PSY 381 – Chapter 4 Practice Quizzes

Question 1
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Internal validity is threatened by:
the qualifications of the researcher.
the random assignment of participants.
the experimental conditions of the study.
Correct Answer
the presence of demand characteristics.
UnansweredQuestion 2
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A detailed history of an individual who has suffered a psychological disorder is called a(n) _____.
research report
Correct Answer
case study
executive summary
biopic
UnansweredQuestion 3
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To conduct family history studies, researchers must _____.
gather information from primary care physicians on families who suffer from debilitating psychological problems
identify any external stressors that create disorders in families
use a biopsychosocial methodology
Correct Answer
clearly identify the probands and control groups, and then trace family trees
UnansweredQuestion 4
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What is the primary advantage of human laboratory studies?
Reliability
Validity
Participants
Correct Answer
Control
UnansweredQuestion 5
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Which of the following statements is NOT true of cross-cultural research?
Theoretical concepts in English might not translate properly into another language.
Correct Answer
Verbs and pronouns are universal across languages, and researchers should have no difficulty understanding first- and second-person references.
Interviewers can accidentally offend a respondent by violating a social norm implicit in a language.
Researchers are more careful to search the possibility that the characteristics that predict psychopathology in one culture are irrelevant in other cultures.
UnansweredQuestion 6
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A researcher is interested in the relationship between depression and the loss of a loved one. The individuals of interest are bereaved adults and non-bereaved adults. The variables in this study receive no manipulation, and depression is measured in both sets of adults. This is an example of:
naturalistic observation.
Correct Answer
a group comparison study.
an experimental study.
a case study.
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UnansweredQuestion 7
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A _____ study is when neither the researchers nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.
pseudo-experimental
Correct Answer
double-blind
placebo control
single-blind
UnansweredQuestion 8
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For which of the following studies would separating genetic and environmental factors be problematic?
Family history studies and adoption studies
Adoption studies and non-traditional family studies
Correct Answer
Twin studies
Extended family studies and adoption studies
UnansweredQuestion 9
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Dr. Dell’s study demonstrated a statistical significance of p < .20. He seemed somewhat disappointed with these results. Which of the following conclusions could be drawn concerning Dr. Dell's study?
The results were probably based on a skewed sample and bias was evident.
Correct Answer
The sample size in his population was probably large and he thus expected the results to be statistically significant.
The statistical significance is arbitrary and researchers need not pay attention to these numbers.
As long as the positive correlation was close to +1.0 he should not be concerned about the statistical significance.
UnansweredQuestion 10
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Robert is gathering data for his graduate research project. He targets psychology students as his participants. He randomly selects several psychology classes to administer his questionnaire. Which of the following is true about Robert’s participants?
The students in the psychology classes represent the population and all the psychology students on campus also represent the population.
The students in the psychology classes represent the population and all the psychology students on campus represent the sample.
The students in the psychology classes represent the sample and all the psychology students on campus also represent the sample.
Correct Answer
The students in the psychology classes represent the sample and all the psychology students on campus represent the population.
Question 1
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Because researchers cannot know whether the results will generalize to what happens outside of the laboratory, human laboratory studies often have _____.
high external validity
Correct Answer
low external validity
high internal validity
low internal validity
UnansweredQuestion 2
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In the study of psychopathology, researchers must often rely on _____, which are people’s own accounts of their internal states and experiences.
case studies
Correct Answer
self-reports
autobiographies
personal essays
UnansweredQuestion 3
0 / 0.2 pts
What is the independent variable in a study that investigates the impact of religious environments on discipline problems in children?
The children in the study
Correct Answer
Religious environments
Parenting styles
Discipline problems
UnansweredQuestion 4
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The probability that both twins will have a disorder if one twin has the disorder is called the _____.
variable ratio
time-space interval
Correct Answer
concordance rate
genetic ratio
UnansweredQuestion 5
0 / 0.2 pts
To conduct family history studies, researchers must _____.
gather information from primary care physicians on families who suffer from debilitating psychological problems
identify any external stressors that create disorders in families
use a biopsychosocial methodology
Correct Answer
clearly identify the probands and control groups, and then trace family trees
UnansweredQuestion 6
0 / 0.2 pts
Dr. Dell’s study demonstrated a statistical significance of p < .20. He seemed somewhat disappointed with these results. Which of the following conclusions could be drawn concerning Dr. Dell's study?
The results were probably based on a skewed sample and bias was evident.
Correct Answer
The sample size in his population was probably large and he thus expected the results to be statistically significant.
The statistical significance is arbitrary and researchers need not pay attention to these numbers.
As long as the positive correlation was close to +1.0 he should not be concerned about the statistical significance.
UnansweredQuestion 7
0 / 0.2 pts
In an experimental study, the group that shares all the same experiences as the group of interest but does not receive the key manipulation is the _____.
experimental group
randomly selected group
Correct Answer
control group
treatment group
UnansweredQuestion 8
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Which of the following is NOT true of therapy outcome research?
Even when a therapy works, researchers often cannot know exactly what it is about the therapy that works.
Some researchers believe it is unethical to withhold treatment or to provide a treatment they believe is ineffective for people in distress.
Therapists who vary the dosage of a drug or deviate from a study’s procedure for psychological intervention may compromise the results of the study.
Correct Answer
In the real world, mental health services are delivered in controlled, high-quality atmospheres, and patients fit neatly into the criteria for an “optimal patient.”
UnansweredQuestion 9
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Which of the following statements is true of the study of psychopathology?
Self-reports are often accurate and reliable sources of information.
Observer assessments of behavior are not as effective as self-reports.
The multiple causes of abnormality can be easily captured in a single study.
Correct Answer
It is often difficult to obtain the participation of populations of interest.
UnansweredQuestion 10
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The study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders in a population is known as _____.
quantitative correlations
biostatistics
Correct Answer
epidemiology
disease diffusion mapping
Question 1
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A _____ is a testable statement of what we predict will happen in our study.
criterion
variable
diagnosis
Correct Answer
hypothesis
UnansweredQuestion 2
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Dizygotic twins share _____ of their genes.
roughly 25 percent
Correct Answer
roughly 50 percent
roughly 75 percent
100 percent
UnansweredQuestion 3
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In which closed community was Janice Egeland’s study of psychological disorders conducted?
Correct Answer
Old Order Amish community of Pennsylvania
Old Colony Mennonites of South America
Native American community in New Mexico
Gypsy communities of Syria
UnansweredQuestion 4
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A representative sample in research means:
the participants were hand-picked by the research according to race.
Correct Answer
the participants in the sample are highly similar to the population of interest.
the participants were invited to participate in the study by a representative of the research group.
some participants have a greater chance of being selected than others.
UnansweredQuestion 5
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Which of the following statements is true about case studies?
Case studies are not used in the study of rare problems, as people often have biased recollections of their experiences.
Correct Answer
Case studies are the most apt method for capturing the uniqueness of an individual’s perspective and experiences.
Case studies have high generalizability, that is, their findings can be applied to other individuals and groups.
Case studies suffer from a lack of objectivity on the part of the people telling their stories, but researchers tend to be more neutral and unbiased.
UnansweredQuestion 6
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External validity refers to the extent to which the:
Correct Answer
results can be generalized to real-life phenomena.
results can be replicated.
independent variable is responsible for the manipulation.
study is quantifiable.
UnansweredQuestion 7
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Which of the following represents a perfect correlation?
-.01 or +.01
Correct Answer
-1.0 or +1.0
-10.0 or +10.0
-100 or +100
UnansweredQuestion 8
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Studies that do not support the hypothesis they are designed to test are less likely to get published than studies that do. This is known as the _____.
affect size
file drawer affect
effect size
Correct Answer
file drawer effect
UnansweredQuestion 9
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Luther realized that the more he engaged in outdoor activities, the less time he spent playing video games. This is an example of a _____.
zero correlation
positive correlation
Correct Answer
negative correlation
one-to-one correlation
UnansweredQuestion 10
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As part of a research study, Margaret wants to determine if religious environments will influence the consumption of alcohol among freshmen. She has several hundred freshmen complete her survey. Once the data have been collected, she analyzes the scores. Which of the following is the dependent variable in this study?
Correct Answer
Consumption of alcohol
Religious environments
College freshmen
Surveys
Question 1
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Studies designed to test whether a specific therapy—whether it be a psychological therapy or a biological therapy—reduces psychopathology in individuals who receive it are called _____.
non-human research studies
human laboratory studies
Correct Answer
therapy outcome studies
single subject case studies
UnansweredQuestion 2
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In epidemiological research, _____ refer(s) to the number of new cases of the disorder that develop during a specific period of time.
risk factors
prevalence
course
Correct Answer
incidence
UnansweredQuestion 3
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Which of the following statements is true of the ethical issues involved in research?
Researchers should offer substantial monetary incentives to participants so that they cannot refuse to participate.
Correct Answer
Researchers should explain the deception to the participants after the research is completed in case it is necessary to deceive participants.
Researchers should report data gathered from individual participants rather than data aggregated across participants.
Researchers may impose some sort of a negative consequence on participants if they choose to withdraw their participation once the study has begun.
UnansweredQuestion 4
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When conducting research using an integrationist approach to abnormality, researchers must _____.
Correct Answer
gather information about people’s biological, psychological, and social vulnerabilities and strengths
devise new psychological and biological theories
base their hypotheses on social and biological theories
use research methodology from psychodynamic and sociological theories
UnansweredQuestion 5
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In a meta-analysis, the results of each study are transformed into a statistic that is common across all studies. This is called the _____.
affect size
statistical strategy
common statistics
Correct Answer
effect size
UnansweredQuestion 6
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Michael and Michelle are adolescents who share the same birthday. Michael received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. On the other hand, Michelle shows no signs of mood disturbance. In this example:
Michael and Michelle are most likely monozygotic twins, but Michael is genetically predisposed to develop a mood disorder.
Michael and Michelle are most likely dizygotic twins, but Michael developed the disorder because he modeled behaviors of other family members.
Correct Answer
Michael and Michelle are most likely dizygotic twins, but Michelle did not develop the disorder because the concordance rate for dizygotic twins is usually low.
Michael and Michelle are most likely monozygotic twins, but Michelle did not develop the disorder because she has a higher tolerance for stress.
UnansweredQuestion 7
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In human laboratory studies, _____ is considered a primary limitation.
reliability
operationalization
replication
Correct Answer
generalizabililty
UnansweredQuestion 8
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Conditions or variables that are associated with a higher susceptibility to a disorder are called:
potentialities.
Correct Answer
risk factors.
prone positions.
eligibilities.
UnansweredQuestion 9
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The participants in a wait list control group receive the treatment:
before the experimental group.
at the same time as the experimental group.
Correct Answer
at a later time than the experimental group.
before and after the experimental group.
UnansweredQuestion 10
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When the conclusions drawn from a study are applicable to other individuals or groups, this is known as _____.
rationalization
operationalization
conceptualization
Correct Answer
Generalizability
Question 1
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The type of study that observes people on two or more occasions over time is a _____ study.
cross-sectional
correlation-coefficient
case
Correct Answer
longitudinal
UnansweredQuestion 2
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Studies designed to test whether a specific therapy—whether it be a psychological therapy or a biological therapy—reduces psychopathology in individuals who receive it are called _____.
non-human research studies
human laboratory studies
Correct Answer
therapy outcome studies
single subject case studies
UnansweredQuestion 3
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Dr. Samuel wants to study the relationship between test anxiety and age in younger children. His participants are 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-graders who will be studied over a three-year period. This is an example of a(n):
cross-sectional study.
experimental study.
Correct Answer
longitudinal study.
case study.
UnansweredQuestion 4
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A(n) _____ variable is a factor researchers try to predict.
Correct Answer
dependent
mediating
extraneous
independent
UnansweredQuestion 5
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Case studies help researchers:
focus on unconscious motivations and conflicts.
measure overt behaviors.
Correct Answer
make general inferences about the sources of psychopathology.
eliminate biological factors from the potential causes of psychopathology.
UnansweredQuestion 6
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Epidemiological studies:
can establish that a risk factor causes a disorder.
overcome almost all of the limitations of correlational studies.
are generally unaffected by the problem of the third variable.
Correct Answer
provide valuable information on the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for disorders.
UnansweredQuestion 7
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As part of Seligman and colleagues’ animal study, it was discovered that the dogs in Group E, the experimental group, were unable to recognize opportunities for control that arose. The researchers labeled this set of behaviors _____.
locus of control
aversive conditioning
learned response deficits
Correct Answer
learned helplessness deficits
UnansweredQuestion 8
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A _____ between stress and depression would mean that people who report more stressors have higher levels of depression, and a _____ would mean that people who report more stressors actually have lower levels of depression.
positive correlation; positive correlation
negative correlation; negative correlation
negative correlation; positive correlation
Correct Answer
positive correlation; negative correlation
UnansweredQuestion 9
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Which of the following provides researchers with the most control over laboratory conditions and third variables?
Human laboratory studies
Correct Answer
Animal studies
Longitudinal studies
Single-case experimental studies
UnansweredQuestion 10
0 / 0.2 pts
Which of the following is NOT true of therapy outcome research?
Even when a therapy works, researchers often cannot know exactly what it is about the therapy that works.
Some researchers believe it is unethical to withhold treatment or to provide a treatment they believe is ineffective for people in distress.
Therapists who vary the dosage of a drug or deviate from a study’s procedure for psychological intervention may compromise the results of the study.
Correct Answer
In the real world, mental health services are delivered in controlled, high-quality atmospheres, and patients fit neatly into the criteria for an “optimal patient.”
Question 1
0 / 0.2 pts
Michael and Michelle are adolescents who share the same birthday. Michael received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. On the other hand, Michelle shows no signs of mood disturbance. In this example:
Michael and Michelle are most likely monozygotic twins, but Michael is genetically predisposed to develop a mood disorder.
Michael and Michelle are most likely dizygotic twins, but Michael developed the disorder because he modeled behaviors of other family members.
Correct Answer
Michael and Michelle are most likely dizygotic twins, but Michelle did not develop the disorder because the concordance rate for dizygotic twins is usually low.
Michael and Michelle are most likely monozygotic twins, but Michelle did not develop the disorder because she has a higher tolerance for stress.
UnansweredQuestion 2
0 / 0.2 pts
The type of study that observes people on two or more occasions over time is a _____ study.
cross-sectional
correlation-coefficient
case
Correct Answer
longitudinal
UnansweredQuestion 3
0 / 0.2 pts
The major difference between a case study and a single-case experimental design study is that:
case study participants are subject to the manipulation of variables.
single-case experimental design studies involve naturalistic observation.
case study participants’ behaviors are measured by some standard method.
Correct Answer
single-case experimental design study participants receive some type of intervention or manipulation, and behaviors are measured more than once.
UnansweredQuestion 4
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The variable that we believe will affect the dependent variable is the _____.
confounding variable
discrete variable
Correct Answer
independent variable
extraneous variable
UnansweredQuestion 5
0 / 0.2 pts
Studies designed to test whether a specific therapy—whether it be a psychological therapy or a biological therapy—reduces psychopathology in individuals who receive it are called _____.
non-human research studies
human laboratory studies
Correct Answer
therapy outcome studies
single subject case studies
UnansweredQuestion 6
0 / 0.2 pts
The study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders in a population is known as _____.
quantitative correlations
biostatistics
Correct Answer
epidemiology
disease diffusion mapping
UnansweredQuestion 7
0 / 0.2 pts
A hypothesis which states that there is no relationship between the phenomena being studied is called a _____.
Correct Answer
null hypothesis
zero hypothesis
nondirectional hypothesis
latent hypothesis
UnansweredQuestion 8
0 / 0.2 pts
In the study of psychopathology, researchers must often rely on _____, which are people’s own accounts of their internal states and experiences.
case studies
Correct Answer
self-reports
autobiographies
personal essays
UnansweredQuestion 9
0 / 0.2 pts
What is the independent variable in a study that investigates the impact of religious environments on discipline problems in children?
The children in the study
Correct Answer
Religious environments
Parenting styles
Discipline problems
UnansweredQuestion 10
0 / 0.2 pts
Adolescents in divorced families experience more depressive episodes than those in intact families. In this hypothesis, the independent and dependent variables are _____, respectively.
adolescents and depressive episodes
depressive episodes and family situation
Correct Answer
family situations and depressive episodes
adolescents and family situations