PSYC 2301 Ch. 3

developmental psychology
branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
a molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA
heredity
the genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring
genome
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes
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environment
every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to social support in later life
interaction
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two, creating two genetically identical siblings
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than non-twin brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment
fetus
the development human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogen
an agent, such as a chemical or virus, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
reflex
an unlearned, automatic response to a sensory stimulus
temperament
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
maturation
biological growth process leading to orderly changes in behavior, independent of experience
critical period
a period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences is needed for proper development
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
object performance
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) in which a child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations of concrete logic
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in shapes
egocentrism
in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
theory of mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states — about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ state of mind
concrete operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
formal operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning, by about 8 months of age
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver, and showing distress on separation
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
menarche
the first menstrual period
identity
our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
social identity
the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships
intimacy
in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in early adulthood
emerging adulthood
a period from about age 18 to the mid-twenties, when many Western cultures are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults
menopause
the end of menstruation. In everyday use, it can also mean the biological transition a woman experiences from before to after the end of menstruation
crystallized intelligence
accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Of the following, the best way to separate the effects of genes and environment in research is to study
identical twins raised in different environments
Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic
emotional reactivity and intensity
Most human traits are
influenced by many genes acting together
Chromosomes are composed of small segments of
DNA called genes
When the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another (such as heredity), we say there is a(n) __________ between the two factors.
interaction
Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of the
preoperational stage
During which stage of cognitive development do children begin to show object permanence?
sensorimotor
Babies will vigorously root for a nipple when
their cheek is touched
The Harlows’ studies of attachment in monkeys showed that
a cloth mother produced the greatest attachment response
The developmental theorist who suggested that securely attached children develop an attitude of basic trust is
Erikson
In preconventional morality, the person
obeys to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards
According to Piaget, the ability to reason abstractly is characteristic of the stage of
formal operations
Which of following statements concerning the effects of aging is true?
The aging process can be significantly affected by the individual’s activity patterns.
The end of menstruation is called
menopause
Adolescence is marked by the onset of
puberty
Stranger anxiety develops soon after
the concept of object permanence
Before Piaget, people were more likely to believe that
the child’s mind is a miniature model of the adult’s
Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?
zygote, embryo, fetus
The term critical period refers to
a restricted time for learning
Which of the following was NOT found by the Harlows in socially deprived monkeys?
They showed abnormal physical development.
Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
Kohlberg
The social clock refers to
typical ages for starting a career, marrying, and so on.
In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus on developing __________ during adolescence and then __________ during young adulthood.
identity; intimacy
The emotional impact of menopause on a woman depends on
her expectations and attitudes
After their grown children have left home, most couples experience
greater happiness and enjoyment in their relationship
A person’s accumulation of stored information, called __________ intelligence, generally __________ with age.
crystallized; increases
Stage theories have been criticized because they fault to consider the development may be significantly affected by
all of these factors: variations in the social clock, each individual’s experiences, and each individual’s historical and cultural setting
A child whose mother drank heavily when she was pregnant is at heightened risk of
being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome
The average age at which puberty begins is _____ in boys; in girls, it is _____.
13; 11
An older person who can remember his or her life with a sense of satisfaction and completion has attained Erikson’s stage of
integrity