psych 4

Triplett
Came up with the idea of social facilitation. he hypothesized that the presence of others would boost performance. To test it, he had children wind a fishing reel as fast as possible. He noticed that the adolescents reeled faster when they were around someone doing the same thing.
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
group polarization
refers to the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members
ingroups
“us” -people with whom we share a common identity.
outgroups
“Them”- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
Sherif’s The Robber’s Cave study
study of social norms (1930s-1940s)showed that perceptions of the outgroup are affected by competitive and cooperative activities
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Phase 1: group information
members of groups got to know each other, social norms developed, leadership, and structure emerged
Phase 2: Group conflict-
formed groups that came into contact, competing in games, and challenges
Phase 3: Conflict Resolution-
Sherif tried various means of reducing the animosity, and level violence between the groups
social facilitation
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. Usually we do an easy tasks corrects, and our performance hinders when faced with a difficult task.
just-world hypothesis
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
superordinate goals-
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. ( connects to Robber’s Cave)
decision-making process for bystander intervention
Before helping, one must first notice an emergency, then correctly interpret it, then feel responsible, and then act upon it . (Point. Information. Tell.) p.594
attitudes-
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects. If we believe someone is threatening us, we may feel fear and anger towards that person and act defensively.
peoples or event vbs
Affect- how you feel about something or someone – prejudice
Behavior- how you act towards someone or something – discrimination
Cognition- how you think about someone or something- stereotypes
conformity-
adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in with a group standard
3 components: Automatic mimicry: unconsciously imitating other’ expressions, postures, and voice tones
obedience-
yielding to instructions or orders from authority figure,
-studies by Milgram ( shock experiment )
dispositional attribution-
the person’s stable, enduring traits, personality, ability, emotions……Ex. Jason hates history and that’s his major, he’ll wind up changing his major.
cognitive dissonance-
(1960s-1970s) when our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes. we experience tension. Example found in Festinger’s study.
situational attribution-
judging based off only the situation
Ex. Jason’s history class is boring, which is why he is always late to class.
deindividuation –
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
social loafing –
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts towards attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon-
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. To get people to agree to something big, start small and build up. A trivial act makes the next act easier. Succumb to a temptation and you will find the next temptation harder to resist. Doing becomes believing.
racially mixed marriages-
racial attitudes likewise follow behavior. Percentage of 2008 American marriages to someone whose race or ethnicity differed from one’s own: Whites 9% Blacks 16% Hispanics 26% Asians 31% used to be illegal
attribution theory-
Created by Fritz Heider. Proposing that we can attribute the behavior to the person’s stable, enduring traits (a dispositional attribution) or we can attribute it to the situation (a situational attribution). A person’s enduring characteristics and inherent qualities contribute to their behavior (a dispositional attribution) Example: Sally is always quiet in class, so she is a quiet person. Behavior can be attributed to situations (a situational attribution). Example: Sally is very quiet in class, but she is very loud and outgoing at parties. (Attribution is any claim about what causes a person’s behavior.)
fundamental attribution error –
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. We overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of the situation. For instance. If Sally is quiet in class, we would immediately assume she is a quiet person, however her quietness could be situational, she may be EXTREMELY loud at home. This has real consequences.
long term satisfying marriages –
One key to a gratifying and enduring relationship is equity. When equity exists—when both partners receive in proportion to what they give—their chances for sustained and satisfying companionate love are good quity’s importance extends beyond marriage. Mutually sharing self and possessions, making decisions together, giving and getting emotional support,promoting and caring about each other’s welfare—all of these acts are at the core of every type of loving relationship (Sternberg & Grajek, 1984). It’s true for lovers, for parent and child, and for intimate friends. Another vital ingredient of loving relationships is self-disclosure, the revealing of intimate details about ourselves—our likes and dislikes, our dreams and worries,our proud and shameful moments.
a third key to enduring love is positive support. While relationship conflicts are inevitable,we can ask ourselves whether our communications more often express sarcasm or support, scorn or sympathy, sneers or smiles. For unhappy couples, disagreements, criticisms, and put downs are routine. For happy couples in enduring relationships,positive interactions (compliments, touches, laughing) outnumber negative interactions (sarcasm, disapproval, insults) by at least 5 to 1 (Gottman, 2007; see also Sullivan et al., 2010). In the mathematics of love, self-disclosing intimacy + mutually supportive equity = enduring companionate love.Two vital components for maintaining companionate love are equity and self-disclosure.
Philip Zimbardo’s prison study-
Philip Zimbardo randomly assigned some volunteers to be guards. He gave them uniforms, clubs, and whistles and instructed them to enforce rules. Other volunteers became prisoners locked in barren cells and forced them to wear humiliating outfits. For 1-2 days the volunteers played their roles. Then the guards started becoming too violent to the prisoners, creating cruel routines. One by one the prisoners either rebelled, broke down, or became passively resigned. After six days, Zimbardo called off the study. Relates to “power of the situation “,situational attribution, and social facilitation.
Milgram’s obedience experiments-
A series of experiments where a “teacher” woul d ask the “learner” questions and if they would get it wrong, the teacher would flip a switch that electrocutes the learner. The first time the learner gets it wrong, they get a light shock but the more they answered incorrectly the higher they’d be electrocuted. When it gets to the point where the learner is screaming and crying that the shocks are painful, the leader of the experiment will tell you to keep on going. 65% of teachers would obey and keep continuing to shock people even after they begged, yelled, and cried for the teacher to stop shocking them. Obedience was highest when the person giving the orders were close at hand, perceived to be legitimate authority figure, supported by a prestigious institution. Experiment demonstrated the strong social influence that can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty.
self-fulfilling stereotypes-
expectations may come to pass when many people hold the same beliefs
-If our belief about a group of people is upheld, then our stereotypes about them are strengthened
-ties into the Eye of the Storm video where the blue /brown eyes stereotypes given by the teacher was fulfilled
stereotyping-
A generalized belief about a group of people; sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized
aggression-
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. Three influences: 1) Genetic influences 2) Neural Influences 3) Biochemical Influences
“Eye of the Storm”-
experiment conducted by Jane Elliott, a third grade teacher, where she divided her class into 2 groups: Kids with brown eyes and kids with blue eyes. She tells the kids with blue eyes that they “are the better people in this classroom.” On day two she reverses the roles and tells the class that she has changed her mind and that the brown eyed kids are the better people in the room. She is trying to teach her class about discrimination.
Mere exposure effect-
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them.
Frustration-aggression principle-
The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
attribution and culture-
Fundamental attribution error appears more in some cultures than others
– Westerners more often attribute behavior to people’s personality traits
– Americans = the individual fish
– East Asian Cultures more sensitive to the power of the situation
– Japanese = the whole scene
prejudice-
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
prejudice is a three-part mixture of beliefs (stereotypes), emotions (eg. hostility or fear), predisposition to action (to discrimination)
proximity and attraction-
Research has shown that Physical proximity plays a very important role in promoting attraction. It was found that most people tend to become attracted to people who live near by them.
-According to the psychology of attraction physical proximity increases the attractiveness of a person as a result of the continuous exposure that happens. A theory called the mere exposure effect states that people tend to become attracted to a novel stimuli if it was repeated over and over again.
-I am sure you once saw a very attractive person who caught your attention while passing by your car then you never saw him again. Why do most people forget about that very attractive person few days later? Simply because they never see that person again. If the stimuli wasn’t reinforced we tend to forget about it even if we liked it. Now what physical proximity does is that it ensures that continues exposure keeps happening until attraction intensifies.
similarity and attraction-
opposites may attract, but similarities stay together.
sometimes you might meet a person who appears familiar even if its the first time you meet him. This happens because this person has similar looks to someone who is already familiar to you, for example your father, mother or a close friend. The attraction theory also states that people get attracted to those who share similar beliefs and similar personality traits with them. So similarity is needed for attraction to happen because people prefer the ones they are familiar with over the ones they know nothing about.
-Example: A shy girl who has a good sense of humor might be attracted to a guy who has a good sense of humor too (similar to her) and who is confident (complementary to her shyness). So according to the attraction theory both similarity and complementary traits can be present in the same person and thus they don’t contradict each other by any means.
social cognition-
examines people’s subjective interpretations of their social experiences and their modes of thinking about the world. Similar to social script: culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
Scapegoat hypothesis-
when things go wrong, we find someone to blame as to provide a target for anger. Example: 9/11 cause people to have a great amount of animosity and aggression towards Arab-Americans.
Kitty Genovese-
A girl who was repeatedly stabbed by a stalker. Took place outside her apartment as she screamed for help. Windows opened and lights turned on as they heard the screams. Attacker fled but returned and continued stabbing her. Not until her attacker had fled for good did anyone call the police.
Example of the decision making process for bystander intervention; each witness assumed many others were also aware of the event taking place.
LaPiere’s research(1930s-1940s)-
Richard LaPiere went with a couple of Asian descent to many restaurants to see if the restaurant would serve the Asian couple. Most of the restaurants served the Asian couple, however when LaPiere wrote letters to the restaurants the couple had eaten at asking if they served Asians, most replied and said they would not. Relates to interracial marriages. (There’s more to this, please discuss more about it)
– “LaPierre concluded that, despite the undoubted anti‑Oriental prejudices in the USA at that time, the overt behaviour of hotel and restaurant personnel when faced with the Chinese couple was not bigoted. He says: ‘It appeared that a genial smile was the most effective password to acceptance. My Chinese friends were skilful smilers, which may account in part for the fact that we received but one rebuff in all our experiences … I was impressed with the fact that even where some tension developed due to the strangeness of the Chinese it would evaporate immediately when they spoke in unaccented English’.”
LaPiere’s research attending restaurants with a Chinese couple examined the difference between people’s attitudes and behaviors.
diffusion of responsibility-
phenomenon in which people are less likely to take action or feel a sense of responsibility in the presence of a large group of people. Essentially, in a large group of people, people may feel that individual responsibility to intervene is lessened because it is shared by all of the onlookers. used to explain bystander effect
attractive people-
use to refer to the tendency to assume that people who are physically attractive also possess other socially desirable personality traits.
–stereotype
Asch’s classic study-
responding to social norms when our behavior may follow the norm rather than following our own judgement; the experiment showed about ⅓ of people will agree with obvious mistruth to go along with the group. (Line study)
attitudes and behavior-
Attitudes follow behavior. Cooperative actions, such as those performed by people on sports teams, feed mutual liking. Such attitudes, in turn, promote positive behavior. We cannot directly control all our feelings, but we can influence them by alternating our behavior.
power of the situation-
when ordinary people are put in novel, evil place, situations win and people lose.
example: Zimbardo’s prison study
persuasion central route-
A cognitive pathway that affects attitude. It offers evidence and arguments that aim to trigger favorable thoughts. Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
– Being persuaded by the content of the message or argument
persuasion peripheral route-
A cognitive pathway that affects attitude. It doesn’t engage in systematic thinking, but does produces fast results as people respond to incidental cues (such as endorsement by respected people) and thus make snap decisions. Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as speaker’s attractiveness.