalating
c. be responsible for yourself
d. a and b
e. a and c

*e. a and c
Which of the following sports require the highest level of task cohesion?

a. golf and archery
b. basketball and ice hockey
c. swimming and tennis
d. baseball and wrestling
e. volleyball and bowling

*b. basketball and ice hockey
In a study by Spink and Carron on building cohesiveness in a fitness class, which of the following strategies was (were) employed?

a. distinctiveness
b. group norms
c. individual sacrifices
d. all of the above
e. a and b

*d. all of the above
Which of the following was (were) found to be a barrier(s) to cohesion?

a. members struggling for power
b. little turnover in group membership
c. similar personalities among group members
d. a and b
e. b and c

*a. members struggling for power
In setting up a team goal-setting program, which of the following guidelines should be followed?

a. Involve all team members in establishing goals.
b. Set very difficult goals.
c. Reward progress toward team goals.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c
The dimensions of the Multidimensional Sport Cohesion Instrument include

a. attraction to the group
b. unity of purpose
c. leader behavior
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
Cohesion positively influences adherence in which of the following situations?

a. smaller university classes (smaller leader-participant ratios)
b. larger fitness centers (higher leader-participant ratios)
c. both smaller and larger leader-participant ratios
d. neither smaller or larger leader-participant ratios

*c. both smaller and larger leader-participant ratios
Which of the following is (are) true for the “Walk Kansas” program?

a. The more group goals that were set, the more miles were walked by the group.
b. Participants assessed six months after the program started had significant decreases in moderate to vigorous physical activity.
c. Over a five-year period the number of communities adopting the program increased fivefold.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*a. The more group goals that were set, the more miles were walked by the group.
In the study (Newin, Bloom, & Loughead, 2008) assessing the effectiveness of a team-building program, it was found that coaches

a. felt their own communication skills were enhanced
b. believed that athletes improved on a variety of life skills
c. felt that the athletes bonded during the activity
d. all of the above
e. b and c

*d. all of the above
The Leadership Scale for Sports identifies which coaching behaviors?

a. social support
b. democratic behavior
c. administrative behavior
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
In most organized sport teams, leaders and coaches

a. emerge
b. are appointed
c. are elected by consensus
d. are elected by majority vote

*b. are appointed
“Great leaders are born, not made.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?

a. situational
b. trait
c. behavioral
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral

*b. trait
“Great leaders are made, not born.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?

a. trait
b. behavioral
c. situational
d. situational-behavioral
e. trait-behavioral

*b. behavioral
The two major categories of behavior found with the use of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire are

a. consideration and authoritarianism
b. initiating structure and authoritarianism
c. consideration and initiating structure
d. consideration and relationship

*c. consideration and initiating structure
Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors and Little League coaches found that

a. coaches can change their behaviors to become more positive
b. coaches can’t control their positive behaviors
c. coaches can’t control their negative behaviors
d. coaches have high self-esteem
e. coaches with higher self-confidence exhibit more negative behaviors than those with lower self-confidence

*a. coaches can change their behaviors to become more positive
In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that his most often-used coaching behavior was

a. statements of displeasure
b. praise and encouragement
c. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it
d. combining instruction with punishment
e. modeling the correct behavior

*c. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do it
According to results obtained in studies using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, successful leaders tend to score

a. high on both consideration and initiating structure
b. high on initiating structure and low on consideration
c. high on consideration and low on initiating structure
d. low on both initiating structure and consideration

*a. high on both consideration and initiating structure
Fiedler’s research has identified which two types of leadership styles?

a. relationship-oriented and task-oriented
b. situation-oriented and task-oriented
c. task-oriented and initiating structure-oriented
d. relationship-oriented and situation-oriented

*a. relationship-oriented and task-oriented
The study using interviews of elite gymnastics coaches (Cote, Salmela, & Russell) showed that expert coaches did not exhibit which of the following behaviors?

a. gave technical instruction regarding gymnastics progressions
b. provided a supportive environment through positive feedback
c. pushed gymnasts by constantly issuing threats and yelling
d. stressed conditioning to ensure physical readiness
e. provided opportunities for simulating the mental and technical demands of the competition

*c. pushed gymnasts by constantly issuing threats and yelling
Regardless of age, athletes prefer coaches who

a. give positive feedback
b. give technical instruction
c. give negative feedback
d. b and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
The definition of leadership usually seen in the literature is

a. the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals
b. being a positive role model
c. the process of creating change in groups and individuals
d. the process of keeping a group working together without conflicts

*a. the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals
According to Fiedler’s contingency model, a relationship-oriented leader would be most effective under which type of situation?

a. favorable
b. unfavorable
c. moderately favorable
d. either favorable or unfavorable
e. either favorable or moderately favorable

*c. moderately favorable
When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?

a. consultative-individual
b. autocratic-consultative
c. consultative-group
d. group
e. relationship-consultative

*b. autocratic-consultative
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Athletes high in internal locus of control prefer training and instruction coaching behaviors.
b. Athletes high in external locus of control prefer democratic coaching behaviors.
c. Females high in trait anxiety preferred autocratic coaching behaviors.
d. b and c
e. a and c

*a. Athletes high in internal locus of control prefer training and instruction coaching behaviors.
According to research on leadership behavior in youth sports by Smith and colleagues, which of the following is (are) true?

a. Little League players playing for coaches who attended a workshop designed to facilitate positive coach-athlete interaction had a higher dropout rate than a comparable control group.
b. Players with high self-esteem were not as affected by coaches’ supportiveness and instructiveness as players with low self-esteem.
c. Players with low self-esteem were not as affected by coaches’ supportiveness and instructiveness as players with high self-esteem.
d. a and b
e. a and c

*b. Players with high self-esteem were not as affected by coaches’ supportiveness and instructiveness as players with low self-esteem.
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) put forth based on 25 years of Smith and Smoll’s research?

a. Maintain clear expectations.
b. Reinforce effort as much as results.
c. Give encouragement and corrective instructional feedback immediately after a mistake.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above
What are the two major categories of behavior from the Coaching Behavior Assessment System?

a. reactive and instructional
b. reactive and spontaneous
c. spontaneous and instructional
d. praise and punishment
e. reactive and praise

*b. reactive and spontaneous
Which of the following results from Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors is (are) true?

a. Two-thirds of the behaviors exhibited by coaches were negative.
b. Players for coaches who displayed high levels of general technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more positively.
c. There was generally a high relationship between players’ perceptions of coaches’ behaviors and the actual coaching behaviors.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. Players for coaches who displayed high levels of general technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more positively.
According to successful professional football coach Bill Parcells, which of the following is NOT a quality of successful leadership?

a. flexibility
b. candor
c. trust
d. patience
e. loyalty

*c. trust
According to Chelladurai’s multidimensional model of sport leadership, which of the following are categories of leader behavior?

a. required leader behavior
b. preferred leader behavior
c. perceived behavior
d. a and b
e. b and c

*d. a and b
Which of the following is (are) true regarding antecedents of coaches’ expectations and values?

a. There are cross-cultural variations in coaching behaviors.
b. Division I athletes thought their coaches were more supportive than Division III athletes.
c. Coaches high in extrinsic motivation tend to be more autonomous in their decision making.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. There are cross-cultural variations in coaching behaviors.
According to the multidimensional model of sport leadership, performance and satisfaction are a function of the degree of congruence among

a. three types of leader behavior
b. motivation of the leader
c. leadership style
d. situational characteristics
e. member characteristics

*a. three types of leader behavior
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies of the antecedent conditions that affect leader behavior?

a. Preference for an autocratic coaching style increases with age.
b. Females prefer an autocratic style more than males do.
c. Males prefer training and instruction behaviors more than females do.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. Females prefer an autocratic style more than males do.
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies of the consequences of leadership behaviors?

a. High frequencies of social support are related to poor team performance.
b. High frequencies of social support and democratic decision making are associated with high satisfaction among athletes.
c. High levels of cohesion are related to autocratic coaching behaviors.
d. b and c

*c. High levels of cohesion are related to autocratic coaching behaviors.
Which of the following is (are) NOT part of effective leadership?

a. leadership style
b. situational factors
c. athlete characteristics
d. leader qualities
e. position power

*e. position power
According to Martens, which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. Team-sport athletes prefer more relationship-oriented leaders than do individual-sport athletes.
b. As group size increases, an autocratic leadership style becomes more effective.
c. When little time is available, a relationship-oriented leader is more effective.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. As group size increases, an autocratic leadership style becomes more effective.
According to Fiedler’s contingency model, a task-oriented leader would be most effective in which type of situation?

a. favorable
b. unfavorable
c. moderately favorable
d. either favorable or unfavorable
e. either favorable or moderately favorable

*d. either favorable or unfavorable
In a more recent follow-up study on coach John Wooden (Gallimore & Tharp, 2004), they concluded

a. specific planning was critical to administering the heavy information load
b. Wooden considered instruction via information a positive approach to coaching
c. starters received more praise than reserves
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
In a recent study comparing coaches and peer leaders, coaches tended to exhibit more

a. autocratic behaviors
b. social support behaviors
c. training and instruction behaviors
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c
The interactional model(s) of leadership targeted for sport is (are) known as the

a. multidimensional model of sport leadership
b. cognitive-behavioral model of leadership
c. cognitive-mediational model of leadership
d. a and c
e. a and b

*d. a and c
Which of the following is NOT an essential characteristic of leadership development in sport?

a. strong relationship with parents
b. enriched tactical knowledge
c. development of high skill
d. strong work ethic
e. good rapport with people

*a. strong relationship with parents
Which type of exercise leader was associated with cohesive exercise groups?

a. democratic
b. task-oriented
c. relationship-oriented
d. laissez-faire
e. interactional

*a. democratic
Which of the following is NOT a principle of energy management developed by Loehr?

a. Growth ceases when energy investment ceases.
b. Use positive rituals to manage energy.
c. Never push beyond the comfort zone.
d. Balance energy investments with energy deposits.
e. Energy is highly contagious.

*c. Never push beyond the comfort zone.
The leader takes a visionary position and inspires people to follow that position. This is characteristic of

a. transformative leadership
b. contingency management leadership
c. the Bass-Ricardo philosophy of leadership
d. situational leadership
e. democratic leadership

*a. transformative leadership
Breakdowns in communication can occur because

a. the sender fails to listen
b. the receiver misinterprets the message
c. the messages are inconsistent
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Which of the following is NOT an element of communication?

a. a decision to send a message
b. paraphrasing the message
c. receivers receiving and interpreting the message
d. internal response of receiver to the message
e. encoding the message

*b. paraphrasing the message
Which of the following is NOT a purpose of communication?

a. evaluation
b. retrospection
c. motivation
d. persuasion
e. problem solving

*b. retrospection
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) for sending effective messages?

a. Messages should be indirect.
b. Messages should separate fact from fiction.
c. Verbal and nonverbal messages should be congruent.
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Which of the following is NOT a type of communication?

a. nonverbal communication
b. intrapersonal communication
c. interpersonal communication
d. introspective communication
e. b and d

*d. introspective communication
Intrapersonal communication is communication with

a. yourself
b. someone else
c. signs
d. feelings
e. expressions

*a. yourself
Nonverbal behaviors that communicate interest and attention include which of the following?

a. maintaining eye contact
b. maintaining a closed posture
c. standing no more than 6 feet from the person
d. a and b
e. a and c

*a. maintaining eye contact
In the study about watching tennis players in between points, what percentage of the time did subjects pick the winner of the match?

a. 10%
b. 75%
c. 35%
d. 55%
e. 25%

*b. 75%
Nonverbal cues are transmitted via

a. the color of the eyes
b. posture
c. body position
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Proxemics is the study of how we communicate

a. by the way we use space
b. by the way we dress
c. by the way we use gestures
d. by the way we use speech
e. by the way we touch

*a. by the way we use space
What percentage of communication time is spent listening?

a. 20%
b. 40%
c. 10%
d. 70%
e. 25%

*b. 40%
Supportive listening behaviors

a. are empathetic
b. remain open to new ideas
c. focus on future thoughts and feelings
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
Supportive language has which of the following characteristics?

a. manipulative
b. evaluative
c. descriptive
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. descriptive
Sullivan devised seven communication exercises to promote more effective communication. Athletes said they would try to practice which communication skills?

a. not interrupt others when they are speaking
b. confront issues right away
c. give opinions less often to people with whom they feel intimidated
d. a and b

*d. a and b
Which of the following things should you do during a confrontation?

a. Stop communicating.
b. Communicate the problem.
c. Rely on nonverbal cues to communicate.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*b. Communicate the problem.
Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with empathy?

a. Do not attack the character of the person.
b. Be sensitive to the feelings of the other person.
c. Make sure the other person understands your point of view.
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. Make sure the other person understands your point of view.
Which of the following would you NOT suggest for communicating with consistency?

a. Be consistent in administering discipline.
b. Never pass an opportunity to praise.
c. Show more compassion in competition than in practices.
d. Match verbal and nonverbal communication.
e. Be consistent from athlete to athlete.

*c. Show more compassion in competition than in practices.
Which of the following is (are) NOT a principle of communication when setting up team meetings?

a. Everyone will have a chance to speak.
b. People should say at least one positive thing about everybody.
c. What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the meeting.
d. a and c
e. b and c

*c. What is discussed in the meeting is open to others outside the meeting.
The “sandwich approach” consists of which of the following elements?

a. a positive statement
b. future-oriented instructions
c. mistake-contingent general encouragement
d. a and b

*d. a and b
Which of the following would you suggest for expressing anger in a positive manner?

a. Take a time-out before speaking.
b. Try to identify your exact feelings by name.
c. Try to attack the person’s character to make your point.
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
After taking Sullivan’s communication training, athletes had the following reactions to the workshop:

a. I see myself the same as others see me.
b. It helps to know the goals of my teammates.
c. It is scary to open up, but this makes things easier.
d. b and c

*d. b and c
Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication?

a. the belief that silence is safer
b. embarrassment
c. the tendency to tell people what they want to hear
d. inconsistency between actions and words
e. using active listening skills

*e. using active listening skills
Which of the following actions can improve coach-athlete communication?

a. Administer discipline based on the personality of the athlete.
b. Convey rationales about why you expect certain behaviors.
c. Provide a supportive and empathic environment.
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
When there is a communication breakdown, most people believe that the problem resides with

a. themselves
b. the other person
c. the situation
d. a and b
e. b and c

*b. the other person
Which of the following is (are) a main reason(s) that communication is often problematic?

a. Individuals perceive faulty communication to be someone else’s problem.
b. Individuals feel that they are the problem regarding faulty communication.
c. Individuals prefer two-way communication.
d. a and c

*d. a and c
Which of the following is (are) a way(s) to improve active listening skills?

a. Mentally prepare to listen.
b. Use supportive behaviors as you listen.
c. Employ both verbal and nonverbal listening behaviors.
d. all of the above
e. a and c

*d. all of the above
Nonverbal communication in sport is important, as shown by the finding that

a. athletes displayed more confidence when their opponents wore general sportswear
b. athletes displayed more confidence when their opponents wore sport-specific sportswear
c. athletes displayed less anxiety when they perceived their opponents as short
d. athletes displayed less anxiety when they perceived their opponents as tall

*a. athletes displayed more confidence when their opponents wore general sportswear
Which teacher and coach category(ies) of behavior can enhance communication?

a. clarity
b. confirmation
c. assertiveness
d. a and b
e. a and c

*d. a and b
A recent article recommends assuming the perspective of the other person in order to enhance communication. This involves the use of

a. role-playing
b. assertiveness training
c. listening skills
d. a and c
e. d and c

*a. role-playing
Which of the following is NOT an assumption when dealing with a confrontation?

a. Process is as important as content.
b. Everyone is right from his or her own perspective.
c. There are enough resources to meet all needs.
d. A confrontation should be viewed as a competition.
e. All needs are perceived to be legitimate.

*d. A confrontation should be viewed as a competition.
To enhance constructive confrontations, you should

a. describe your feelings
b. describe your thoughts about the event that concerns you
c. describe what you think the other person is feeling
d. a and c
e. a and b

*e. a and b
Which of the following are TRUE?

a. Olympic swimmers look to coaches for technical skills before social competence skills.
b. Communication patterns differ between more versus less successful tennis doubles teams.
c. Nonverbal behavior and clothing worn by athletes influence the ratings others give them regarding their performance.
d. a and b
e. b and c

*e. b and c
Recent research on empathy in coaches and athletes found

a. coaches were more capable than athletes in inferring feelings of closeness
b. coaches of individual sport teams were more accurate in predicting athlete feelings about the relationship than team sport coaches
c. coaches’ empathy was improved with more exposure to each athlete
d. b and c
e. a and c

*d. b and c
Recent research by Gano-Overway and colleagues on caring and underserved youth participating in a summer camp found that with increased caring from the coaches and counselors, underserved youth

a. exhibited a decrease in anti-social behavior
b. had higher self-esteem
c. had lower state anxiety
d. a and c
e. a and b

*a. exhibited a decrease in anti-social behavior