PSY1010CH12PersonalitySummativeQuiz

the superego
According to Sigmund Freud, this part of the personality represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations.

the phallic
the id
the ego
the superego

Sigmund Freud; Elvis Presley
_____ is to the history of psychology as _____ is to the history of rock music.

Sigmund Freud; Elvis Presley
Anna Freud; Bobby Vee
Wilhelm Wundt; Chuck Berry
Karen Horney; John Lennon

reaction formation
Bryce often acts overly confident and daring. Few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce BEST illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

regression.
projection.
displacement.
reaction formation.

human capacity for evil
Critics complain that the humanistic perspective fails to appreciate:

self-acceptance.
human capacity for evil.
human capacity for good.
individual needs.

self-actualization
Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by the opinions of others display:

extraversion.
reaction formation.
self-actualization.
an external locus of control.

unconditional positive regard
Darius’s friends know him as someone who values people regardless of their failings. When people spend time with Darius, they know he will have an attitude of total acceptance toward them. Carl Rogers refers to this attitude as:

companionate love.
counterconditioning.
confirmation bias.
unconditional positive regard.

agreeableness
One of the “Big Five” personality factors is:

reciprocal determinism.
self-actualization.
agreeableness.
psychoanalysis.

conscientiousness
Frieda is organized, careful, and disciplined. She would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures:

conscientiousness.
agreeableness.
extraversion.
openness.

objective scoring; subjective scoring
Personality inventories are to _____ as projective tests are to _____.

standardization; validity
validity; standardization
subjective scoring; objective scoring
objective scoring; subjective scoring

behavior
Some psychologists believe that human _____ is influenced by people’s biology, social experiences, and cognition and personality.

development
determinism
behavior
biopsychosocial conundrums

This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits.
In a psychology class debate on the social-cognitive perspective, the students are asked to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the social cognitive perspective can they cite?

People do not act with predictable consistency, and behavior varies from one situation to the next.
This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits.
This perspective focuses too much on the personality traits and fails to consider the situation.
This perspective has not built on psychological research on learning and cognition.

biopsychosocial approach
There is evidence that behavior is the result of the interplay between external and internal influences; that behavior is the product of biology, social experience, and unconscious thought processes. This evidence suggests that personality should be studied from a:

developmental approach.
deterministic approach.
psychoanalytic approach.
biopsychosocial approach.

a self-serving bias
Jack attributes his failing grade in chemistry to an unfair final exam. His attitude illustrates:

an internal locus of control.
unconditional positive regard.
a self-serving bias.
reciprocal determinism.

blame her failure on bad officiating
If the self-serving bias is evident in the way an athlete explains her success or failure, she might:

blame her failure on her own abilities.
blame her failure on bad officiating.
explain her success in terms of the other team’s bad luck.
explain the other team’s success in terms of its superiority.

the spotlight effect
People overestimate the degree to which others are noticing and evaluating their appearance, performance, and blunders. Thomas Gilovich termed this:

reciprocal determinism.
the spotlight effect.
unrealistic optimism.
the false consensus effect.

rationalization
This defense mechanism offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. This is known as:

repression.
reaction formation.
projection.
rationalization.

not very reliable and has limited validity
Kayden had to take a Rorschach inkblot test for his new job. He is worried because he has heard that the Rorschach is not a very good test. Critics would agree and suggest that the Rorschach is:

an old test.
not very reliable and has limited validity.
not a projective test.
not a personality test.

altruism
In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes everything EXCEPT:

empathy.
acceptance.
genuineness.
altruism.

unconditional positive regard
Kate comes home with three “A’s” and two “B’s,” to which her mother replies, “Is that the best you could do?” and walks away. Rogers refers to this attitude as the opposite of:

companionate love.
genuineness.
confirmation bias.
unconditional positive regard.

the need for self-actualization
Most of Dakota’s friends look at him with respect. He is self-aware, self-accepting, and open. He is spontaneous and caring, and does not worry about other people’s opinions. According to Abraham Maslow, it is likely that Dakota is motivated by:

the need to reinforce others.
the need for self-actualization.
operant conditioning.
unconscious needs.

conscientiousness
Geneva has an extremely clean dorm room. She keeps no clutter on her desk, she awakens very early to keep up with her schoolwork, and her car is spotless. Given this knowledge of her behavior, which “Big Five” personality traits does she MOST exhibit?

extraversion
openness
agreeableness
conscientiousness

exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition
Eli has always been an extravert. There is some evidence that people like Eli seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. For example, extroverts:

have lower levels of serotonin.
exhibit more activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition.
exhibit less activity in a frontal lobe area involved in behavior inhibition.
have greater levels of norepinephrine.

the lie scale
A psychologist asks one of her clients to complete the MMPI. After she scores the MMPI, she notices that the client endorsed answers which make her seem healthier than she really is. These answers would be detected on:

the fake scale.
an external scale.
the lie scale.
the validity scale.

reciprocal determinism
Anxious people tend to be on the lookout for potentially threatening events; they perceive the world as threatening. Their personalities shape how they interpret and react to events. This is known as:

self-actualization.
reciprocal determinism.
social facilitation.
unconditional positive regard.

reciprocal determinism
Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant’s phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. However, in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:

social loafing.
linguistic determinism.
reciprocal determinism.
attributional style.

90; 90
According to the text, several studies have shown that _____ percent of business managers and more than _____ percent of college professors rated their performance as superior to that of their average peer.

67; 90
75; 90
67; 67
90; 90

persist when faced with a difficult task
People with high self-esteem have feelings of high self-worth and tend to:

give up when faced with a difficult task.
persist when faced with a difficult task.
succumb more often to pressure to conform.
have more sleepless nights.

possible selves
People imagine the self they want to be, perhaps a great athlete, well loved, and well educated. They also imagine the self they fear becoming, a homeless person or lonely. These visions reflect the concept of:

reciprocal determinism.
possible selves.
the spotlight effect.
the self-serving bias.

the Oedipus complex
Lately, 5-year-old Liam has been acting strangely. He clings to his mother and expresses jealous feelings towards his father and fears castration, almost as if his father is a sexual rival for his mother’s love. Sigmund Freud would suggest that Liam is experiencing:

fixation.
the Electra complex.
the Oedipus complex.
a defense mechanism.

displacement
Jorge was reprimanded for an accounting error by his boss in front of his coworkers. Jorge gets home from his job and yells at his wife for not having dinner ready. His wife then yells at the children for leaving their toys all over the house. This BEST illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

rationalization.
projection.
displacement.
reaction formation.

displacement
Bonnie is afraid to express anger toward her overbearing and irritating supervisor. Instead, she is critical of her children. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates:

identification.
reaction formation
displacement.
projection.

The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Abraham Maslow’s personal values.
In a psychology class debate on the humanistic perspective, the students need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the humanistic perspective can they cite?

Its concepts are too precise and specific.
The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Abraham Maslow’s personal values.
It emphasizes collectivism too heavily.
It emphasizes unconscious motivations too heavily.

emphasizes the growth potential of “healthy” individuals
The humanistic perspective of personality:

emphasizes the driving force of unconscious motivations in human personality.
emphasizes the growth potential of “healthy” individuals.
emphasizes the importance of human interaction with the environment in shaping personality.
describes human personality in terms of scores on various personality scales.

Unconditional positive regard
_____ is an attitude of total acceptance toward another person. Humanistic theorists believe this attitude nurtures growth in others.

Unconditional positive regard
Self-actualization
Thematic apperception
The Electra complex

extraversion-introversion
According to Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck, the individual variation that is apparent across people can be reduced to several dimensions, including which of these?

extraversion-introversion
collectivism-individualism
adaptation-habituation
conformity-individualism

Jerome Kagan
This psychologist attributed differences in children’s shyness and inhibition to their autonomic nervous system reactivity.

Hans Eysenck
Jean Twenge
Gordon Allport
Jerome Kagan

This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits
In a psychology class debate on the social-cognitive perspective, the students are asked to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the social-cognitive perspective can they cite?

People do not act with predictable consistency, and behavior varies from one situation to the next.
This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits.
This perspective focuses too much on the personality traits and fails to consider the situation.
This perspective has not built on psychological research on learning and cognition.

have fewer sleepless nights
A person with very high self-esteem is likely to _____ than a person with low self-esteem.

be more shy
be more easily swayed by pressures to conform
have fewer sleepless nights
give up when faced with a difficult task

a self-serving bias
Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck BEST illustrate:

unconditional positive regard.
reciprocal determinism.
the spotlight effect.
a self-serving bias.

avoid comments showing his own brilliance
Carl learns that he failed an exam. His self-esteem is temporarily lowered, and he may be MORE likely to do all of these EXCEPT:

be very critical about his wife’s cooking.
express some underlying racial prejudice.
make disparaging comments about his mother-in-law.
avoid comments showing his own brilliance.

the id, the ego, and the superego
Sigmund Freud suggested that three interacting systems can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:

the oral, the anal, and the phallic.
the id, the ego, and the superego.
repression, identification, and fixation.
the unconscious, the preconscious, and the collective unconscious.

psychosexual development
According to Sigmund Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:

free association.
psychosexual development.
projective testing.
hypnosis.

identification
Jacob picks up a hammer and begins pounding on the board just as his father is hammering nails into the wall. Jacob’s actions are BEST explained by:

fixation.
the Electra complex.
identification.
repression.

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
According to Carl Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote personality growth. These are:

honesty, sincerity, and empathy.
high self-esteem, honesty, and empathy.
high self-esteem, genuineness, and acceptance.
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.

Carl Rogers
_____ emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development.

Gordon Allport
Albert Bandura
Carl Rogers
Karen Horney

the Barnum effect
People’s acceptance of stock, positive descriptions of themselves from psychics and from palm readers is known as:

the Tom Thumb effect.
the Ringling effect.
the Jenny Lind effect.
the Barnum effect.

“Objectivity does not guarantee validity.”
Opposing counsel asks the expert witness for the defense if the MMPI is an objective instrument. The expert responds by saying:

“According to a National Research Council report, the popularity of the MMPI shows it is an objective instrument.”
“Yes, although the MMPI works better on females than on males.”
“Yes, although the MMPI works better on males than on females.”
“Objectivity does not guarantee validity.”

reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:

free association.
self-actualization.
reciprocal determinism.
factor analysis.

reciprocal determinism
Katrina is a worrier. She worries about her family, her friends, and herself. She is particularly aware of potential hazards in the environment, and she sees the world as a dangerous place. Her personality is shaped by how she interprets and reacts to events. Albert Bandura called this process:

reciprocal determinism.
the spotlight effect.
unconditional positive regard.
the self-reference phenomenon.

the spotlight effect
When Kevin noticed that he had spilled coffee on his new shirt, he overestimated that other people at the meeting would notice. His reaction BEST illustrates:

the spotlight effect.
the self-reference phenomenon.
reciprocal determinism.
the Barnum effect.

Carl Rogers
This psychologist objected to the religious doctrine that humanity’s problems arise from excessive self-love or pride.

Carl Rogers
Gordon Allport
Jean Twenge
William James

oral
Gene has always had trouble with her weight. She was not breast-fed when she was an infant and seems to overcompensate now. According to Sigmund Freud, which psychosexual stage is Gene fixated in?

genital
phallic
oral
anal

The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Abraham Maslow’s personal values
In a psychology class debate on the humanistic perspective, the students need to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the humanistic perspective can they cite?

Its concepts are too precise and specific.
The descriptions of self-actualizing people reflect Abraham Maslow’s personal values.
It emphasizes collectivism too heavily.
It emphasizes unconscious motivations too heavily

It encourages people to be “undeterred” by others’ needs, which can lead to self-actualization
Carl Rogers said, “The only question which matters is, ‘Am I living in a way that is deeply satisfying to me?'” Which statement is NOT how critics of Rogers would MOST likely object to Rogers’ statement?

It encourages too much individualism, which can lead to self-indulgence and selfishness.
It encourages too much individualism, which can lead to an erosion of moral restraints.
It fails to recognize that people who focus beyond themselves are more likely to experience life satisfaction.
It encourages people to be “undeterred” by others’ needs, which can lead to self-actualization.

genuineness
Dr. Burns sees his own therapist in order for him to be at his emotional best for seeing patients. He is open with his feelings and self-disclosing in his own therapy. Rogers refers to this attitude as:

companionate love.
genuineness.
confirmation bias.
unconditional positive regard

Factor analysis
_____ is a statistical procedure that can be used to identify clusters of behaviors that are related to a trait.

Behavioral analysis
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Correlational analysis
Factor analysis

People do not act with predictable consistency; behavior varies from one situation to the next
In a psychology class debate on the trait perspective, the students are asked to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the trait perspective can they cite?

The trait perspective emphasizes unconscious motivations too heavily.
People do not act with predictable consistency; behavior varies from one situation to the next.
The Big Five personality traits are not stable in adulthood.
The Big Five traits cannot describe personality across different cultures.

emotional stability
Garrick is a calm, self-satisfied man who appears to be secure. Which “Big Five” personality factor would BEST describe his personality?

conscientiousness
emotional stability
extraversion
openness

Albert Bandura
This psychologist proposed the social-cognitive perspective.

Anna Freud
Albert Bandura
Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers

reciprocal determinism
Sarah’s optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This BEST illustrates:

the self-reference phenomenon.
unconditional positive regard.
the spotlight effect.
reciprocal determinism.

collectivism
Defining one’s identity in terms of one’s extended family or work group is MOST closely associated with:

heritability.
individualism.
temperament.
collectivism.

unconscious processes
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:

unconscious processes.
an external locus of control.
factor analysis.
reciprocal determinism.

unconditional positive regard
An attitude of total acceptance toward another person is known as:

empathy.
unconditional positive regard.
genuineness.
altruism.

Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard
A principal is looking for advice on how to improve his relationships with the teachers in his school. Carl Rogers might suggest which of these?

Ask them if they have met all of their self-esteem and self-actualization needs.
Look at the way their behavior is influenced by environmental factors.
Compliment them often even if the compliments are insincere.
Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard.

factor analysis
Psychologists would use _____ to assess whether a single personality trait is reflected in a cluster of characteristics.

projective testing
factor analysis
empirically derived testing
free association

Alfred Adler
This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of human behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.

Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
Karen Horney
Anna Freud

free association
Kanesha meets with a therapist because she wants to change her life. The doctor tells her to lie down on the couch, relax, and say whatever comes to mind. This psychoanalytic method is known as:

defixation.
free association.
rational-emotive therapy.
humanistic therapy.

objective test
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):

projective test.
subjective test.
objective test.
selective test.

a self-serving bias
People are more likely to perceive themselves favorably. This is known as:

a self-serving bias.
the self-reference phenomenon.
the spotlight effect.
reciprocal determinism.

the spotlight effect
Keesha’s friend is giving a speech tomorrow and is worried because she just got an unflattering haircut. She is convinced everyone will stare at her bangs and will discuss her unattractive hair. Her probable overestimation of people’s reactions is known as:

social fluency.
the Barnum effect.
the self-serving bias.
the spotlight effect.

personal traits, such as talent and creativity
Students in an individualistic culture like the United States tend to attribute their academic success to:

personal traits, such as talent and creativity.
strong social ties with mentors and others.
networking.
identification with family values.

repression
Children who have witnessed a parent’s murder report memories that MOST clearly challenge Sigmund Freud’s concept of:

the Oedipus complex.
reaction formation.
displacement.
repression.

weak superego
Although Alex is frequently caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about his actions. Alex MOST clearly demonstrates a(n):

inferiority complex.
external locus of control.
weak superego.
oral fixation.

individualism
The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree of:

factor analysis.
pessimism.
individualism.
personality testing.

a hierarchy of needs
According to Abraham Maslow, people are motivated by:

a hierarchy of needs.
inborn instincts.
conditions of optimal arousal.
drive reduction.

was empirically derived
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):

was designed to assess “normal” personality tendencies.
was empirically derived.
is scored subjectively.
picked test items from a small pool that failed to discriminate between groups.

Raul’s traits will remain hidden as he attends carefully to social cues
Raul is a guest in the home of his best friend while he is visiting. Psychologists would suggest that:

Raul will feel extremely comfortable in his friend’s house.
Raul’s traits will be quite visible as he attends carefully to social cues.
Raul’s traits will be less constrained because he is with his best friend.
Raul’s traits will remain hidden as he attends carefully to social cues.

react violently
When their self-esteem has been threatened, people with large egos may:

react violently.
seek out explanations for their errors.
be less likely to criticize others.
retreat.

the id
According to Sigmund Freud, this part of the personality contains a reservoir of
unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy the basic sexual and aggressive drives.

the phallic
the id
the ego
the superego

an oral fixation
Sigmund Freud suggested that adults with a passive and submissive personality, marked by a childlike dependence, demonstrate signs of:

an oral fixation.
an inferiority complex.
a reaction formation.
an Oedipus complex

individualism
The humanistic perspective has been criticized for promoting an excessive degree of:

factor analysis.
pessimism.
individualism.
personality testing.

This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a
person’s inner traits
In a psychology class debate on the social-cognitive perspective, the students are asked to take the opposing view and rebut its positive aspects. Which criticism of the social-cognitive perspective can they cite?

People do not act with predictable consistency, and behavior varies from one situation to the next.
This perspective focuses too much on the situation and fails to appreciate a person’s inner traits.
This perspective focuses too much on the personality traits and fails to consider the situation.
This perspective has not built on psychological research on learning and cognition.

overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing them.
People’s behavior can be described in terms of the spotlight effect. This means that they:

tend to see themselves as being above average in ability.
perceive that their fate is determined by forces not under their personal control.
overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing them.
underestimate the extent to which other people’s opinions should be taken into account.

regression toward the mean
When people’s symptoms of psychological distress are at their worst, anything they do to alleviate the condition is likely to be followed by improvement rather than further deterioration. This is BEST explained by:

systematic desensitization.
the therapeutic alliance.
counterconditioning.
regression toward the mean.

free association
_____ is a psychoanalytic method for exploring the unconscious. With this method, patients are told to relax and say whatever comes to mind.

Free association
Identification
Projective disassociation
Regression

a positive self-concept
Humanistic psychology emphasizes the importance of:

empirically derived tests.
reciprocal determinism.
a positive self-concept.
an external locus of control.

genuineness
When people display their own feelings and drop their facades, they are displaying:

empathy.
unconditional positive regard.
genuineness.
altruism.

genuineness
When people display their own feelings and drop their facades, they are displaying:
empathy.
unconditional positive regard.
genuineness.
altruism.
social-cognitive
The _____ perspective emphasizes that personality is the result of interactions between people and their situations. The way one thinks about a situation affects one’s behavior.

social-cognitive
trait
psychoanalytic
humanistic

collectivism
Displays of self-effacing humility are MOST characteristic of those who value:

individualism.
gender-typing.
collectivism.
gender-schemas.

the spotlight effect
When Vanessa noticed she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction BEST illustrates:

the spotlight effect.
the self-reference phenomenon.
reciprocal determinism.
the Barnum effect.

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
The proper order of Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages is:

oral, anal, phallic, genital, and latency.
oral, anal, latency, phallic, and genital.
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
anal, oral, phallic, latency, and genital.

psychoanalytic
The _____ perspective emphasizes the role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders.

trait
social-cognitive
psychoanalytic
humanistic

positive growth in humans; the growth of healthy trees
Genuineness, acceptance, and empathy are to _____ as water, sun, and nutrients are to _____.

positive growth in humans; the growth of healthy trees
therapy; benign therapists
self-love; excessive self-esteem
fallacious self-concept; unconditional positive regard

the trait perspective
The stability of personality during adulthood is BEST evaluated by:
psychoanalysis.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
the self-reference phenomenon.
the trait perspective.
self
In European and American psychology, the _____ is thought to be the organizer of a person’s thoughts, feelings, and actions, as well as the pivotal center of the personality.

self
id
unconscious
human soul

Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive
regard
A principal is looking for advice on how to improve his relationships with the teachers in his school. Carl Rogers might suggest which of these?

Ask them if they have met all of their self-esteem and selfactualization needs.
Look at the way their behavior is influenced by environmental factors.
Compliment them often even if the compliments are insincere.
Be genuine with them and show them unconditional positive regard.

personality measurement; intelligence measurement
Starke Hathaway is to _____ as Alfred Binet is to _____.

personality measurement; intelligence measurement
intelligence; personality
Austrian psychology; French psychology
introversion; extraversion

the trait perspective
The stability of personality during adulthood is BEST evaluated by:

psychoanalysis.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
the self-reference phenomenon.
the trait perspective.

fragility; sturdiness
Defensive self-esteem is to _____ as secure self-esteem is to _____.

fragility; sturdiness
moisture; dryness
the Rorschach; the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
self-serving bias; learned helplessness

It encourages people to be “undeterred” by others’ needs, which can lead to self-actualization
Carl Rogers said, “The only question which matters is, ‘Am I living in a way that is deeply satisfying to me?'” Which statement is NOT how critics of Rogers would MOST likely object to Rogers’ statement?
It encourages too much individualism, which can lead to self-indulgence and selfishness.
It encourages too much individualism, which can lead to an erosion of moral restraints.
It fails to recognize that people who focus beyond themselves are more likely to experience life satisfaction.
It encourages people to be “undeterred” by others’ needs, which can lead to self-actualization.
the motivation to fulfill one’s potential
Some psychologists believe self-actualization is the ultimate psychological need. It only arises after basic psychological and physiological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved. Self-actualization refers to:

the need to belong.
the motivation to fulfill one’s potential.
the need to achieve.
not being attainable.

the Barnum effect
During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told, “You often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends.” Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality BEST illustrates:

the spotlight effect.
an external locus of control.
the Barnum effect.
the self-reference phenomenon.

extraversion
Veda is sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate. She would likely score very highly on a personality test that measures:

conscientiousness.
agreeableness.
extraversion.
openness.

overestimate the extent to which other people notice them
People’s behavior can be described in terms of the spotlight effect. This means that they:

tend to see themselves as being above average in ability.
perceive that their fate is determined by forces not under their personal control.
overestimate the extent to which other people notice them.
underestimate the extent to which other people’s opinions should be taken into account.

100; 10
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been translated into more than _____ languages and groups the questions into
_____ clinical scales.

50; 5
100; 10
100; 15
200; 20

50
Some psychologists claim that the “Big Five” personality factors have a heritability of approximately _____ percent for each dimension.

30
50
70
90

All of these things are true, as studies show that children thrive in all cultures
Studies of childrearing across different cultures show that children thrive in:

individualistic societies that emphasize independence.
Asian and African cultures that emphasize emotional closeness.
cultures in which parents hand over much of the care-giving to others.
All of these things are true, as studies show that children thrive in all cultures.

projection
This defense mechanism occurs when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. This is known as:

repression.
reaction formation.
projection.
rationalization.

an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory includes ideas about:

a characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition.
an unconscious region of the mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.
trait dimensions (e.g., introverted-extraverted or stable-unstable).
self-actualization and fulfilling one’s potential.

projective
In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used _____ test.

empirically derived
thematic apperception
factor analytic
projective

traits
According to Gordon Allport, personality should be described in terms of:

traits.
the unconscious.
self-actualization.
self-concept.

collectivism
A person from a culture that emphasizes _____ gives priority to the goals of the group and defines the self accordingly.

norms
personal space
individualism
collectivism

collective unconscious
According to Carl Jung, humans have a reservoir of images that are derived from our universal experiences. This is known as a person’s:

defense mechanisms.
reaction formation.
repressed memories.
collective unconscious.

rationalization
Bruce has been smoking since he was 15-years-old. His doctor tells him that he needs to quit for his health. Bruce tells the doctor, “Look, smoking is the only bad thing I do, and besides, you have to die from something.” This BEST illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

rationalization.
projection.
displacement.
reaction formation.