PSYCH 111

Which of the following approaches to personality is MOST firmly rooted in empirical research?
Behavioral approach
The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is
toilet training.
According to Freud, which of the following is entirely unconscious?
The id
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality focuses on all of the following EXCEPT
the potential for personal growth.
The personality theory of Carl Rogers is known as
person-centered theory.
Chris has a greatly inflated sense of self-worth, a sense of entitlement, and a constant need for attention. It is most likely that Chris has
narcissistic personality disorder.
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Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, “I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
phallic stage.
Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his
ego.
Mike is from Australia. Based on research using the Big Five personality traits, you would predict Mike will be high in
extraversion.
Freud ascribed great importance to sexual and aggressive impulses, mainly because they
tend to be routinely frustrated.
Which of the following definitions of “personality” best reflects the views of B. F. Skinner?
A collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
Nikolas is a nonconformist who is daring and likes to try new things. He is extremely imaginative and has a wide range of interests. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Nikolas would probably score
high in openness.
Research on national character using the Big Five personality traits found that
subjects displayed considerable disagreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
Mary just completed a personality scale designed to measure the three higher-order traits identified by Hans Eysenck. She scored low in the personality trait of neuroticism, suggesting that Mary tends to be
relaxed and high in self-esteem.
Hal is fearful of men who are friendly toward him, convinced that they are all homosexuals attempting to seduce him. Should it be the case that Hal is himself a latent homosexual, fearful of admitting this even to himself, we might conclude that he is using the defense mechanisms of repression and
projection.
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
fixation.
Deirdre used to be shy and unwilling to speak out in class. Last semester, she was in a class that involved a lot of discussion groups, and she found that her classmates were willing to listen attentively to her ideas and often asked her for input when the discussion bogged down. Now Deirdre is more outspoken and confident during class discussions. Based on principles of operant conditioning, Deirdre’s new outspoken, confident manner is MOST likely a result of
positive reinforcement.
According to Jung, one’s personal unconscious contains
repressed or forgotten information.
Bess uses a software package on her computer to create a number of abstract images. She finds that each person who looks at the images sees something different in them. If Bess records the responses that each person provides, she may find the answers are similar to those that would be obtained using the
Rorschach test.
Which of the following is one of the major criticisms of the humanistic approach to personality?
It is too optimistic about human nature
The humanistic perspective’s emphasis on man’s potential for personal growth is MOST similar to which other personality theorist’s belief concerning man’s primary motivation?
Alfred Adler
Which of the following is NOT one of the major contributions associated with the humanistic theory of personality?
Acknowledging the role that internal conflict plays in generating psychological distress
Observational learning suggests that some models are more likely to be imitated than others. Which of the following characteristics of a model would be LEAST likely to result in a child’s imitating the model’s behavior?
The model is of the opposite sex
Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love, and acceptance from others?
Carl Rogers
Which of the following criticisms can be leveled against BOTH the psychoanalytic approach and the humanistic approach to personality?
Poor testability
According to Jung, one’s personal unconscious contains
repressed or forgotten information.
Finding ways to meet instinctual needs and still take into account the conditions of the external, social world defines the ____, the basic operating theme of the ____.
reality principle; ego
Failure to resolve conflict at a particular stage of psychosexual development may lead to failure to move forward psychologically, a phenomenon that Freud called
fixation.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a self-actualizing person?
Having a strong need to affiliate with many people
According to Carl Rogers, when parents make their affection unconditional and show acceptance of their children’s behavior, they are promoting
congruence between their children’s self-concept and their actual experiences.
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
inherited.
According to Maslow’s theory, the self-actualizing person would be LEAST likely to
be uncomfortable when alone or detached
One of the major points Mischel makes about personality is that
people are much less consistent across situations than most theorists have assumed
Carmen has always done well in her math courses and even though she has never taken a statistics class before, she is confident she will do well in the one she just signed up for next semester. In this example, Carmen shows evidence of having
high self-efficacy in math.
According to the Featured Study, there is often a discrepancy between
what people say and think.
According to Jung, the ____ is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past.
collective unconscious
If she is using the defense mechanisms of reaction formation, a mother who actually hates her son would MOST likely be both unaware of her hatred and
act in an extremely loving way toward her son.
Jose is one of the top baseball players in his league, but last week, he struck out on an easy pitch. When this happened, he smashed the water cooler in the dugout with his bat. According to Freud, Jose may be unconsciously dealing with his anger at himself by using the defense mechanism of
displacement.
Which of the following personality theorists did NOT emphasize the influence of childhood experiences on adult personality
Abraham Maslow
Bess uses a software package on her computer to create a number of abstract images. She finds that each person who looks at the images sees something different in them. If Bess records the responses that each person provides, she may find the answers are similar to those that would be obtained using the
Rorschach test.
Which theorist argues that people have a strong need for affection, love, and acceptance from others?
Carl Rogers
The Freudian period that begins with puberty is the
genital stage.
In an emergency, we would all react differently from one another because we all have different personalities and experiences. This quality of personality is called
distinctiveness.
Imagine a neighborhood in which a hurricane has caused extensive flooding. Many of the residents have had their homes damaged or destroyed. At the time, however, the material loss is unimportant as the residents think only of escaping the flood. Maslow would say this is because the residents’ ____ needs are threatened.
safety and security
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ tend to be diligent, disciplined, well organized, and punctual.
conscientiousness
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of narcissism?
A strong need to forge bonds with others
Evidence suggest that people high in openness to experience tend to
exhibit less prejudice than others.
Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents’ affection as
conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept.
The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes where someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking provides anecdotal evidence for
Bandura’s social-cognitive theory
The American cultural conception of self results in children
developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes
According to the five-factor model of personality, people who score high in ____ are characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, and assertive
extraversion
Research on national character using the Big Five personality traits found that
subjects displayed considerable agreement concerning what was typical of their culture.
Beatrix is planning a research study for her doctoral dissertation. As part of the study, she wants to measure normal aspects of personality in each of the participants, using a measure that is objective and precise. The BEST measure for Beatrix to use would be the
NEO Personality Inventory.
When people give a false but plausible excuse to justify their unacceptable behavior, they are using
rationalization.
Five-year-old Samuel often tells his older sister, “I can’t wait to grow up, so I can marry mommy.” Samuel is most likely in the stage of personality development that Freud referred to as the
phallic stage.
Cross-cultural research suggests that the Big Five personality traits
are fairly consistent across cultures.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the five-factor model of personality?
It overemphasizes the role of unconscious motivation in personality
Jason just sat down to work on his term paper when his friends called and invited him to a party. If Jason decides he will only go to the party after he finishes outlining the term paper, his decision reflects the functioning of his
ego.
John worries about his tendency toward abusing animals, so he joins the Association for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. John’s behavior can be viewed as an example of
reaction formation.
Evolutionary theorists have recently proposed a revision of Maslow’s theory to emphasize
reproduction needs
Under stress, a college student cries and throws things. The behavior of the student is an example of
regression.
The personality inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that describes an individual in terms of a limited number of personality source traits is the
16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
Jalen is currently thinking about all the things she has to do before she goes to her first class. She is mentally making lists of all these things so she will remember to do them on her way to school. According to Freud, these thoughts are contained in Jalen’s
conscious mind
According to Hans Eysenck, ____ involves being egocentric, impulsive, cold, and antisocial
psychoticism
Freud used the term “sexual” in his psychosexual stages of development to mean
any pleasure-giving urge.
Martin sees himself primarily as part of a group, and he puts the group’s needs ahead of his own goals. It is most likely that Martin is from a(n)
collectivistic culture.
Unconscious fixations and unresolved conflicts are to Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality as ____ to B. F. Skinner’s theory.
faulty learning is
Behavioral genetics, the evolutionary approach, and Eysenck’s theory all approach the study of personality from the
biological perspective.
Adler is to individual psychology as Jung is to
analytical psychology
Observational learning suggests that some models are more likely to be imitated than others. Which of the following characteristics of a model would be LEAST likely to result in a child’s imitating the model’s behavior?
The model is of the opposite sex
How, according to terror management theory, does culture solve the existential crisis created by awareness of death?
It gives members a sense of being part of a enduring legacy by creating stories and traditions
Which of the following traits is MOST likely to be associated with high levels of productivity in a job setting?
Conscientiousness
Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score
high in conscientiousness.
The id is
the primitive, instinctive component of personality.
The idea that a male child desires his mother and fears his father illustrates the
Oedipal complex.
The occurrence of so-called copycat crimes where someone hijacks an airliner after seeing a movie about a hijacking provides anecdotal evidence for
Bandura’s social-cognitive theory.
Nikolas is a nonconformist who is daring and likes to try new things. He is extremely imaginative and has a wide range of interests. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Nikolas would probably score
high in openness.
Studies linking personality traits with specific genes have been difficult to replicate because
traits may be influenced by many genes.
_____________ is a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of self-worth and a tendency to exploit other people.
Narcissism
You are in a debate with a friend who argues that people’s behavior is much less consistent across situations than most theorists assumed. Whose theory of personality is your friend’s argument MOST similar to?
Walter Mischel
While at the dentist, six-year-old Alex listens as his mom tells the dentist she flosses her teeth at least three times a week. Alex notices that the dentist smiled at and complimented his mom on her behavior. As a result of this brief encounter, Alex’s mom will be likely to continue to floss as a result of ____, and Alex will be likely to have a favorable attitude concerning flossing as a result of ____.
operant conditioning; observational learning
The “typical” subject in Milgram’s study experienced ____ psychological distress ____ to administer stronger electric shocks.
considerable; but continued
The rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others is known as the
reciprocity norm.
Which influence technique involves asking for a small request in order to increase the likelihood of the target complying with a larger request later?
Foot in the door
Inferences that people draw about the causes of events and theirs and others’ behaviors are known as
attributions.
Kevin is the Human Resources manager for a large company. He actually has a favorable attitude toward the handicapped in general. However, he hasn’t hired anyone who has a visible disability because his boss told him not to consider applicants who are handicapped. In this case, Kevin
shows evidence of discrimination but not prejudice
The results of Burger’s recent replication of Milgram’s obedience study suggest that
people’s tendency to obey has remained about the same since Milgram’s study.
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people
Which of the following is NOT a necessary component for describing or defining a group?
Members of a group are cohesive
You are likely to attribute your own failing grade on a test to ____; your roommate is more likely to attribute your failing grade to ____.
an unfair test; your poor study habits
Research has revealed higher levels of conformity in
collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.
The beliefs people have concerning the object of an attitude describes the ____ component of an attitude.
cognitive
Compared with attractive people, less attractive people
place less emphasis on the importance of physical attractiveness.
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
individualism
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate products, they are relying, in part, on the power of ____ to change consumers’ attitudes.
classical conditioning
Marsha believes that all news reporters are cynical, doubting individuals who would sell their souls for an exclusive story. In this case, Marsha’s beliefs about the traits and behaviors of news reporters are one example of
stereotypes.
Evolutionary psychologists ascribe much of the bias in person perception to cognitive mechanisms that have been shaped by
natural selection.
According to Hazan and Shaver’s model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to engage in casual sex?
Avoidant
In the research on romantic attraction, which of the following did researchers discover to be the key determinant of a person’s initial attraction to someone else?
Physical attractiveness
Research indicates that when women are approaching ovulation, they prefer men who are
masculine and dominant.
William always does what his friends want to do because he is afraid of being criticized if he does not conform. William appears to be conforming because of
normative influences
Harboring negative thoughts and feelings about a person simply because of his or her membership in a particular group defines
prejudice.
Asch’s “line study” clearly demonstrated that people ____ alter their behavior so that it conforms to the behavior of others.
frequently
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on obedience to authority?
Stanley Milgram
While at the dentist, six-year-old Alex listens as his mom tells the dentist she flosses her teeth at least three times a week. Alex notices that the dentist smiled at and complimented his mom on her behavior. As a result of this brief encounter, Alex’s mom will be likely to continue to floss as a result of ____, and Alex will be likely to have a favorable attitude concerning flossing as a result of ____.
operant conditioning; observational learning
John observed Gracie, an executive for a large accounting firm, behave in an aggressive and pushy manner with her subordinates. John now believes that most women executives are aggressive and pushy with their subordinates. John’s overestimation of the link between women executives and the social traits of “pushy” and “aggressive” is referred to as
an illusory correlation.
Most research on implicit attitudes has addressed the topic of
prejudice.
Which of the following psychologists is known for conducting classic research on conformity?
Solomon Asch
Milgram found that subjects’ obedience declined dramatically when
another “teacher” defied the experimenter’s order.
When Stoner (1961) compared the average decision of a group’s individual members against their group decision generated through group discussion, he found that
groups arrived at riskier decisions than individuals.
According to dissonance theory, how do people usually reduce dissonance?
By changing their cognitions
What is the main reason we tend to make attributions about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and our own behavior?
We have a strong need to understand our experiences.
Rita believes that racial prejudice is wrong, but she also possesses subtle negative views about other races. Rita’s negative views make up her
implicit attitudes.
A group that one does NOT belong to or identify with is known as
an outgroup
Individuals’ productivity typically ____ in larger groups, partly due to ____.
declines; reduced efficiency due to the loss of coordination among group members’ efforts
Groups seeking donations routinely send address labels and other small gifts with their pleas. This approach illustrates which of the following social influence techniques?
Reciprocity norm
Sally and Neil have been married for 15 years. They have an extremely warm and trusting relationship, and even though Neil frequently travels on business, Sally never worries about him seeing other women. According to Hatfield and Berscheid, Sally and Neil share
companionate love
Celine just heard that her neighbor, Rodney, was involved in an automobile accident. If Celine concludes that Rodney’s children distracted him for a few seconds and that was the reason for the accident, she has
made an external attribution.
Preoccupation with rejection is to ____ attachment as relationships lacking intimacy and trust is to ____ attachment.
anxious-ambivalent; avoidant
Asch found that group size made little difference on conformity when
just one accomplice failed to go along with the rest of the group
The subfield of psychology that studies attitudes, the attribution process, person perceptions, interpersonal attraction, conformity and obedience, and group behavior is known as
social psychology.
Which of the following individuals is noted for developing the theory of cognitive dissonance?
Leon Festinger
Which of the following is NOT a major characteristic of successful persuasive communications that involve fear appeals? The negative consequences described
are associated with one’s physical health.
The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency of
observers to favor internal attributions in explaining the behavior of others
Edith is making a class presentation in which she is trying to convince the other students that a proposed change in the requirements for a degree in education will be beneficial in the long run. Based on the research into factors that influence persuasion, Edith will be MOST persuasive if she
presents both the advantages and disadvantages associated with the proposed change.
Which of the following statements regarding the influence of culture on conformity and obedience is MOST accurate?
Collectivistic cultures tend to encourage more conformity than individualistic cultures.
According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following characteristics in a prospective mate would be the LEAST important consideration for a woman seeking a mate?
Physical attractiveness
John observed Gracie, an executive for a large accounting firm, behave in an aggressive and pushy manner with her subordinates. John now believes that most women executives are aggressive and pushy with their subordinates. John’s overestimation of the link between women executives and the social traits of “pushy” and “aggressive” is referred to as
an illusory correlation.
According to evolutionary theorists, which of the following factors is likely to be the MOST important for a male seeking a prospective mate?
Physical attractiveness
Most research on implicit attitudes has addressed the topic of
prejudice.
Laura is planning to buy a new car and is trying to decide between a Ford and a Honda. Based on the research into factors that influence persuasion, Laura should be MOST persuaded by statements made by
a Ford salesperson who recommends buying a Honda rather than a Ford.
Which of the following statements BEST reflects an evolutionary explanation of why we tend to be influenced by physical attractiveness in our perception of others?
At one time in our history, physical attractiveness was associated with reproductive potential
A small public relations firm has four employees who are all opposed to the death penalty (anti-death penalty). Which employee would be MOST likely to change his attitude concerning the death penalty?
Clark, who writes a brief pro-death penalty piece as a favor for a friend
Which of the following dimensions of attitudes are MOST likely to be correlated?
Accessibility and strength
According to the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change, when persuasion depends on factors such as the attractiveness and credibility of the source or emotional responses by the receiver, it is referred to as the
peripheral route.
The bystander effect is the finding that
the probability that a witness to an emergency will help decreases as the number of bystanders increases.
Frequently, companies use professionals such as doctors and dentists to recommend products in advertisements since professionals are MOST likely to be perceived as having
expertise.
Prejudice is to discrimination as
attitude is to action.
If Matthew’s mother praises his “good sense” every time he says that money is important, then Matthew’s attitude will be strengthened by
reinforcement.
Celine just heard that her neighbor, Rodney, was involved in an automobile accident. If Celine concludes that Rodney’s children distracted him for a few seconds and that was the reason for the accident, she has
made an external attribution.
Kirstie’s boss asks for input about ways the company can improve its current advertising campaign. However, every time an employee offers a suggestion that differs from the plan that the boss has sketched out, the suggestion is ignored completely. In this case, it is likely that the group that is supposed to improve the company’s advertising will experience the effects of
groupthink
Mary just completed a test that required her to respond as quickly as possible to faces of people from various races. The test that Mary took is called the
Reactive Bias Test.
Matthew often hears his parents discussing the importance of making lots of money. Eventually, Matthew himself begins to value a high income. Matthew’s attitude about money was acquired through
observational learning.
Advertisements that include phrases like “limited supply available” or “for a limited time only” are making use of which of the following social influence techniques?
Feigned scarcity
Which of the following factors is NOT one that influences a person’s initial attraction to someone else?
Attributional style
The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others is
social psychology.
Maya has always preferred individual assignments to group projects because she finds that she can accomplish more when she works on her own. The process that would best explain why Maya accomplishes LESS when she works as part of a group is
social loafing.
Milgram found that subjects’ obedience declined dramatically when
another “teacher” defied the experimenter’s order.
Adults who experience love relationships that are volatile, marked by jealousy, and reflect expectations of rejection exhibit
anxious-ambivalent attachment.
In Milgram’s research on obedience, what did the experimenter do to the teacher when the teacher questioned whether the experiment should continue?
The teacher was given verbal prompts to continue.
Observers tend to favor ____ attributions about the success of males; observers tend to favor ____ attributions about the success of females.
internal; external
Attitudes that we hold consciously and can easily describe to others are known as __________ attitudes.
explicit
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of groupthink?
Gathering all the relevant information before making a decision
When the behavior of all subjects was combined, Asch’s study of conformity found that subjects exhibited conformity on approximately ____ of the trials.
35-40%
Findings from recent studies suggest that people adjust their tactics of attraction as a function of which of the following?
Whether they are pursuing a short- or long-term relationship
Research on factors contributing to building relationships seems to SUPPORT the adage
“similarity breeds liking.”
In the Stanford Prison study, the “guards” routinely
became malicious and abusive in fulfilling their responsibilities.
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning attitudes?
People are more likely to be attracted to someone with similar attitudes.
Attribution refers to
inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior and the behavior of others.
Social loafing is MORE likely to occur if the
group members feel that the responsibility for getting the job done is diffused among the members of the group.
You have just come face to face with a bear on your walk through the woods. Your body automatically mobilizes itself for action in the ____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
alarm
Current research suggests it is MOST accurate to view the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) as assessing
changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
Allie has a chronic medical condition. She was advised to take a drug from a manufacturer that claims it reduces the risk of mortality from her condition by 25%. Before taking the drug, it is MOST important that Allie investigate
the base rate for mortality from her condition.
Neurogenisis
can be hindered by stress.
Your text outlines a number of ways in which people can think more systematically about health decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of the suggestions outlined in your text?
Delay making a final decision until you have the opportunity to consult with professionals in the field
One personality characteristic correlated with good physical health is
conscientiousness.
Emily is an excellent student. She puts in long hours on her schoolwork and often gets the top mark in the class. However, she is always relaxed and seems fairly easygoing. She does her schoolwork as it is assigned and doesn’t put herself under pressure by leaving things to the last minute. She is also always willing to take the time to patiently explain difficult material to other students in her classes. Emily would MOST likely be described as having
a Type B personality
The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
pressure.
Roommates Ann and Margaret both woke up yesterday with a headache, upset stomach, and muscle stiffness. While Ann was showering for her 9:00 art history class, Margaret rushed off to the college health clinic. MOST likely Margaret exhibits a ____ than Ann.
higher level of anxiety and higher level of neuroticism
The principle cause of coronary heart disease is
atherosclerosis.
According to Lazarus and Folkman, we evaluate our coping resources during
secondary appraisal
Circumstances that threaten, or are perceived to threaten, one’s well-being and tax one’s coping abilities define
stress.
Webb’s teacher has told him that there is really no way for him to earn a passing grade in his statistics class, even if he earns 100% on all the work that remains. However, Webb has convinced himself that he will still pass the course if he just works really hard for the rest of the semester. In this instance, Webb may be dealing with the stress-induced anxiety aroused by the teacher’s comments through the use of
denial of reality.
Americans tend to prefer _________ social support, while Asians tend to prefer ________ social support.
explicit; implicit
The term “psychosomatic disease” is used to refer to
genuine physical illness caused at least partly by psychological factors
Mary and John are teaming up to make an important sales presentation to 15 executives from a Fortune 500 company. Mary finds the challenge exhilarating, but John is a nervous wreck over the presentation. Their differing reactions illustrate which of your text’s unifying themes?
Our experience of the world is highly subjective.
Miranda started a small craft business in her home three years ago. Last year, she finally moved her business into a small store along her town’s main street. Last Saturday, most of her store’s stock was destroyed as firefighters fought a fire that had started in the vacant office next to her store. As Miranda walks through her ruined store, she is MOST likely to experience a sense of
frustration.
Harry is an excellent basketball player who seldom misses a shot during practice. After yesterday’s practice, Harry’s coach told him that some scouts from a big college would be at today’s practice. Based on the research by Baumeister, it is likely that this increase in pressure will make Harry
more self-conscious and will interfere with his performance.
The Featured Study by Pennix and colleagues showed that depression tripled the subjects’ risk for cardiac death. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are
positively correlated
The optimal level of arousal for task performance
decreases as the tasks become more complex
Analyzing the possible gains and losses before undertaking a health-treatment program is an example of
making a risk-benefit analysis.
Which of the following is NOT a reason given to explain why people engage in unhealthy behaviors?
People are often unaware of the of the dangers associated with their health-impairing behaviors
Valerie is doing homework for her statistics class. When she checks the answer she has just calculated for the problem she has been working on, she finds it is incorrect. She is frustrated and tells her roommate, “I don’t know why I’m even trying, I’ll never catch on in this course. I should just give up now.” According to Albert Ellis, Valerie’s statements reflect
catastrophic thinking
The Flashback football team was down by 35 points at half-time, but they made a big comeback in the second half. With less than 15 seconds remaining on the clock, they scored a touchdown that narrowed the other team’s lead to a single point. Their quarterback has decided to try for a two-point conversion in an attempt to win the game by a single point in the final seconds. As the team lines up for the last play of the game, both the quarterback and the intended receiver are likely to be experiencing
pressure.
What area of psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness?
Health psychology
The negative effects of ____________ may be more severe than the negative effects of obesity, lack of exercise, and excessive drinking.
inadequate social support
Thelma goes to a nightclub and flirts with dozens of men whenever she feels neglected and ignored by her husband. In this example, Freud would suggest that Thelma is dealing with the stress generated by her feelings of neglect through
overcompensation
Rick imagines he is secretly admired by women who all wish he would seduce them. Rick, who is socially inept, is using the defense mechanism of
fantasy.
Which of the following statements regarding the connection between social support and immune functioning is MOST accurate?
Social support can serve as a buffer in times of high stress.
Which of the following is NOT included in the definition of stress? Stress includes circumstances that
are traumatic
Research suggests that the stress responses of _______ tend to be milder than those without this characteristic.
females
Rosemary recently married her high school sweetheart and they moved into a wonderful new condominium. A week after the move, Rosemary was offered a job that she had been hoping she would get. At this point in time, Rosemary can’t imagine being any happier. According to Holmes and Rahe, Rosemary is likely to be experiencing
a high level of stress.
Melissa has an old car that is desperately in need of expensive repairs. She is trying to decide whether to spend the $1,500 she has in her savings account to repair her old clunker or use her savings to buy the used car that her neighbor has for sale. As Melissa considers which of these two options she will select, she is facing
an avoidance-avoidance conflict
When a choice must be made between two unattractive goals, we are said to be experiencing
an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
When the adrenal medulla is stimulated
large amounts of catecholamines are released into the bloodstream
The hormones secreted into the bloodstream during times of stress are
catecholamines and corticosteroids.
Current research suggests it is MOST accurate to view the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) as assessing
changes that relate to a wide variety of stressful experiences.
Your friend asks you for advice as to how he can improve his communication with his healthcare provider. Which of the following would you NOT offer him?
Consult a healthcare provider who is not of your same sex
Health-impairing lifestyles appear to develop
slowly.
Research MOST strongly suggests that people who have been betrayed by someone will experience improved mood if they
forgive the betrayer.
The principle cause of coronary heart disease is
atherosclerosis.
The Featured Study by Pennix and colleagues showed that depression tripled the subjects’ risk for cardiac death. This finding indicates that illness and levels of stress are
positively correlated.
Miranda started a small craft business in her home three years ago. Last year, she finally moved her business into a small store along her town’s main street. Last Saturday, most of her store’s stock was destroyed as firefighters fought a fire that had started in the vacant office next to her store. As Miranda walks through her ruined store, she is MOST likely to experience a sense of
frustration.
Harry is an excellent basketball player who seldom misses a shot during practice. After yesterday’s practice, Harry’s coach told him that some scouts from a big college would be at today’s practice. Based on the research by Baumeister, it is likely that this increase in pressure will make Harry
more self-conscious and will interfere with his performance.
The relationship between level of arousal and performance is described by the
inverted-U hypothesis.
Relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events are referred to as
constructive coping.
According to Baumeister, the pressure to perform can elevate self-consciousness, which then disrupts our attention by
diverting attention from the demands of the task.
The two major pathways via which the brain may signal the endocrine system are through
the pituitary gland and the autonomic nervous system.
Leonard has 15 years of seniority at a job with a small company where he gets along well with everyone. Recently, a competitor called to offer him a job that would pay more money, but where he would have to start over, with no seniority. As Leonard tries to decide whether to accept the new job because it offers more money or turn it down because it would mean giving up his seniority, he is facing
an approach-avoidance conflict.
Stress effects appear to be moderated by the
hypothalamus activating the sympathetic nervous system.
Mason is already late for an important appointment when he realizes he is almost out of gas. He stops to fill up, and the clerk has trouble getting approval on his credit card. When he finally pulls out of the service station, the traffic is crawling because of an accident. Inconveniences of this type
can often have a significant effect on physical and mental health.
Your text outlines a number of ways in which people can think more systematically about health decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of the suggestions outlined in your text?
Delay making a final decision until you have the opportunity to consult with professionals in the field
Americans tend to prefer _________ social support, while Asians tend to prefer ________ social support.
explicit; implicit
Albert Ellis believes people can alter their ____ stress by altering their ____ stressful events.
emotional response to; appraisal of
According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis put forth by Dollard and his colleagues,
aggression is always caused by frustration
Which of the following statements concerning positive emotions and stress is the LEAST accurate?
Experiencing positive emotions while under stress is rare, and it is associated with denial in most individuals.
Dionne is trapped in an elevator that is stuck between the third and fourth floors of an office building. As maintenance workers try to restart the elevator, it suddenly drops 10 feet before becoming stuck once more. As the elevator drops, Dionne’s sympathetic nervous system is activated. This nervous system activation will cause
the adrenal medulla to begin to release large amounts of catecholamines
Megan is looking at the ballot form for a citywide referendum and trying to decide whether or not to support the proposed change. If the referendum passes, there will be better services available for all city residents, but it will also mean that residents pay more property taxes. As Megan tries to decide whether to support the proposed referendum, she is facing
an approach-avoidance conflict
Which of the following is an example of a stressful situation that involves frustration?
You want to go to the big game tomorrow, but the game is sold out
In times of stress, stimulation of the pituitary gland results in the adrenal gland secreting hormones that tend to
increase energy and inhibit tissue inflammation
An individuals unique set of consistent behavioral traits
Personality
Durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
Personality traits
correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables
factor analysis
all the diverse theories, descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, that focus on unconscious mental forces.
Psychodynamic theories
demands immediate gratification of its urges
pleasure principle
decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle
ego
seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found
reality principle
primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle
id
the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong
superego
whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
conscious
material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved
preconscious
thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
unconscious
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
defense mechanisms
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
rationalization
keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
repression
attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings or motives to another
projection
diverting emotional feelings from their original source to a substitute target
displacement
behaving in a way that’s exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings
reaction formation
reversion to immature patterns of behavior
regression
bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group
identification
occurs when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors
sublimation
developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark in adult personality
psychosexual stages
failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
fixation
children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent
Oedipal Complex
houses material that is not within one’s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten
personal unconscious
a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past
collective unconscious
emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning
archetypes
universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life’s challenges
striving for superiority
involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities
compensation
theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
behaviorism
occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models
observational learning
the idea that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence one another
reciprocal determinism
a peson whose behavior is observed by another
model
one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected out comes
self-efficacy
a collection of beliefs about one’s own nature, unique qualities and typical behaviors
self concept
a systematic arrangement of needs, according to priority, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused
hierarchy of needs
the need to fulfill one’s potential
need for self-actualization
people with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth
self-actualizing persons
a personality trait marked by an inflated sense of importance, a need for attention and admiration, a sense of entitlement and a tendency to exploit others
narcissism
the degree to which subjects
mortality is prominent in their minds
mortality salience
putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
individualism
putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
collectivism
focusing on positive feedback from others, exaggerating one’s strengths, and seeing oneself as above average
self-enhancement
personality tests that ask individuals to answer questions about their characteristic behavior
self-report inventories
ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects’ needs feelings and personality traits
projective tests
the tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out
hindsight bias
branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by others
social psychology
process of forming impressions of others
person perception
widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular way
stereotypes
when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen
illusory correlation
a group that one belongs to and identifies with
in group
a group that one does not belong to or identify with
out group
ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings
internal attributions
ascrive the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
external attributions
observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior
fundamental attribution
tendency to blame victims of their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way
defensive attribution
putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships
individualism
positive feelings toward another
interpersonal attraction
males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
matching hypothesis
a complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion
passionate love
warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own
companionate love
positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought
attitudes
attitudes that we hold consciously and can readily describe
explicit attitudes
covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic responses that people have little conscious control over
implicit attitudes
the person who sends a communication
the source
the person to whom the message is sent
receiver
the information transmitted by the source
message
is the medium through which the message is sent
channel
when related cognitions are inconsistent- that is, when they contradict each other
cognitive dissonance
when people yield to real or imagined social pressure
conformity
when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences
normative influence
operates when people look to others for guidance about how to behave in ambiguous situations
informational influence
form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
obedience
widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave
social roles
consists of two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent
a group
people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone
bystander effect
reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves
social loafing
occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction
group polarization
when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision
groupthink
the strength of the relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself
group cohesiveness
a negative attitude held toward members of a group
prejudice
behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group
discrimination
getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
foot-in-the-door
the rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others
reciprocity norm
getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed
lowball technique
physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors
biopsychosocial model
concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness
health psychology
any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well being and that thereby tax one’s coping abilities
stress
initial evaluation of whether an event is 1) irrelevant to you 2) relevant but not threatening or 3) stressful
Primary appraisal
an evaluation of your coping resources and options are dealing with the stress
secondary appraisal
threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint
acute stressors
threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit
chronic stressors
any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted
frustration
when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
conflict
a choice must be made between two attractive goals
approach-approach conflict
choice must be made between two unattractive goals
avoidance-avoidance
choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
approach-avoidance
any significant alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustments
life changes
involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way
pressure
a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
fight or flight response
a model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages, alarm, resistance and exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome
formation of new neurons
neurogenesis
active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
coping
passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events
learned helplessness
any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally
aggression
spending an inordinate amount of time on the internet and inability to control online use
internet addiction
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
defense mechanisms
relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events
constructive coping
physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress
burnout
successful adaptation to significant stress and trauma, as evidenced by a lack of serious negative outcomes
resilience
genuine physical ailments that were thought to be caused in part by stress and other psychological factors
psychosomatic diseases
1) a strong competitive orientation 2) impatience and time urgency and 3) anger and hostility
Type A personality
marked by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing amicable behavior
type b personality
the body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances
immune response
various types of aid and emotional sustenance provided by members of one’s social networks
social support
generalized tendency to consistently expect good outcomes
optimism
a disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
acquired immune deficiency
unrealistically pessimistic appraisals of stress that exaggerate the magnitude of ones problems
catastrophic thinking
it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
medical model
distinguishing one illness from another
diagnosis
refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
etiology
a forecast about the probable course of an illness
prognosis
coexistence of two or more disorders
comorbidity
the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
epidemiology
the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified time period
prevalence
a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
anxiety disorders
marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
generalized anxiety disorder
marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
phobic disorder
characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
panic disorder
fear of going out to public places
agoraphobia
marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts and urges to engage in senseless rituals
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
post-traumatic stress disorder
the percent age of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
concordance rate
sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
dissociative amnesia
a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
dissociative disorders
people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
dissociative fugue
involves the coexistence in one person or two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities
dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)
a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical perceptual social and thought processes
mood disorders
people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
major depressive disorder
a diminished ability to experience pleasure
anhedonia
characterized by the experience of one ore more manic episodes as well as periods of depression
bipolar disorder
a class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behavior
schizophrenic disorder
false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
delusions
sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input
hallucinations
dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
paranoid schizophrenia
marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
catatonic schizophrenia
marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms
undifferentiated schizophrenia
behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal apathy impaired attention and poverty of speech
negative symptoms
involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations delusions bizarre behavior and wild flights of ideas
positive symptoms
the degree to which a relative of a patient displays highly critical or emotionally over-involved attitudes toward the patient
expressed emotions
a class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
personality disorders
impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
antisocial personality disorder
a legal status indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for this or her actions because of mental illness
insanity
people are hospitalized in psychiatric facilities against their will
involuntary commitment
abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
culture-bound disorders
severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight
eating disorders
intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight and use of dangerous measures to lose weight
anorexia nervosa
habitually engaging in out of control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self induced vomiting, fasting, abuse or laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise
bulimia nervosa
involves distress-inducing eating binges that are not accompanied by the purging, fating and excessive exercise seen in bulimia
binge-eating disorder
basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
representativeness heuristic
basing the estimated probability of an event on the case with which relevant instances come to mind
availability heuristic
when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
conjunction fallacy
specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems
clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists
physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
psychiatrists
verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
insight therapies
an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
psychoanalysis
clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
free association
therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dream
dream analysis
the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the client’s thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviors
interpretation
largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
resistance
clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
transference
an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy
client-centered therapy
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence
positive psychology
the treatment of both partners in a committed intimate relationship in which the main focus is on relationship issues
couples or marital therapy
the treatment of a family unit as a whole, in which the main focus is on family dynamics and communication
family therapy
recovery from a disorder that occurs without formal treatment
spontaneous remission
the application of learning principles to direct efforts to change clients maladaptive behaviors
behavior therapies
a behavior therapy used to reduce the phobic clients anxiety responses through counterconditioning
systematic desensitization
clients are confronted with situations that they fear so that they learn that these situations are really harmless
exposure therapies
behavior therapy in which an aversive stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits an undesirable response
aversion therapy
a behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal and shaping
social skills training
use varied combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help clients change maladaptive patterns of thinking
cognitive-behavioral treatments
uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
cognitive therapy
physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
biomedical therapies
treatment of mental disorders with medication
psychopharmacotherapy
relieve tension, apprehension and nervousness
antianxiety drugs
used to gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations and delusions
antipsychotic drugs
neurological disorder marked by involuntary writhing and ticlike movements of the mouth, tongue face hands or feet
tardive dyskinesia
gradually elevate mood and help bring people out of a depression
antidepressant drugs
drugs used to control mood swings in patients with bipolar mood disorders
mood stabilizers
biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions
Electroconvulsive therapy
technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain
transcranial magnetic stimulation
a thin electrode is surgically implanted in the brain and connected to an implanted pulse generator so that various electrical current can be delivered to brain tissue adjacent to the electrode
deep brain stimulations (DBS)
the practice of therapy involves drawing ideas from two or more systems of therapy instead of committing to just one system
eclecticism
a medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
mental hospital
transferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient institutions to community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
deintstitutionalization
effects occur when people expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive a fake treatment
placebo effect
when people who score extremely high or low on some trait are measured a second time and their new scores fall closer to the mean
regression toward the mean
Seligman found that people with a pessimistic explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression. These individuals tend to attribute their setbacks to ____ and draw ____ conclusions about their personal inadequacies.
personal flaws; global, far-reaching
Paxton comes from a home where discipline was erratic, and he was physically abused by his parents. His parents were also self-centered and exploitive. Based on research, this home environment is likely to increase Paxton’s risk for developing
antisocial personality disorder.
According to the medical model
abnormal behavior can be thought of as a disease.
Who would be MOST likely to worry about driving home from work while it is snowing because he recalls “the last time I drove home in the snow, I skidded and almost had an accident?”
Alan, who has an anxiety disorder
Killian lets her husband keep all the financial records for the family, and she expects him to make all the decisions that affect them. She refuses to make any decisions on her own, and if anything unexpected occurs, she calls her husband at work to ask for his advice. If Killian has a personality disorder, her symptoms are MOST consistent with those associated with disorders in the
anxious/fearful cluster.
The class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity, is known as
dissociative disorders
Due to the representiveness heuristic, many people underestimate the prevalence of psychological disorders since prototypical disorders are
relatively minor and rare.
A college student faced with upcoming exams and term papers responds to his resulting feelings of anxiety by reorganizing his notes, rearranging his bookshelves, cleaning out his desk drawer, and straightening up his closet. He would be showing symptoms of
obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A concordance rate indicates
the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder.
Which of the following is a common stereotype about psychological disorders?
People with psychological disorders are violent and dangerous.
Disorders that are marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that affect one’s physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes are referred to as
mood disorders.
Earlier age of onset of depression is associated with
greater comorbidity.
The association between stress and mood disorders is inconsistent, but it is clear that
stress affects the likelihood of relapse.
Mario has just entered treatment for a major depressive episode. He is told that most patients respond to treatment within a month and many never experience a second depressive episode. This information represents
a prognosis.
Alexia started a new job on Monday morning. For the first three days, she showed up in bright colors and was outgoing and extroverted. However, on Thursday, she showed up in a dark suit and appeared shy and introverted. She insisted that her name was Clara, and she couldn’t understand why her coworkers kept calling her Alexia. In this example, Alexia is showing symptoms that are consistent with
dissociative identity disorder.
Mark is hospitalized as a result of schizophrenia. He constantly rambles incoherently about a variety of topics and does not interact with the other patients or hospital staff. Mark has delusions that his right arm is slowly shrinking and that he is growing a third eye on the back of his head. MOST likely, Mark is diagnosed with
disorganized schizophrenia
Jeffrey Dahmer was judged to be legally sane, even though he admitted to butchering, cannibalizing, and then having sex with the dead bodies of over a dozen young men. The judgment of legal sanity meant that
he was able to appreciate the fact that his actions were legally or morally wrong at the time of the crime.
In regard to psychological disorders, prevalence refers to
the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period.
Melissa has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. If Melissa were to complete a personality assessment, it is likely that her personality profile would list her as
obsessive, rigid, and emotionally restrained.
A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory concerning a limited period of time, usually after a particularly stressful or traumatic event, is
dissociative amnesia.