psy quiz 10

Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex fluctuates regularly during tasks that involve ____.
motivation, attention, and deciding among several alternatives
A person with moderate intellectual disability ____.
may complete a second-grade curriculum by the age of 18
Which of the following is true about dyslexia?
Dyslexia is strongly influenced by genetic factors.
Understanding a problem should ____.
should include data collection, analysis, and organization
Good decision making is ____.
a skill that can be taught
Eddie has been a homicide detective in a small city for several years and he is good at his job. He is often called on by other detectives to help with difficult cases. Which of the following reflects his fluid intelligence?
Eddie finds that when he reads through a file, a detail will leap out at him as peculiar to the flow of events, which then helps to focus the direction of the investigation.
According to a report on endangered languages, what percentage of the world’s spoken languages may soon be lost?
nearly half
Which group is most likely to use visual images in their thought processes?
young children
Place the following conditions in order from the least difficulty to the most difficulty in terms of the ability to learn language.
Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, mutation in FOXP-2 gene
Which event occurring around 100,000 years ago possibly marked the start of modern language as we know it (Corballis, 2004)?
A critical gene mutation in the FOXP-2 gene
The ability to think logically using specific learned knowledge is called ____.
crystallized intelligence
In which of the following ways does a typical child first learn language?
Evan seems to learn words and form small sentences effortlessly with no specific instruction.
The loss of the ability to speak or understand language is called ____.
aphasia
Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex, such as that suffered by Phineas Gage, reliably produces ____.
impulsivity and poor judgment
Of the following, who has a speech pattern comparable to that of a person with Wernicke’s aphasia?
Dan, who speaks rapidly, fluently, and with good grammar, but rarely makes sense
Leena’s and Ruth’s mother takes them to see a dermatologist for their acne. The dermatologist, Dr. Pore, sees each daughter separately but prescribes the same medication for both. Dr. Pore tells Leena the medication has a 75% effectiveness rate. She tells Ruth the medication has a 25% failure rate. Leena leaves the appointment more optimistic than Ruth. This is an example of ____.
a framing effect
The recognition heuristic ____.
has been shown to beat other, more conventional means of selecting stocks
Dolores, a college freshman, has moved to a big city for the first time in her life. She is excited by the opportunity to explore the city, but is also anxious about what she read recently about street crime in one of the city’s neighborhoods. In reality, she is more at risk of harm from reckless drivers. What heuristic is she applying is this situation?
availability heuristic
an analysis of over 500 contemporary languages has demonstrated that the number of speech sounds in a language decreases systematically ____.
with the culture’s distance from Africa along migration routes
Which of the following is true about algorithms
Algorithms may be inefficient when used by a human brain.
Which of the following is the best example of problem solving?
Roy is worried about his persistent sore throat. He does research on the Internet and decides to contact his doctor.
the primary intention of an IQ test is to predict ____.
a school performance
Betty has been a saver all of her life, but recently, she became a gambler. She is considering betting all of her savings in a lottery in hopes of making enough money for an around-the-world cruise. Betty may have suffered damage to her ____.
amygdala
What is the best definition of a “problem”?
A situation in which a current state is separated from an ideal state by obstacles
Chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas have a part of the brain that is ____.
analogous to the human Broca’s area
Human beings produce over 500 different phonemes, of which the English language uses ____.
about 45
Marie’s roommate suggests that she use a Gantt chart in preparation for the race. This is because the Gantt chart will ____.
provide a way to break plans into manageable pieces and schedule the time needed for each piece
Marie feels that she has never been athletic and therefore, could not possibly run in a charity race with her friends in the spring, though she would like to become more physically active to address her weight gain. This reflects ____.
a limited sense of self-efficacy
Marie completed the race but needed to walk for the last mile. What would be the next step for her as an effective problem solving strategy?
Evaluate whether the original problem has been solved.
Marvin tries to describe a sailboat as an average of all sailboats in terms of length, width, height of mast, materials, color, etc. This is called a(n) ____.
prototype
Katie loved baking brownies with her grandmother during her holiday visits. In fact, she still makes these brownies using the exact same steps as her grandmother. What is this called?
An algorithm
The affected area of the brain in Wernicke’s aphasia is ____.
in the temporal lobe, near the primary auditory cortex
Of the following, who has a speech pattern comparable to that of Paul Broca’s research subject Leborgne?
Diego speaks very slowly and with much effort, but his speech generally makes sense.
the availability heuristic is a rule of thumb in which ____.
the frequency of an event’s occurrence is predicted by the ease with which the event is brought to mind
Of the following, who best demonstrates social or emotional intelligence?
Jimmy, who is five years old and able to resist eating one marshmallow long enough to be rewarded with two
Intellectual disability is a condition diagnosed in individuals with IQ scores below 70 and ____.
poor adaptive behaviors
Which of the following is true?
Exemplars provide a better way of thinking about the variability of a category than prototypes.
The causal factors for mild intellectual disability are ____
preventable environmental causes
The heritability of adult intelligence as measured by IQ tests is usually reported to be about .75, which means that ____.
75% of the variance in intelligence observed in the population can be attributed to genetics
Studies on patients with brain damage suggest that our brains have been shaped through natural selection. The vast majority of these patients who have specific deficits in processing categories perform differently from control participants in one domain: ____.
animals versus nonliving things
Standard measures of intelligence are positively correlated with ____.
the thickness of the cerebral cortex, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes
American Sign Language is ____.
processed primarily by the left hemisphere, similar to other languages
The recognition heuristic ____.
has been shown to beat other, more conventional means of selecting stocks
The most critical element for Marie to successfully implement her solution is to ____.
approach it with careful planning
Which of the following is true about algorithms?
Algorithms may be inefficient when used by a human brain.
Behaviorists, including B. F. Skinner, argued that children learn language through ____.
operant conditioning
Who is most likely to be enjoying a lifetime peak in both fluid and crystallized intelligence?
Chris, who is a stock trader and has just celebrated his thirtieth birthday
Which of the following is true of mental images?
People can turn visual mental images around in their minds, zoom in or out, and identify their features.
People with very high maximizer scores tend to be ____.
less happy and more prone to depression
How is the term cognition, derived from the Latin word cognito, described in your text?
A group of internal mental processes, including information processing, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
Selena’s parents arrange for her to take part in an intelligence test for preschool admissions. Her individual intelligence is measured to be 125 relative to a statistically normal curve with an average of 100. This is her ____.
intelligence quotient
Wes is always looking for the ultimate in everything: the best burger, the best movie, the best smartphone, etc. He likes to think that he holds himself to similar high standards. According to research studies, Wes would be considered a ____.
maximizer
Many scholars, including linguists Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker, believe that human beings ____.
have an inborn capacity for learning language
Yves is called on in class to define the representativeness heuristic. He answers that “it is a rule of thumb in which stimuli similar to an exemplar are believed to be more likely than stimuli that are dissimilar.” Which part of his definition is incorrect?
similar to an exemplar
Concept formation is ____.
not uniquely human
The ability to think logically without the need to use learned knowledge is called ____.
fluid intelligence
Language has been defined as a system for communicating thoughts and feelings using ____.
arbitrary signals such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols
Careful formulation of a problem may help to avoid distractions from ____.
irrelevant information
What is the most important element when generating possible solutions to a problem?
time
A possible barrier to successful problem solving, in which a concept is considered only in its most typical form, is called ____.
functional fixedness
What are the four steps of problem solving?
Understand the problem, make a plan, carry out the plan, and look back to evaluate progress.
A heuristic is a(n) ____.
shortcut to problem solving, also known as a “rule of thumb”
Ella is four years old and expanding her schema regarding dogs. The dog that she knows the best is her neighbor’s golden retriever, Gus. She was recently told by her neighbor that dogs like to roll in grass with distinctive, or “smelly,” odors. Under what circumstances is she most likely to extend that fact to all dogs?
she hears her uncle describe his dog Bob rolling around with a dead fish, but has not yet met Bob.
According to Benjamin Lee Whorf’s hypothesis of linguistic relativity, what affects a person’s ability to think about a topic?
Having a rich vocabulary on the topic
Proficiency in two languages, or bilingualism, ____.
requires more time to achieve than proficiency in one language
Regor has learned quite a bit about sailboats and is now excited about experiencing life on the water. So, Marvin and his dad take Regor sailing one weekend. Regor now has a set of beliefs, expectations, and personal experiences related to sailboats and sailing to which he can add new information. This is called a ____.
schema
Which of the following can be either a phoneme or a morpheme?
“a”
Broadly speaking, knowledge is the entire body of information acquired through study, investigation, observation, and experience. To manage all of this knowledge, the mind often uses ____.
symbols
Giftedness is an extreme of intelligence defined as having an IQ score of ____.
130 or above