psy final 275

Malorie was born during her mother’s 32nd week of pregnancy. Malorie would be termed a _____ baby.
preterm
The second stage of childbirth begins with the _______ and ends with the _____.
emergence of the child’s head; delivery of the child out of the mother
According to evolutionary developmental psychologists, many evolved psychological mechanisms are _____. That is, the mechanisms apply only to a specific aspect of a person’s makeup.
domain-specific
The “visual cliff” experiment was used to measure:
depth perception
Which of the following is Erikson’s fifth developmental stage?
Identity versus identity confusion
Which of the following is the term Erik Erikson uses to describe the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy?
psychosocial moratorium
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Identify the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
identity diffusion
The status of identity ¬¬_____ occurs most often when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoritarian way, before adolescents have had a chance to explore different approaches, ideologies, and vocations on their own.
foreclosure
Marie is reluctant to marry since she is worried that her husband might cheat on her. You would tell her that adultery is:
clearly the exception rather than the rule
In 1994, Robert Michael and his colleagues conducted a comprehensive survey of American sexual patterns. Results from this “Sex in America” survey suggested that Americans’ sexual lives are _____ than previously believed.
more conservative
According to Erik Erikson, which of the following stages occurs during early adulthood, after individuals are well on their way to establishing stable and successful identities?
Intimacy versus isolation
Penelope is describing her marriage of 15 years: “My husband and I were eating breakfast the other day. Neither of us was talking, both of us just reading and thinking our own thoughts. But it was a very comfortable, companionable silence, and I love it!” What aspect of their relationship does this illustrate?
Affectionate love
According to Robert J. Sternberg, which of the following is the strongest and fullest form of love?
passionate
Which of the following factors is NOT associated with an increase in divorce?
marrying later in life
Which of the following is true of the preferences of adults regarding the attachment styles of their partners?
Adults prefer having a securely attached partner
Which of the following is NOT one of the five big personality traits identified by Costa and McCrae?
adaptability
A flat EEG (electroencephalogram) recording for a specified period of time is one criterion of _____.
brain death
According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, which of the following is the first stage of dying?
denial and isolation
According to Kübler-Ross, _____ is the stage of dying in which the person develops the hope that death can somehow be postponed or delayed.
bargaining
According to Kübler-Ross, in the _____ stage of dying, the dying person recognizes that denial can no longer be maintained.
acceptance
Aging expert Laura Carstensen concluded that people:
choose close friends over new friends as they grow older.
Angelique is in the terminal stages of cancer. She feels that the pain has now become unbearable, so she requests her doctor to end her life painlessly through medication. Which of the following acts is Angelique requesting her doctor to perform?
euthanasia
Approximately _____ of the total health bill of the United States is for the care of adults 65 and over, who comprise only 12 percent of the population.
one-third
Considering the fact that many of the health problems of older adults are chronic rather than acute, which of the following is a concern regarding the medical system?
The medical system is still based on a “cure” rather than a “care” model.
Delilah lost her husband Hendricks to a bloody highway accident. Being just three years into marriage, she was devastated. Four months later, she was hassled by problems such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbance, problems in concentrating. Delilah is probably experiencing _____.
post-tramatic stress disorder symptoms
Erikson believed that elderly adults use their impending death as a motivation to look back and evaluate their life. This form of retrospection is what many theorists call:
life review
Felicia is an American between 65-74 years of age. Her doctor should be most concerned about her developing _____, the leading cause of death for her age group.
cancer
Gisela is suffering from a condition that involves thickening of the lens of her eyes. This causes her vision to become cloudy or distorted. Identify the condition that Gisela is suffering from.
cataracts
In 2010, _____ percent of U.S. adults over 65 years of age were married.
57
In 2011, which of the following countries had the highest life expectancy?
Monaco
Jace has been diagnosed with _____, a condition characterized by damage to the optic nerve due to buildup of fluid in the eye.
glaucoma
Mrs. Hernandez has considerable pain and swelling in her wrists, fingers, and knees. It is becoming very difficult for her to maintain her usual routines as her stiffness increases. Mrs. Hernandez has _____.
arthritis
Prejudice against others because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults, is known as _____.
ageism
Reductions in _____ have been linked to small declines in memory functioning and to the severe memory loss associated with Alzheimer disease.
acetylcholine
Severe reductions in the production of dopamine have been linked with:
Parkinson’s disease
Selective attention is _____, whereas divided attention is _____.
focusing on one thing; focusing on many things
The _____ is involved in memory
hippocampus
The _____ refers to the primary neural receptor for hearing in the inner ear.
cochlea
The healthcare needs of older adults are reflected in _____, the program that provides health-care insurance to adults over 65 under the Social Security system
Medicare
The type of care that is designed to reduce pain and suffering and help individuals die with dignity is known as:
palliative care
Which of the following is Erikson’s eighth stage of development?
integrity vs. despair
Which of the following is the leading cause of death in the 75 to 84 and 85 and over age groups?
Cardiovascular disease
Which of the following is true of the American attitude toward death?
Americans are generally death avoiders and death deniers
Which of the following organizations created a legal document that reflects the patient’s advance care planning?
choice in dying
T OR F name one thing most people don’t know about me that you do
TRUE
_____ are the leading cause of injury deaths among adults who are 65 years and older.
falls
_____ illness is long-term, often lifelong, and requires long-term, if not life-term, management.
terminal
_____ involves an extensive loss of bone tissue.
Osteoporosis
_____ is the number of years that the average person born in a particular year will probably live.
life expectancy
During the elementary years, a child’s self-understanding includes increasing reference to all of the following EXCEPT:
physical characteristics
_____ is a severe developmental disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
Autistic disorder
_____ is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
ADHD
Sabeen has a severe impairment in reading and spelling ability. Identify the condition that Sabeen has.
Dyslexia
Of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States, _____ percent received special education or related services in 2008-2009
14
Blanca rarely holds her baby Joey and tends to respond to his needs in an angry, irritable fashion. It is most likely that Joey will develop a(n) _____ with his mother.
insecure avoidant attachment
As an infant, Mary suffered damage to _____ of the brain causing her to have poor comprehension. Also, her speech is fluent, but incomprehensible.
Wernickle’s area
The rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called:
the vocabulary spurt
The _____ pattern of growth is the sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities.
Proximodistal
Which of the following is a threat to the infant caused by the breech position?
Respiratory problems
_____, the units of hereditary information, are short segments of DNA. They direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins.
Genes
Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:
multidimensional
The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:
lifelong
The maximum life span of humans
has not changed since the beginning of recorded history
Development can be defined as the pattern of movement or change that:
begins at conception and continues through the human life span
Two developmental psychologists are having a conversation. One believes in the traditional approach of developmental change; the other believes in the life-span approach. Which of the following issues would they most likely differ on?
Whether most developmental change occurs from birth to adolescence or throughout adulthood as well as childhood
By two years of age, children have reached about _____ of their adult weight and about _____ of their adult height.
one-fifth; one-half
Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing:
deferred imitation
Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as:
infinite generativity.
Mariah has suffered brain damage to the left frontal lobe of her brain. When she tries to speak, she struggles to produce words and is unable to say them correctly. Mariah has damage to:
Broca’s area
Which of the following would Erik Erikson be MOST likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?
Pick up the baby and soothe him/her so that a healthy sense of trust develops
_____ is a process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells
myelination
On average, children gain _____ pounds per year during middle and late childhood
5 to 7
During the elementary school years, children grow an average of _____ inches a year.
2 to 3
Megan bases her moral decisions on fear of punishment. According to Kohlberg, which level of moral development is Megan currently in?
Pre-conventional reasoning
_____ is a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell.
fertilization
According to James Marcia, what determines an individual’s identity status?
The existence or extent of their crisis or commitment
Erikson describes _____ as finding oneself while losing oneself in another person, and it requires a commitment to another person
intimacy
Which of the following BEST explains why middle adulthood comes later and lasts longer now than in the early 1900s?
People today have healthier lifestyles than people in the early 1900s
Which of the following is most typical of the vision-related issues faced by middle-aged persons?
Difficulty viewing close objects
Cholesterol comes in two forms _____ and HDL
LDL
_____ encompasses adults’ desire to leave legacies of themselves to the next generation.
Generatively
In Erik Erikson’s theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of _____.
immortality
Erikson proposed that middle-aged adults face a significant issue which he termed _____.
generatively versus stagnation
According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, when a dying person finally accepts the fact of impending death and becomes depressed about it, which of the following would be most appropriate?
Allow the person to experience and work through the depression
Basilio sustained severe and irreversible brain damage due to an accidental overdose of insulin. His wife and his children decided to remove the life-support system, and Basilio subsequently died. This is an example of:
passive euthanasia
After accepting the certainty of death, a period of _____ or preparatory grief may appear
depression
Life-span developmentalist Paul Baltes and his colleagues believe that successful aging is related to three main factors:
selection, optimization, and compensation
What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to stress?
Older people keep stress hormones in their system for longer periods.
Which of the two personality traits in the Big Five factors of personality are associated with mortality (an earlier death)?
high conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion
_____ refers to a legal document that reflects the patient’s advance care planning.
living will
According to Levinson, the transition to middle adulthood lasts about _____ years
five
Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
brittle fingernails
_____ adults describe themselves as securely attached.
The majority of
According to the U.S. government’s Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-2013, which of the following areas of work are expected to account for the most new jobs in the next decade?
primary industries
Just as the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school involves change and possible stress, so does the transition from high school to college. The two transitions have many parallels. Which of the following is one of them?
The top-dog phenomenon
The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been referred to as emerging adulthood, which occurs from approximately _____ years of age.
18 to 25
In a study, almost 50 percent of high school dropouts cited _____ reasons for leaving school.
school-related
_____ is the illicit drug most widely used in the United States, and its use by adolescents increased from 2008 to 2011.
Marijuana
Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience first?
increased penis and testicle size
Puberty refers to a period of:
rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence
Which of the following is a more accurate vision of adolescence?
For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world
In contrast with Kohlberg’s theory, Gilligan argues for a(n) _____ perspective, which is a moral perspective that views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
justice
More than 80 percent of the respondents to a survey said that buying a stolen television set is morally wrong. Yet 50 percent admitted they would buy a stolen set if guaranteed they would not be caught. These data indicate
that for many people, moral belief does not predict moral behavior
Which of the following stages of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is characterized by moral judgments based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty
social systems principles
The increased capacity for self-regulation that is seen in middle and late childhood is linked to developmental advances in the:
brain’s prefrontal cortex
_____ is the belief that “I can”; helplessness is the belief that “I cannot.”
Self-efficacy
Eight-year-old Ella can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something she could not do at age 3. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
increased myelination of the central nervous system
Jerome, 6, and Hani, 10, get up early on Saturday morning and decide to make “breakfast in bed” for their mother. While reaching for the bed tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally break one of their mother’s favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome knows that he’s going to get into “big trouble.” Hani tells him not to worry because Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Jean Piaget categorize the moral reasoning of Jerome and Hani?
Jerome heteronomous morality; Hani autonomous morality
_____ development involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
Moral
The children of _____ parents are better at soothing themselves when they get upset, more effective in regulating their negative effect, focus their attention better, and have fewer behavior problems than the children of emotion-dismissing parents.
emotion coaching
_____ especially plays a key role in children’s ability to manage the demands and conflicts they face in interacting with others. It is an important component of executive function.
Moral Integrity
_____ emotions do not appear to develop until self-awareness appears around 18 months of age.
self-conscious
In Erikson’s portrait of early childhood, the young child clearly has begun to develop _____, which is the representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions
self-understanding