PSYC 313 Chapter 1 (Exam 1)

Development
Pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.
Normative History – Graded Influences
Life span perspectives that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances. (Example: World War II)
Normative Age – Graded Influences
Life span perspectives that are similar for individuals in a particular age group. (Example: puberty and menopause)
Nonnormative Life Events
Life span perspectives that are unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life. (Example: Winning the Lottery)
Culture
Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
Cross-Cultural Studies
Comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures.
Ethnicity
________ is based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language.
Life – Span Perspective
The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual; that it involves growth, maintenance, and regulation; and that it is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together.
Context
The setting in which development occurs, which is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors.
Ethnicity
A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
Gender
Characteristics of people as males or females.
Social Policy
National Government’s course of actin designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Biological Processes
Changes in an individual’s physical nature. (Example: genes inherited from parents, or cardiovascular decline)
Cognitive Processes
Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.
Socioemotional Processes
Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and their personality.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Explores links between development, cognitive processes, and the brain.
Developmental Social Neuroscience
Examines connections between socioemotional processes, development, and the brain.
Biological Age
Person’s age in terms of biological health. (Involves knowing functional capacities of a person’s vital organs)
Psychological Age
Individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age.
Social Age
Connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt. (Ex: Having older friends and getting along with them well)
Nature – Nurture Issue
Concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture.
Nature
Biological inheritance side of Nature – Nurture Issue
Nurture
Environmental experiences side of Nature – Nurture Issue.
Stability – Change Issue
The degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change. (Ex: becoming a transgender)
Continuity – Discontinuity Issue
The degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct ages (discontinuity). (Ex: growth spurts)
Theory
An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate prediction.
Hypotheses
Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy.
Hypotheses
Assertions or predictions, often derived from theories, that can be tested.
Psychoanalytic Theories
Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. (Focuses mainly on early childhood experiences)
Psychoanalytic Theories
Theories holding that development depends primarily on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion, that behavior is merely a surface characteristic, that is it important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior, and that early experiences are important in development.
Freud
_______ developed a technic called psychoanalysis.
Erikson’s Theory
A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human lifespan. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced.
Piaget’s Theory
The theory that children construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development.
Piaget
Who is the father of cognitive psychology??
Operations (Piaget’s)
Internalized mental actions that allow children to do mentally what they previously could only do physically.
Vygotsky’s Theory
A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development.
Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Theories holding that development can be described in terms of the behaviors learned through interactions with the environment.
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that are brought about by rewards and punishments.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development.
Observational Learning
Learning that occurs through observing others.
Skinner
For _______, the key aspect of development is behavior.
Bandura
_________ is the leading architect of social cognitive theory.
Ethology
An approach that stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
Ethology
Study of the behavior of animals in their natural habitat.
Imprinting
The rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen. This specific point in time is called the critical period.
John Bowlby
__________ said that attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span.
Sensitive Period
Time during infancy when attachment should occur in order to promote optimal development of social relationships.
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Envionmental system theory that, which focuses on five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
Microsystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
The setting in which the individual lives. These contexts include the person’s family, peers, school, and neighborhood.
Mesosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
Involves relations between microsystems or connections between contexts. (Example: relation of family experiences to school experiences)
Exosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
Consists of links between social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individuals immediate context. (Example: Child’s experience at home may be influenced by a mother’s experiences at work)
Macrosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
Involves the culture in which Individual’s live in.
Chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory)
Consists of patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances. (Example: divorce is one transition and sociohistorical example is woman pursing a career)
Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories.
Laboratory
Controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the real world are removed.
Naturalistic Observation
Studies that involve observing behavior in real world settings and making no effort to manipulate or control the situation.
Standardized Test
A test that is given with uniform procedures for administration and scoring.
Case Study
In-depth examination of a single individual.
Descriptive Research
Research that designed to observe and record behavior.
Correctional Research
Research that describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events and characteristics.
Correlation Coefficient
A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables.
Experiment
One or more of the factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant.
Cross-Sectional Approach
A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time.
Longitudinal Approach
A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more.
Cohort Effects
Effects that are due to a subject’s time of birth, era, or generation but not age.
Freud and Erikson
Which psychologists were involved with the psychoanalytic theories?
Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information – processing
Which was involved with the cognitive theories?
Skinner and Bandura
Which psychologists were involved with the behavior and social cognitive theories?
Lorenz
Which psychologists were involved with the ethological theory?
Bronfenbrenner
Which psychologists were involved with the ecological theory?
Socioemotional
Changes in relationships, emotions, and personality are examples of __________ processes that affect development
Stability – Change
The __________ issue involves the extent to which early traits and characteristics persist throughout life or alter one’s life
Integrity vs. Despair
According to Erikson’s theory, individuals reflect on the past during their final stage of development, which is known as…
ethological; ecological
Whereas __________ theory emphasizes biological factors, ___________ theory stresses environmental factors.
Experimental Research
The best way to study causality is through.
Informed Consent
Researchers should tell all participants what their research participation will involve and its potential risks. This is known as…
Plasticity
______ means the capacity for change.
Contextual
Events such as the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 influence the development of individuals. This supports the life-span perspective that development is…
A biological and genetic perspective.
The “nature” part of the nature – nurture issue in development can be described as:
Life – Span
Melissa is intrigued with how people change from infancy through late adulthood, she should study __________ development.
Operant
According to Skinner’s ___________ conditioning theory, the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence.
Social interaction and culture
Which of the following are key characteristics of Vygotsky’s theory??
Cognitive
Individual _________ processes refer to the change in an person’s thought, intelligence and language.
Prenatal
The ______ period of development is the time from conception to birth.
cultural heritage, race, and nationality
Ethnicity is rooted in:
78
Life expectancy in the U.S. is _____ years of age.
Cognition, Behavior, and Environment
Which of the following are key factors of Bandura’s social cognitive theory??
Ethnicity
_____ encompasses cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
Infancy
____ is the developmental period from birth to 18 or 24 months.
Correctional Research
Which of the following research designs is used to detect if a relationship exists between two or more variable, although it cannot infer causation?
Information – processing thwory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, Piaget’s developmental theory.
Which of the following are cognitive theories of development?
Ethological
The ________ theory states that behavior is tied to evolution, is strongly affected by biological influence, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.
Social
Bandura’s ______ cognitive theory recognizes the contributions of behaviorism but also stresses that thinking is an important ingredient in understanding development.
Naturalistic
The observance of behavior in real-world settings, while making no effort to manipulate or control the situation, is known a _____ observation.
Normative
_____ age – graded influences include biological processes such as puberty and menopause.