Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called
Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon’s parents are using what behavior technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal
Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She’s older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of
conditioned emotional response
In the Bobo doll experiment, the group of children that had seen the model get punished rather than rewarded did…
not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done
After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist’s drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar sounding noise is termed
A teacher decided to give “caught being good” tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules…the teacher is using
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Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
_____ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
Which of the are Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
memory, imitation, desire, and attention
Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of
A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an
The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur
Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’
In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov’s dogs were conditioned to salivate when they
heard the sound of the metronome
____ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer
In a(n) ____, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
involuntary and voluntary
The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to
Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as
It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with
Further studies that followed Kohler’s work with chimpanzees
have found support for the concept of animal insight
Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called
In Kohler’s experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This was an example of
In Seligman’s study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone
jumped over the fence when the shock started
In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had
learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map
Kohler determined that insight
cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone
A behavior is more resistant to extinction if it is
Following a response with the removal of something unpleasant is called
According to Bandura’s findings, if Sammy and his friends are watching animated fight scenes on t.v, what is likely to happen
they will imitate many of the violent actions they witnessed on t.v
The term “extinction” may be misleading because
learning is relatively permanent, meaning things are not “unlearned”
What is an example of negative reinforcement?
taking an aspirin when you have a headache
The response that is given to the conditioned stimulus is not usually quite as strong as the original unconditioned response, ______
but it is essentially the same response
____ is the classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person
_____ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning
In his later studies, Bandura added the condition of ____ into his studies of children and the Bobo doll.
Noah is a junior in college and has always been an average student. This semester, he has a political science class for which he feels very passionate, and he sees himself pursuing a career in politics. For the first time, he wants to do well so that he can get an “A.” This is an example of which element of observational learning?
Bandura conducted some of his research to study
possible links between children’s exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others
Bandura concluded that there were ____ elements of observational learning
In defining learning “____” refers to the fact that when people learn anything, a part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned, and that change remains even if the behavior does not.
Kohler’s chimpanzee experiment involved
a chimp fitting one stick into another stick to reach out of his cage for a banana
The mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving are known as
The second group of rats in Tolman’s maze experiment was not reinforced for finding the exit until the tenth day. Once they started reinforcement, the rats
learned to find the exit almost immediately
In Tolman’s study of latent learning, one group of rats was rewarded for getting out of the maze, a second was not rewarded during training trials but was rewarded eventually, and a third group of rats was
Animal’s tendency to revert to genetically controlled patterns
Voluntary behavior, to Skinner, was ____ behavior
A modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response is
The behavior of infants and animals can be easily reinforced using
Operant conditioning relies on
In toilet training a cat, “Lid Up, Seat Down” is known in operant conditioning as
preparing the training area
The repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS is called
Without the ____, higher-order conditioning would be difficult to maintain and would gradually fade away
An unlearned, involuntary response, such as salivating when presented with food is
In classical conditioning, the actual response involved in a CR and a UCR are the same. However, what makes that response considered conditioned or unconditioned depends on
After a lengthy period during which the UCS was not applied, Pavlov’s dogs stopped responding to the metronome. If a weaker conditioned response to the metronome occurred at some point after this, it would be a demonstration of
Theo noticed a shiny round object lying on the side walk and became very excited. He soon realized that the object was a battle cap and his excitement dissipated. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated in this example?
For every 25 boxes of cookies Tammy sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. On what schedule of reinforcement is Tammy being conditioned?
What are some examples of a stimulus that is likely to elicit a conditioned emotional response?
a Christmas tree lit up, a parent holding a belt, and eerie music from a movie you thought was scary