Psy 456 Final

What current illness symbolizes the worst fears about dying?
Cancer
Cancer symbolizes the
Worst fears of our age
Which of the following terms BEST describes the process of a person who questions, “Am I responsible for bringing this illness on myself?”
Magical Thinking
Corr’s primary dimensions in coping with dying are physical, psychological, spiritual, and
Social
Which statement best reflects the closed awareness context of family interactions in response to a life-threatening illness?
The dying person is not aware of his or her impending death although others may know about it
According to Glaser and Strauss, which of the following communication styles are used by families when a family member is diagnosed with a life-threatening illness?

1. Closed awareness
2. Open awareness
3. Mutual pretense
4. Open pretense

1, 2, and 3
Which of the following statements is an example of the open awareness context of family interactions in response to a life-threatening illness?
Death is acknowledged and discussed.
Mutual pretense, as a way of coping with painful circumstances such as a terminal illness,
can be a useful short-term strategy for coping with a painful situation.
How many stages are associated with the model of coping with life-threatening illness presented by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross?
Five
According to Kubler-Ross, all of the following are associated with a life-threatening illness EXCEPT
Belief
In Kenneth Doka’s “Tasks in Coping with Life-threatening Illness,” which phase is characterized by living with the disease and managing symptoms and side effects
Chronic
According to Avery Weisman, the process of coping with a terminal illness can be divided into how many interrelated tasks?
Three
According to Avery Weisman, coping with life threatening illness involves tasks of maintaining a sense of optimism and hope and confronting the problem and
revising one’s plans as necessary.
The real estate wanted advertisement in the text is used to illustrate which of the following?
Desires to accomplish plans that previously had been put off to be done in the future
Which of the following are the three major psychological and behavioral patterns that individuals use in coping with the threat of death as identified by Therese Rando?

1. Retreat and conservation of energy
2. Attack and evaluate the threat
3. Attempting to master or control the threat of death
4. Exclusion from the threat of death

1, 3, and 4
What is the aim of meaning-based coping?
To maintain a person’s sense of positive well-being
Correct
The spreading of cancer to various parts of the body is known as
metastasis.
Metastasis is BEST defined as
the spreading of cancer to various parts of your body.
A biopsy is BEST defined as
the surgical removal of a small amount of tissue for diagnosis.
What is the oldest effective form of cancer therapy?
Surgery
What is the oldest and most common form of cancer therapy?
Surgery
Side effects experienced by patients receiving chemotherapy can include all of the following EXCEPT
cyanotic lymph nodes.
The therapies included under complementary and alternative medicine are sometime referred to as
integrative medicine.
Bioenergetics, homeopathic medicine, and yoga are what form of cancer treatment option?
Complementary and alternative therapies
What is visualization?
The patient imagines the therapeutic agent inside the body helping to restore well-being.
What is ikigai ryoho?
A psychotherapy that helps patients live fully and meaningfully
A psychotherapeutic technique used in Japan to assist cancer patients in finding meaning and living life to the fullest is known as
ikigai ryoho.
What is ethnomedicine?
Conventional biomedicine and folk beliefs
What is the positive response to a treatment that a person believes to be an effective therapy?
Placebo effect
Methods of treatment that the medical establishment considers unproved or potentially harmful are called
unorthodox therapies.
What term do Shupe and Hadden use to identify varied therapies such as “faith healing, supernatural healing, and folk healing?”
Symbolic healing
Which is the most common physical symptom in terminally ill patients?
Pain
What is now viewed as a “vital sign” that should be considered along with temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure?
Pain
What is now viewed as the “fifth vital sign?”
Pain
Chronic pain usually persists longer than
three to six months.
Which of the following statements about pain is true?
Responses to pain are culturally shaped.
What is a critical first step in accessing and managing pain?
Believing that the pain is real
According to Yvette Colon of the American Pain Foundation, what is a critical first step in assessing and managing pain?
Belief that pain is real
Which of the following statements regarding pain is NOT true?
Patients with severe pain often obtain euphoric sensations from drugs.
Which of the following BEST describes a lingering dying trajectory?
A patient dies from a progressive chronic illness.
A patient’s “total pain” includes

1. psychological.
2. economic.
3. social.
4. spiritual.

1, 3, and 4
What did Eric Cassell write about the social role of the dying patient?
The death of the body is a physical phenomenon whereas the passing of the person is nonphysical.
Correct
Which of the following are spiritual needs of dying patients?

1. Need for hope and creativity
2. Need to complete a will for loved ones
3. Need to give and receive love
4. Need for meaning and purpose

1, 3, and 4
Often, the only task that matters in being with someone who is dying is to
stay close and do nothing.
Bereavement is defined as the
objective event of loss.
The emotional reaction and responses of anguish, anger, or relief to the death of a loved one are collectively termed
grief.
In addition to insomnia and changes in appetite, physical disturbance that occurs with grief typically includes
tightness of the throat.
Which of the following are usually identified as physical symptoms of grief?

1. Shortness of breath
2. Muscle weakness
3. Empty feeling in the abdomen
4. Cerebral placidity

1, 2, and 3
What is our “assumptive world?”
The world we expect to be stable and reliable
In contrast to the reaction to loss, what is the PROCESS by which a bereaved person integrates a loss into his or her ongoing life?
Mourning
Wearing a black armband traditionally signifies
a conventional mourning behavior.
What is a way of signifying mourning among some Native Americans?
Cutting one’s own hair short
A theme common to mourning behaviors cross-culturally is that the bereaved
are different and this difference diminishes with time.
Whose model focuses on four tasks of mourning, including accepting the reality of the loss, processing the pain of grief, and finding an enduring connection with the deceased?
Worden
The concept of adjusting to a world without the deceased is associated with
J. William Worden’s tasks of mourning.
Who is known for the paper “Mourning and Melancholia?”
Freud
Attachments and the processes by which we relinquish them were central concerns in the work of
John Bowlby.
The grief-work model has been widely accepted as the standard formulation for
understanding and helping people accommodate to loss.
Lyn Lofland suggests that some of the “ties that bind” us to one another are the roles we play, the help we receive and the
wider network of others made available to us.
Telling the “story” of grief can help in coping with loss in which of the following ways?

1. Sharing the story provides emotional relief and promotes the search for meaning.
2. The story can be told without the constraint of having to conform to a particular model of how it should be.
3. The story brings people together in support of one another.
4. Fantasizing about a different ending is very therapeutic and healing.

1, 2, and 3
Sharing the story of a loss provides emotional relief, promotes the search for meaning, and
brings people together in support of one another.
Correct
In the dual-process model of coping, loss-oriented coping includes
looking at old photographs.
What is an example of loss-oriented coping?
Looking at old photographs
According to the dual-process model of coping, what coping behavior includes mastering tasks that had been taken care of by the deceased and developing a new identity?
Restoration-oriented
According to Simon Shimson Rubin’s Two-Track Model of Bereavement, which of the following considers quality of family relationships, health concerns, and investment in life tasks?
Track I: general biospychosocial functioning
Correct
Which of the following typically occurs during the initial period of grief?
Sense of confusion and disorganization
Which of the following typically occurs during the middle period of grief?
Sadness and longing
Anniversaries, birthdays, special occasions, and holidays
can reawaken and reactivate unexpected feelings of grief.
According to Therese Rando, which of the following may especially complicate grief?

1. Death of a child.
2. Bereaved person’s perceived lack of social support.
3. Relationship between bereaved and deceased that was intimate and friendly.
4. Bereaved’s perception that the death was somehow preventable.

1, 2, and 4
Complicated mourning is best described as
failure to realize the implications of a loss.
According to Neimeyer, Prigerson, and Davies, What is the “inability to reconstruct a meaningful personal reality” after loss?
Complicated grief
The idea that one can die of a “broken heart”
is being investigated scientifically and is considered plausible.
Which term best describes the phenomena of death as a consequence of the stress of bereavement?
Broken heart
According to Edgar Jackson, what factors are especially important in a survivor’s response to loss?
Personality, social roles, values, and perception of the deceased’s importance
In the instrumental (linear) pattern of grieving, how is grief experienced and expressed?
In restlessness or mental activity
In the intuitive (systemic) pattern of grieving, individuals experience and express grief
via feelings and emotions.
When a person experiences grief physically, as restlessness or mental activity, Terry Martin and Kenneth Doka would identify this pattern of grieving as
instrumental.
Which of the following is generally considered a high-grief death?
The death of a teenager in a car accident
Of the following modes of death, which is most likely to be characterized as a low-grief death?
Terminal illness of an elderly man
Factors that can restimulate grief for survivors of a homicide are termed
trigger events.
In the wake of multiple losses, survivors may feel they have “run out of tears,” resulting in bereavement
burnout.
Disenfranchised grief can be described as a
consequence of lacking social support or acknowledgement of loss.
Grief experienced in connection with a loss that is not socially supported or acknowledged through the usual rituals is
disenfranchised.
Unfinished business is best described as
issues or “business” that goes on after a death.
Unfinished business is a term that can relate to the
plans and dreams that the bereaved had shared with the deceased.
Which of the following is a helpful behavior when lending support to the bereaved?
Simply listening without judgment
Which of the following bereavement organizations focuses on supporting military families?
Tragedy Assistance Program for Survivors
Which of the following statements best describes how bereavement is an opportunity for growth?
Energy that was bound to the past is freed up.
The psychosocial effects of war and murder lead to higher levels of
traumatic reactions.
If a child believes that he or she may have played a role in the events leading to a death, what emotion might be expected to predominate?
Guilt
Adolescents’ (especially girls) responses to the September 11, 2001 terror attacks included
fear and concern about dying from other disasters.
Of all the deaths that may be experienced in childhood, the most affecting is likely to be the death of a
parent.
A parent’s death is perceived as a loss of security, affection and
nurture.
Coping with the death of a parent may be complicated when the death results from

1. cancer.
2. suicide.
3. homicide.
4. stroke.

2 and 3
Coping may become complicated when the death of a parent results from
homicide.
Children can experience “survivor’s guilt” as young as
four years old.
A sibling’s death may represent which of the following?

1. Loss of playmate
2. Loss of birth order
3. Loss of caregiver
4. Loss of protector

1, 3, and 4
According to David Balk, which of the following is most likely to cause adolescents to ask questions about the nature of life and death, about good and evil, and about the meaning of life?
Death of a sibling
To help them cope with disturbing thoughts and feelings, seriously ill children need
mental first aid.
For a school-age child experiencing a serious illness, major issues include

1. a sense of stigma.
2. impaired self-concept.
3. side effects of treatment.
4. questioning of beliefs.

1, 2, and 3
Which is a suggestion for communicating with a seriously ill two year old child?
Provide maximum physical relief and comfort
According to a study by Myra Bluebond-Langner, seriously ill children in a leukemia ward were able to guess their condition by
interpreting how people behaved toward them.
Spontaneous drawings and art therapy are __________ methods for working with young children to help them explore feelings.
excellent
Which of the following BEST characterizes the concerns of seriously ill children from roughly ages five to nine?
Discomforting and possibly disfiguring effects of the disease and related medical procedures
Which of the following age groups of seriously ill children had major concerns about discomforting and possibly disfiguring effects of the disease and related medical procedures?
Children roughly five to nine
A coping strategy in which ill children limit the number of people with whom they have a close relationship is
distancing.
Which of the following coping mechanisms are used by children to cope with a serious illness?

1. Making a deal that allows a desire to be filled once the pain is endured
2. Limiting the number of people with whom they have close relationships
3. Taking a “be-brave-and-strong” stance
4. Regressing to behaviors that are less demanding

1, 2, and 4
Sick children competing in a wheelchair race through hospital corridors is an example of what coping mechanism?
Finding a substitute for a desired activity
Which was the first free standing pediatric and palliative care center in the United States?
George Mark Children’s House
The Nick Snow Children’s Hospice and Palliative Care Act
allows children to receive both palliative care and curative care.
Agreement to the proposed treatment or procedure is
assent.
Which rule, based on English common law, gives parents and health care providers a guideline for assessing a minor child’s capacity to participate in medical decision making?
Rule of Sevens
When caring for a seriously ill child, all of the following are true EXCEPT
parents should try to play the role of nurse.
Community support has generally been shown to
be an important supplement to a family’s internal support system.
All of the following are support groups that help children cope with death and life threatening illness EXCEPT
The Meditational Healing Society.
Which organization is dedicated to improving the quality of life for children with chronic and life threatening medical conditions?
Starlight Children’s Foundation
When parents explain death to children, they should
be honest.
In helping children cope with loss, adults must strive to
answer questions honestly and directly.
Which of the following is important in discussing death with a child before a crisis occurs?
Provide an explanation that corresponds to the child’s level of understanding
When discussing death with a child, an adult should
tell the truth while considering the child’s developmental level and ability to understand.
When talking to children about death, it is important to
verify and clarify what they think you’ve told them.
The text uses the example of the young woman who avoided seeds into adulthood to illustrate how
children can become confused by metaphors.
The well child in a family where a sibling or parent is terminally ill
can balance conflicting emotions by participating in the family process.
When a child is dealing with emotional pain, admonishing the child to “be brave” is
bad because crying is a natural response to loss.
When discussing death in conjunction with religious beliefs, parents should
remind children that religious viewpoints are beliefs.
In explaining death to children, statements like “gone away for a long sleep” and “up in heaven”
allow for misconceptions and literal interpretations.
When a child is ill or a death occurs in the family, sudden changes in family communication patterns can be
alarming to a child and can heighten anxiety.
According to Shneidman, what are crises related to incidents that occurred out of phase with students’ chronological age?
Metacrises
A “developmental push” is associated with what type of bereavement in adulthood?
The death of a parent
Why do many people consider the death of a mother to be a more difficult loss than the death of a father?
Because mothers are usually the primary nurturing caregiver
What cross-cultural example is given in the text to express universal feelings about the parental role of safeguarding and protecting children?
Among the Cree, infants wore “ghost-protective” moccasins.
Among the Cree of North America, infants were given moccasins with holes in them so that ghosts would not take them away “because their moccasins need mending.” This example is intended to show
feelings about the parental role of safeguarding children are universal.
The death of a fetus between the twentieth week of gestation and the time of birth is known as a
stillbirth.
As medically defined, stillbirth refers to the death of a child occurring between
the 20th week of pregnancy and birth.
Neonatal deaths are those occurring
during the first four weeks following birth.
Giving up a child for adoption is an example of
reproductive loss.
At Hase Temple in Kamakura, Japan, aborted fetuses are memorialized by
tiny stone statues.
At the Hase Temple in Kamakura, Japan, mizuko represent
children conceived but never born.
Coping with grief resulting from stillbirth is facilitated by
acknowledging the baby’s life and death..
For newly bereaved parents of a stillborn child, a way of realizing and coping with loss is aided by
seeing and holding the baby.
Cases of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) may be subject to criminal investigation because the
infant died of unknown causes.
Cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have sometimes been subjected to criminal investigation because
the infant died of unknown or no definitive cause.
The major cause of death among individuals between 5 and 24 years old is
accidents.
Which of the following, (characterized as “the last major plague of the young”) is the leading cause of death among individuals between the ages of five and twenty-four?
Accidents
Parents of a child whose life is threatened by serious illness tend to have a somewhat easier time coping when they
derive their identity from more than the parental role.
Which is a death “out of sequence?”
A young or middle-aged adult dies while his or her parents live on
A major source of conflict among bereaved couples in grieving styles and coping with the death of a child relates to
differences in values, beliefs and expectations
Which of the following is a factor that helps reduce conflict between bereaved parents who are grieving the death of a child?
Willingness to engage in open and honest communication
Which of the following statements are TRUE about parental bereavement in couples?

1. A feeling of estrangement and a strong bond can occur between the parents at the same time.
2. A partner’s behavior can be misinterpreted by the other and can cause conflict.
3. Different grieving styles may decrease the couple’s sense of commonality.
4. Urging each other to be strong in public is an important component of getting past the grieving phase and into the healing phase of bereavement.

1, 2, and 3
Which of the following factors work to reduce conflict and promote positive interaction between grieving couples who have lost a child by death?

1. Open and honest communication
2. Expressing emotions in each other’s company
3. Crying separately to minimize the open grief and pain
4. Ability of partners to reframe each other’s behavior in a positive way

1, 2, and 4
Which group provides support for children with cancer, their parents, and other family members?
Candlelighters Childhood Cancer Foundation
Which of the following organizations combine social support with political advocacy?
Parents of Murdered Children
The way a particular person adjusts to the role of newly widowed person depends on a host of

1. sociocultural factors.
2. personal factors.
3. circumstantial factors.
4. sociopolitical factors.

1, 2, and 3
Studies of spousal bereavement amongst homosexual couples
have been mostly ignored.
If a marriage has involved the partners living traditional gender roles, which of the following statements is likely to be true in the case of spousal bereavement?
New skills may need to be learned to manage the needs of daily life.
Adverse effects of spousal death appear to be more common among
widower.
What is one of the most valuable resources for the recently widowed?
Contact with peers
What organization began in 1973 to implement a concept of mutual help to widowed individuals?
Widowed Persons Service
The term senescence is defined as the
process of becoming old.
Senescence is
the process of becoming old.
What is considered a fatal chronic condition?
Frailty
Which of the following are reasons given by aged people for accepting death?

1. Death is preferable to inactivity.
2. Death is preferable to becoming a burden.
3. Death is preferable to living alone.
4. Death is preferable to loss of mental faculties.

1, 2, and 4
Alzheimer’s disease is twice as common among women as men, partly because women
have a longer life expectancy.
The twenty first century is being characterized as a century of
aging.
The aging of societies is sometimes called a
silver tsunami.
What term does the National Council on Aging use for people over the age of eighty-five?
Old-old
What is defined as “a theoretically projected length of life based on the maximum potential of the human body in the best environment?”
Life span
In contrast to their stereotypical image, old people tend to be more
individually distinct than other age groups.
The type of suicide involving a person who ends his or her life for others or for a greater good is known as
altruistic suicide.
Altruistic suicide is
giving one’s life for others or for a greater good.
Historically and across cultures, suicide has been recognized as a way for a person to express his or her
ultimate commitment to a moral principle.
All of the following are definitions of suicide EXCEPT
the human act of self-inflicted, unintentional cessation.
According to statistics, about how many people end their lives by suicide each year in the United States?
38,000
Among those who die by suicide
males outnumber females by about 4 to 1.
What is an impartial investigation by behavioral scientists to look for the motivational or intentional aspects of cases of ambiguous death?
Psychological autopsy
The 1989 explosion aboard the USS Iowa brought increased public attention to the use of
psychological autopsies.
A psychological autopsy is
a method of determining a person’s thoughts and state of mind prior to death.
Which of the following are limitations of the psychological autopsy?

1. Retrospective nature
2. The individual of interest is not available for examination
3. Overabundance of standardized procedures
4. Third-party informants may distort representations of the decedent for a variety of reasons

1, 2, and 4
The model of suicide that focuses on the relationship between individuals and society is called the
sociological model.
The sociological model of suicide focuses on the relationship between
individuals and society.
Which type of suicide is characteristic of people who are disenfranchised or who live at the fringes of society?
Egoistic
Suicide among Japanese samurai following disgrace in battle is an example of
altruistic suicide.
In India, the custom that called for a widow to throw herself upon her husband’s cremation pyre is known as
sāti.
The largest mass suicide in modern times occurred in
Jonestown, Guyana.
In what city did the largest mass suicide in history occur?
Jonestown, Guyana
According to the sociological model, anomic suicides usually occur in societies wherein
social regulation is insufficient.
According to the sociological model, suicide resulting from sudden trauma or catastrophe is classified as
anomic suicide.
According to the sociological model, anomic suicide is associated with
sudden change, trauma, or catastrophe.
According to the sociological model, fatalistic suicide
results from lack of freedom and absence of choice.
Which of the following are among the insights associated with the psychological model of suicide?

1. The acute suicidal crisis is of relatively brief duration.
2. The suicidal individual is likely to be ambivalent about ending his or her life.
3. Most suicidal events are dyadic.
4. The suicide involves a low level of conscious hostility.

1, 2, and 3
According to the psychological model, the aggression associated with suicidal behavior may be viewed as
murder of the self.
Considering the role of aggression in the psychodynamic model of suicide, suicide may be viewed as murder
in the 180th degree.
What is Edwin Shneidman referring to in his use of the term psychache?
Unbearable mental pain caused by the frustration of a person’s most important needs
According to the text, the sequence leading to suicide often begins with interactions between which of the following?

1. Life stress
2. Emotional hardship
3. Biochemical imbalances in the brain
4. Personality factors

1, 3, and 4
What type of suicide is an escape “forced by life’s becoming literally unbearable?”
Surcease
Rational suicide is associated with a
desire to bring release from pain and suffering.
Which of the following best fits into the category of “individual meanings” of suicide?
Suicide is reunion with a lost loved one.
Which of the following is considered an individual meaning of suicide?
Suicide is rest and refuge.
It is estimated that for every suicide death there are
25 attempts.
According to Karl Menninger, individuals who harm themselves by means of drugs, alcohol, smoking, or reckless driving are effectively dying by
chronic suicide.
Which of the following are considered risk factors that influence suicidal behaviors?

1. Culture
2. Personality
3. Extreme ambition
4. Individual situation

1, 2, and 4
Within the “intentioned death” category of death-related behaviors, a death seeker is someone who
wishes to end consciousness and commits a suicidal act in such a way that rescue is unlikely.
Within the “subintentioned death” category of death-related behavior, a death facilitator is someone who
offers little resistance to death, making it easy for death to occur.
Which of the following statements best describes unintentioned death?
Death in which the decedent plays no significant causative role
What term applies to the influence of suggestion on suicidal behavior?
Werther-effect
Brian Barry’s description of pro-life forces includes all of the following EXCEPT
a belief that problems are inherently unsolvable.
In the Romantic view, death is viewed as
attractive and to be courted.
In what year were there more deaths in the military from suicide than from combat?
2012
What profession in the United States loses, on average, as many as 400 people to suicide each year?
Physicians
Social disruption, family problems, and substance abuse are all factors in suicidal behavior of which of the following age groups?
Adolescence and young adulthood
An arrangement wherein two or more individuals determine to kill themselves at the same time and usually at the same place is known as a
suicide pact.
All of the following are factors influencing suicide among middle-aged adults EXCEPT
testing limits.
Among what age group do double suicides occur with greatest frequency?
Elderly
Of the individuals who die by suicide, approximately how many write a final message?
1 in 6
In the United States, the earliest noteworthy example of a suicide prevention center was in
Los Angeles.
In carrying out their mission, suicide prevention centers and crisis hotlines use
crisis intervention strategies.
Which of the following categories best describes community programs that emphasize short-term treatment of persons who are actively experiencing a suicidal crisis?
Suicide intervention programs
In relation to suicide, the term postvention refers to
assistance given to all survivors of suicide.
If a person says, “A life without love is a life without meaning,” in which of the following ways is suicidal intent being communicated?
Verbal indirect
What is the term used for encounters with death where massive loss of life typically occurs?
Mega death
Accidents are usually defined as
events that occur by chance or from unknown causes.
When a person is killed due to the negligence and misconduct of another person, company or entity, it is a/an
wrongful death.
In Japan, karoshi is
sudden death from overwork.
When behavior involves doing dangerous things just for the thrill of it, it may represent
an attempt to deny fear or anxiety about death
The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 triggered a massive tsunami causing significant damage to Japan’s
nuclear reactors.
The scale of the Great Sichuan Earthquake prompted the Chinese government to
dispose of the bodies with little ceremony.
After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, a Senate investigation reported a failure of government at all levels to plan, prepare for and
respond aggressively to the storm.
In the wake of a disaster, the survivors may experience a/an __________ marked by a profound sense of emptiness and despair.
existential crisis
Among the first steps to be taken in responding to a disaster are a set of core actions collectively defined as
psychological first aid.
Which of the following percentages reflects the approximate frequency with which a firearm is used in all murders?
66 percent
Interpersonal violence
is a public health problem
The most threatening of violent acts are those that occur without apparent cause and when the victim is
selected seemingly at random.
Serial killers
take the lives of several victims over a span of time.
Regarding familicide, some experts find that
men are more likely to kill both their children and their spouse.
What is the killing of one’s child or children referred to?
Filicide
The term psychic maneuver is used to describe
factors that facilitate homicidal acts.
Which of the following are examples of a “psychic maneuver” that promotes violence?

1. Perceiving people as objects or as less than human
2. Seeing oneself as debased or worthless
3. Encouraging a person to feel above the law
4. Encouraging a person to align with his or her victim

1, 2, and 3
Which of the following “factors favoring violence” applies to the situation in which a person attempts to escape responsibility by blaming someone else?
“I was just carrying out orders.”
Studies show violence is reduced when
residents work together to create a safe and orderly environment.
Which of the following abrogates, or nullifies, conventional sanctions against killing by substituting a different set of conventions and rules about moral conduct?
War
Dalton Trumbo’s story, Johnny Got His Gun, was
a classic antiwar novel.
What is the most characteristic feature of the modern war machine?
Technological alienation
A characteristic self-protective human response to mass death and carnage is
psychic numbing.
According to studies by the International Red Cross, what percentage of casualties in modern warfare are civilians rather than military combatants?
90 percent
The characteristic self-protective psychological response of becoming insensitive and unfeeling is termed
psychic numbing.
According to Arnold Toynbee, one of the conventions of warfare that turns civilians into soldiers is
dressing the part.
In combat situations, most soldiers are motivated to fight because of their
will to survive.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is best described as
the distressing symptoms experienced by some veterans of warfare.
What is considered the “signature injury” of recent wars?
Traumatic brain injuries
Family and friends who “serve invisibly at home” while loved ones are at war are referred to as a
phantom army.
War creates a “phantom army” composed of
spouses, children, and parents who serve invisibly at home
In his classic work, On War, Karl von Clausewitz defined war as
the continuation of political policy by other means.
The media’s ambiguity and uncertainty about the actual death toll during a war is
an effort to generate public support for war.
Genocide involves efforts to
destroy an entire national or political group.
The systematic effort to destroy an entire national or cultural group is called
genocide.
Autogenocide is
a group’s killing of its own people.
The aim of terrorism is to
destroy the sense of security people normally feel in familiar places.
In achieving their goals, terrorists often rely on the __________ whereby their actions are broadcast through the media to a much larger audience than merely the one in the location where the event occurs, thus giving their acts greater significance.
amplification effect
Which of the following media played an especially vital role in the exchange of information, including a survivor registry, following the World Trade Center attack on September 11?
Internet
Aaron Beck describes terrorists as
prisoners of hate.
What is a rapidly spreading disease or condition?
Epidemic
What is the most AIDS affected region in the world?
Sub-Saharan Africa
In recent years the greatest impact of AIDS in the United States has been among
Hispanics and African Americans.
In parts of the world other than the United States, AIDS is transmitted primarily through
heterosexual contact.
“The desire for immortality has its own pitfalls” is a message communicated in a
Chinese folktale.
The message communicated in the Chinese folk tale, The Mortal King, is that
the desire for immortality has pitfalls.
According to Thomas Attig, coming to terms with our finiteness and mortality can be understood as a
grieving process.
Which of the following advantages are gained by studying death and dying?

1. It can focus attention on the importance of taking care of unfinished business.
2. It helps individuals dissipate feelings of guilt or blame about a loved one’s death.
3. It helps individuals avoid the severe pain of grief.
4. It allows opportunities to explore unexpressed and unresolved grief.

1, 2, and 4
The study of death and dying
can be academically intriguing.
Some of the “lessons taught” in death studies are still based on
middle-class white population.
Which of the following groups is underrepresented in resource materials commonly used in death education courses?
Ethnic groups and minorities
Heritage is best understood by exploring cultural associations, social class, and
spirituality.
The process by which individuals and systems respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, languages, backgrounds, and other diversity factors in a manner that recognizes, affirms, and values the worth of others and protects and preserves the dignity of each is cultural
competence.
Although death is fundamentally a __________ fact, socially shaped ideas and assumptions create its meaning.
biological
Fritz Roth’s suitcase exhibit was essentially about
personal mortality.
According to Dolores Dooley, the Republic of Ireland has been engaged in
a national conversation about death and the process of dying.
In Italy, Francesco Campione began an organization, Projecto Rivivere, that uses the Internet to
help children with death and bereavement.
Although Australia is familiar with natural disasters, what event occurred to initiate the formalizing of death education and coordinated services?
1977 Granville train disaster
In which country does the name of the primary death education organization translate as “The Association for Thinking about Life and Death?”
Japan
According to John Jordan, what is the bridge over which empirical findings in thanatology can cross into the world of the practitioner?
Theory
According to David Balk, bridging the gap between researchers and practitioners requires
dynamic exchange between theory and practice that makes research a useful form of gaining knowledge.
“Compassionate cities,” a term coined by Allan Kellehear, denotes a model of public health that encourages
community participation in end-of-life care.
What is an innovative public health program that recognizes the need for community involvement, commitment, and consideration of death as a fact of life?
Compassionate Cities
Which of the following are defining characteristics of a “compassionate city?”

1. A strong commitment to social and cultural differences
2. Offers inhabitants a close circle of secure support without interference from outsiders
3. Meets special needs of the aged, those living with life threatening illness, and those living with loss
4. Preserves and promotes spiritual traditions and storytellers

1, 3, and 4
Herman Feifel is quoted as saying that the death awareness movement has
helped humanize medical relationships and health care.
In commenting on the messages of care for the dying promoted by Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Dame Cicely Saunders, and Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Robert Fulton and Greg Owen remark that this message is also about
essential religious and spiritual values that extend beyond the immediate goal of care for the dying.
The “Get Rolling Stone until you die” advertisement is used in the text to make the point that
death imagery exists in the media.
The shoe advertisement shown in the text illustrates
death imagery in advertising design.
What is a potential downside of humanizing death and dying?
It may minimize and devalue death.
In considering various ways of defining a “good death,” which of the following statements about ancient Greece is true?
Dying at a young age was considered exceptional luck, whereas in our society it is considered a misfortune.
In ancient Greece, it was considered exceptional luck to die
young, in the fullness of one’s creative energies
According to Robert Kastenbaum, which of the following constitutes the good death?

1. It affirms significant personal relationships.
2. It is transfiguring and enacts the highest values.
3. It finally ends the long, contemplative journey.
4. It is coherent and the final phase of a good life.

1, 2, and 4
One component of a “good death” is the affirmation of the whole person. This involves
seeing the dying person not as a disease but in the context of his or her life.
An alternative way of defining a good death has been offered by Stu Farber and his colleagues. They propose the term __________ death and define it as a nonjudgmental relationship emphasizing the mutuality of caregivers and patients.
respectful
Which of the following are included in the concept of an appropriate death?

1. Minimal pain and suffering
2. Respecting one’s preferences
3. Resolving conflicts
4. Long productive life

1, 2, and 3
According to Avery Weisman, what is the first step required in order to achieve an appropriate death?
Rid ourselves of the notion that death is never appropriate.
Natural, expected, honorable, and rueful are among the “criteria for a good death” suggested by
Edwin Shneidman.
Edwin Shneidman suggests that the good death focuses not just on the person’s dying, but also on the
the person’s post-self.
What is the term used for individuals who live beyond 100 years?
Centenarians
In contemplating death in the future, which of the following is likely to demand the greatest attention from individuals and societies?
Older population
In Japan, high-rise cemeteries exist because
burial space is at a premium.
Which of the following is an example of a specialized support and advocacy group?
Parents of Murdered Children
The premise of Kit Reed’s story, Golden Acres, is that
elderly people occupy a large proportion of the population and overcrowding may lead to life-or-death decisions.
Poet Gary Snyder has called attention to the loss of a
species.
Many people who complete a course in death and dying find that
their explorations have consequences for living that had not been foreseen when they first signed up for the course.
Death awareness creates an added dimension to living by bringing us into the present and serving as a reminder of
the precious precariousness of life.