Psyc

William James
One of the founders of American psychology
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
behavior
includes almost any activity
cognitive
having to do with the process of thinking and understanding
scientific method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions that minimizes errors and bias
systematic studies
all psychologists conduct these studies
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Wilhelm Wundts technique of introspection led to psychology’s use of ______
the scientific method
theory
a complex explanation based on findings from many studies
basic science
Psychologist Debbie K. wants to find out why older people do not sleep as soundly as younger people. Since she does not intend to use this information in the near future she is practicing ______
applied science
Psychologist Jeff B. uses the information about sleeping patterns and aging to prescribe some tips on sleeping better. He is practicing _______
Sigmund Freud
His theory of personality is based on the effects of unconscious conflicts within the individual
Sir Francis Galton
Based his theory of inheritable traits on biographies
Wilhem Wundt
The “father of psychology”
biological psychological
the approach which examines behavior in terms of the physical changes that take place
electric approach
most psychologists lean toward on approach but often borrow from other theories. this is the ______ approach
sociocultural approach
psychologists that use the ______ approach theorizes that ethnic and religious backgrounds influence behavior.
behaviorists
Psychologists who believe that we are the products of learned associations are called this
humanists
a psychologist that believes that people are basically good and capable of helping themselves
cognitive
the approach of the study of behavior, which emphasizes ones thinking, or use of mental procresses, is the ____ approach
Gestalt psychology
the branch of psychology that emphasizes that perception is more than the sum of its parts
sociocultural
an advantage of the ____ approach to psychology is that it helps psychologists to counsel people from different cultures and to understand social influences on behavior
psychiatrists
a medical professional who treats people wiht disturbed behaviors
experimental pschologists
studies topics such as sensation, perception, and learning in controlled laboratory environments
forensic psycologists
develops criminal profiles or helps law to understand problems like abuse
educational psycologists
concerned with helping students learn: teaching methods, text construction
engineering psychologist
works to design systems that help people become more efficent
developmental psychologist
studies the emotional, cognitive, and other changes that occur as the individual matures
clinical psychologist
diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
industrial psychologist
often works in companies trying to improve working conditions in those companies
environmental psychologist
studies the effects of natural disasters, overcrowding, and pollution on people
experimental group
participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable make up this group
the level of attractiveness
what is the indepentdent variable in the following hypothesis: “People who are attractive tend to be rated as more qualified when applying for a job
to create a more natural setting then the laboratory
What is the main reason that psycologists sometimes conduct field studies
double-blind study
when neither the participants nor the experimenter knows which group of the participants is the experimental one, the study if known as a _______ study
placebo
is some form of treatment that resembles medical therapy but has no medical effects
longitudinal studies
in these studies psychologists study the same group of particiants at regualr intervals over a period of years
cross-sectional study
in these studies a psychologist organizes individuals into gourps based on age
case study
a psychologist gathers a large amount of information about a persons background so that the person can recieve treatment
survey
using this a psychologist obtains informations by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
produce accurate results
if surveys are conducted correctly , they ____
case study
to find out is childhood experiences cause adult problems, the best approach would be_____
single-blind experiment
Stanley milgrams experiment was a _____
normal curve
graph of a frequency distribution shaped symmetrically
variable
any factor that is capable of change
self-fullfilling prophecy
situation in which the experimenters expectations influence the experimenters own behavior and there by influences the participants behavior
single-blind
experiment in which only the subjects are unaware of which subjects recieve which treatment
control group
recieves a placebo during an experiment to test a new drug
placebo effeect
change in a subjects illness that results from a belief that the treatment will have and effect
population
the total group from which a sample is drawn
fasle
a stratified sample is considered nonrepresentative because it divides the population into small groups
true
the primary role of naturalistic observation is to remain unseen or unnoticed by the subjects of your observation
true
animals are often used for experimentation because they share many human behaviors
false
a positive correlation indicates that there is a cause and effect relationship between two sets of data
true
one difference between an interview and a questionaire is that the researcher conducting an interview can clarify or rephrase a question
true
the American psychological association tries to ensure that all experiments are ethical
predictions
establishing a correlation is useful because it enables scientists to make relatively accurate _____
survey
Sigmund Freuds theory of personality development was based on _____
sample
a _____ is a relatively small group out of the total population of study
statistics
the branch of mathematics that allows researchers to organize and evaluate data
control
an experiment enables the E to _____ the situation and to eliminate the possibility that unnoticed outside factors will influence the results
random sample
provides an equal chance of being represented in a study
control group
the participants who are treated in the same way as the experimental group, except that the experimental treatment is not applied , make up the _____
chance
researchers need to know if the results of their experiments are statistically significant or are due to ______
stratified sample
representative of various subgroups of the population
longitudinal studies
often used in child development studies
hemisphers
the brain is divided into halves, each half is called a ____
lobes
regions of the cerebral cortex
are about the same
intellegence for right handed verses left handed people
temporal lobe
Beethoven was deaf during the last few years of his life but continued to compose music. Which lobe would let him hear the music even though he was deaf
cerebellum
the part of the hindbrain which coordinates muscle movements such as walking and swimming
hypothalamus
the part of the brain which helps control rage, pleasure, hunger, thirst , body temperature, and sexual desire
reticular activating system
the part of the brain which is the alertness control center of the brain and also regulates the activity level of the body
the primary role of the thalamus
relay messages from the body to the brain and vice versa
true
it is thought that the size of the frontal lobe reflects the intellectual level of a species, therefore a human has more intellectual abilities than a gorilla
true
those nerves that are outside the brain and spinal column are part of the peripheral nervous system
true
fraternal twins are also called dizygotic twins
false
the central nervous system includes the brain but not the spinal column or those nerves in it contains
false
height is controled by the thyroid gland
false
the brains right hemisphere controls speech in most people
true
it is possible to have the halves of your brain disconnected and still live
dendrites
the receptors, or _____, receive impulses from the other neurons and send them to the cell body
the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system
autonomic nervous system
your body is able to automatically control breathing without your conscious effort because of this nervous system
endorphines
nuerotransmitters that relieve pain and increase our sense of well-being
glands and chemical messages
the endocrine system is made up of
pituitary gland
the master gland that secretes a growth hormone
cerebral cortex
in human beings, the sex drive is primarily controlled by the ___
metabolism
the speed with which the body operates or the speed with which is uses up energy
involuntary muscle and organs
the autonomic nervous system regulates the action of the ____
send information to and from the brain
the nervous system and endocrine system _______
biological makeup
in the nature-nuture question nature refers to ____
adrenaline
when ____ is released into the bloodstream , ones breathing and heartbeat increase
genes
are the building blocks of heredity
forebrain
our thinking processes take place here ____
neurons
the all or none principle decribes how the ____ fire
somatic
the _____ nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system the cotrols voluntary activities
consciousness
an awareness of events going on inside or outside a person
Circadian rhythms
involve the cycle of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day
ignore the environment
free running cycels
rem sleep
often your face and fingers twitch and your eyes move rapidly during ___
twilight state
the relaxed period just prior to falling asleep
rem sleep
the stage of sleep in which the body is more or less paralyzed
false
young children require less deep sleep than the elderly
false
your first dream is the longest dream of the night
true
when a person is experiencing sleep apnea, the person is actually chocking.
true
dreams typically occur every 90 minutes
true
a woman can give birth under hypnosis and feel little or no pain
false
if you fail to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day, you are suffering from narcolepsy
false
daydreaming usually occurs immediatly after a strenuous activity or when we have just completed an activity that requires significant concentration
true
one use of biofeedback is to learn to relax the muscle responsible for the most tension headaches
true
stimulants increase energy and improve alertness
the heart rate increases dramtically
this happens during night terrors
ordinary events
most of our dreams are about_____
have missed REM sleep for a few days
nightmares occur more often when you_____
self control
meditation is a form of this
hypnosis
the state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility
biofeedback
the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of specialized machine
meditation
the focusing of attention to clear ones mind and produce relaxation
posthypnotic suggestion
this influences the behavior of a person after hypnosis
cooperation
the relationship between a hypnotist and the paticipant involves ______ not domination
depressants
barbiturates, alcohol, and Valium are classified as _____
support groups
_____ can be powerful treatment options for a drug addict to use to avoid the temptation of relapse
narcolepsy
people with ______ may fall asleep suddenly during the day.
creativity
daydreaming may help us to improve our ______ by generating thought process
Ernest Hilgard has suggested that during hypnosis the various parts of consciousness may separate. this is known as the ______ theory
neodissociation
psychological
regular use of marijuana may result in ________ addiction
hallucinations
sensations or perceptions without any external cause
hallucinogens
LSD is one of the most powerful ____
physical
the regular use of opiates can cause ___ addiction
pain
hypnotic analgesia refers to the reduction of ____ after hypnosis
memory
marijuana disrupts _____ formations, making it difficult to carry out mental and physical tasks
sensation
the process of recieving information from the environment through the various sense organs is known as
perception
the process of assembling sensory information so that we understand it is known as
white light waves
we see color when _____ hit various objects in the environment and bounce off at different wavelengths, which in turn hit different receptors in our eyes
cones
sensory receptor cells in the center portion of the retina that provide color vision are called____
rods
sensory receptor cells located in the layers of tissue near the edge of the retina that provide both night vision and side vision
the food will have almost no taste at all
what happens when you eat while holding your nose?
supertasters
researchers have discovered ____, people with extremely sensitive tongues
depth
Gibson and Walk used a visual cliff to test infants ability to percieve ___
color constancy
when we are eating popcorn in a darkened movie theater, ___ tells us that the kernels are white
closure
when we can see only parts of things, we fill in whats missing; this is known as using the principle of _____