PSY 226 Chapter 7: Conformity

In social psychology, the change in behaviour resulting from the real or imagined presence of others is known as

A) independence.

B) obedience.

C) conformity.

D) cooperation.

E) interdependence.

C) conformity.
According to your text, the way we understand the concept of “conformity” is shaped by

A) our cultural self-image.

B) social psychologists.

C) situational pressures.

D) gender differences.

E) personality differences.

A) our cultural self-image.
North American culture stresses the importance of being independent, thinking for yourself, and standing up for yourself. This suggests that North American attitudes toward conformity are

A) generally positive.

B) personality dependent.

C) interdependent.

D) situation-specific.

E) generally negative.

E) generally negative.
Cultural norms in North America place a great deal of emphasis on

A) conformity.

B) cooperation.

C) obedience to authority.

D) group unanimity

E) individuality.

E) individuality.
According to your text, what did Solar Temple cult members, the students who attacked Reena Virk, and the Canadian peacekeepers in Somalia who tortured Shidane Arone have in common?

A) They were frustrated and this frustration caused them to behave aggressively.

B) They confronted extreme and confusing situations and looked to others to decide how to behave.

C) They lacked independence and thus surrendered control to powerful others.

D) They all had a poorly defined sense of self.

E) They fell under the spell of strong, punitive, charismatic leaders.

B) They confronted extreme and confusing situations and looked to others to decide how to behave.
Why has so much research in social psychology focused on conformity?

A) Social psychologists believe that conformity is a maladaptive response.

B) Social psychologists find examples of conformity to be quite unusual.

C) Social psychologists have historically advocated greater interdependence in
American society.

D) Social psychologists are dedicated to increasing conformity to reduce individualistic biases.

E) Social psychologists want to determine when and why conformity is sometimes foolish, sometimes adaptive.

E) Social psychologists want to determine when and why conformity is sometimes foolish, sometimes adaptive.
In ambiguous situations we sometimes fall prey to the influence of other’s attitudes or behaviours, and bring our own attitudes or behaviours into line with theirs. This type of conformity arises from
A) intentional social influence.

B) voluntary obedience.

C) informational social influence.

D) normative social influence.

E) unintentional social influence.

C) informational social influence.
It is Libby’s first day in college. When she enters the lecture hall, she notices that other students are sitting quietly toward the back of the hall, glancing through their textbooks, and pulling out pens and notebooks. Unsure how to behave, Libby takes a seat at the back of the room and decides to do the same. This is an example of

A) situational interdependence.

B) situational uncertainty.

C) unintentional social influence.

D) informational social influence.

E) normative social influence.

D) informational social influence.
Victor goes to a fancy French restaurant. There are utensils on the table that he’s never even seen before, and more spoons and forks than he’s ever seen on one table. Eager to dine in an appropriate and sophisticated way, Victor secretly watches other diners to see what they do. This is an example of

A) informational social influence.

B) normative social influence.

C) unintentional social influence.

D) situational interdependence.

E) normative conformity.

A) informational social influence.
When we conform to others’ behaviours or attitudes because we believe that their interpretations of an ambiguous situation are more accurate than ours, _______ has occurred.

A) informational social influence

B) educated conformity

C) unintentional social influence

D) normative social influence

E) intended social influence

A) informational social influence
Informational social influence occurs because

A) others can reward or punish us for nonconformity.

B) social norms encourage cooperation.

C) individuals need to maintain self-esteem.

D) individuals have a need to belong and be liked.

E) others’ behaviours serve as cues in ambiguous situations.

E) others’ behaviours serve as cues in ambiguous situations.
Muzafer Sherif (1936) placed participants in a dark room and asked them to estimate the movement of a dot of light projected on a screen. This study of the autokinetic effect demonstrated the power of

A) informational social influence.

B) the situation.

C) conversion.

D) normative social influence.

E) obedience to authority.

A) informational social influence.
Why would Muzafer Sherif (1936) study conformity by projecting a light on the wall of a darkened room?

A) Because of the autokinetic effect, he created an ambiguous stimulus.

B) He wondered whether sensory deprivation made people more susceptible to conformity pressures.

C) He wanted a stimulus that was not ambiguous.

D) He didn’t want participants to see and therefore influence one another.

E) He wanted to study the effects of anonymity on people’s conformity.

A) Because of the autokinetic effect, he created an ambiguous stimulus.
You are a little confused about how to address your new boss. Even though you are told that your new supervisor’s name is Charlie Rose, you have noticed that everyone in at work calls him “Boss.” You, too, decide to start calling your supervisor “Boss.” This decision is a product of

A) compliance with authority.

B) normative social influence.

C) private acceptance.

D) obedience.

E) informational social influence.

E) informational social influence.
Your niece Caitlin is deathly afraid of glass elevators. You have just read chapter 7 and have decided to use informational social influence to convince Caitlin that there is no need to be afraid to ride in glass elevators. How would you apply the concept of informational social influence in this situation?

A) Get Caitlin’s friends to ride a glass elevator and ask them to smile and wave to you both as they ascend.

B) Remind Caitlin how irrational her fear is.

C) Tell Caitlin that her friends will call her “scaredy-cat” if she doesn’t get in the elevator.

D) Shove Caitlin into a glass elevator, push the “penthouse” button, and tell her not to cry.

E) Give Caitlin a big hug every time she is willing to approach a glass elevator.

A) Get Caitlin’s friends to ride a glass elevator and ask them to smile and wave to you both as they ascend.
Why would Muzafer Sherif, a social psychologist, choose the autokinetic effect (a perceptual illusion) to study social conformity?

A) He wanted participants to feel pressure to obey his instructions.

B) He wanted to construct a situation that was ambiguous.

C) He wanted to use a dark room to foster a sense of cohesion in the group.

D) He wanted to study the influence of perceptions on social behaviour.

E) He wanted to study how willing people were to harm another person.

B) He wanted to construct a situation that was ambiguous.
An important feature of informational social influence is that it often leads to

A) private acceptance.

B) obedience.

C) decreased self-esteem.

D) public compliance.

E) normative pressures.

A) private acceptance.
It could be argued that participants in Muzafer Sherif’s (1936) study converged in their estimates of the amount of movement of a point of light because they were avoiding public embarrassment or social censure from other participants. Sherif demonstrated that this was unlikely when he found similar results

A) when participants completed the task with their friends.

B) when participants later completed the task alone.

C) two years later.

D) when a different set of participants responded in the same way to the same
stimuli.

E) when participants completed an auditory task in groups.

B) when participants later completed the task alone.
When participants were first placed in a dark room alone and asked to estimate the apparent movement of a point of light, individuals were consistent in their own estimates, and these estimates differed greatly from participant to participant. When participants made the same estimates in a group setting, their estimates converged. According to Muzafer Sherif (1936), why did this happen?

A) Conformity occurs when people feel anonymous in a group.

B) Conformity occurs when people can use anonymity to control others.

C) Conformity occurs when people feel uncomfortable and insecure.

D) Conformity occurs when people are in an unambiguous situation.

E) Conformity occurs when people can use others’ behaviours as cues for what’s right.

E) Conformity occurs when people can use others’ behaviours as cues for what’s right.
Rachel is attending Catholic mass for the first time with her best friend Maria. Rachel is unfamiliar with when to sit, when to kneel, or when to stand, and doesn’t know when to respond to what the priest says and when to remain silent. When it is time for parishioners to receive Communion, Rachel looks quizzically to Maria, who silently shakes her head. Rachel remains seated while the rest of the congregation files toward the altar. This situation best exemplifies

A) informational social influence.

B) the power of cultural norms.

C) public social acceptance.

D) a crisis of conversion.

E) normative social influence.

A) informational social influence.
Which of the following phenomena is most likely to result in private acceptance of an idea or behaviour?

A) situational social influence

B) normative social influence

C) informational social influence

D) mass psychogenic illness

E) contagion

C) informational social influence
Little Lizzie takes a tumble and bumps her head. As she sits and ponders whether to scream or get up and keep on running, her mother approaches, scoops Lizzie up into her arms, and cries out, “Poor, poor Baby! Oh my gosh! Are you okay?” In response, Lizzie screws up her face and wails. Why did Lizzie respond as she did?

A) Her mother’s empathy increased the extremity of Lizzie’s pain.

B) The situation was at first ambiguous to Lizzie, who used her mother’s response as a cue.

C) Lizzie knew that if she cried, her mother would give her a cookie.

D) Lizzie feared that her mother would punish her for running in the house and sought sympathy.

E) Lizzie had a delayed pain response.

B) The situation was at first ambiguous to Lizzie, who used her mother’s response as a cue.
In the nineteenth century, audience members who knew the opera intimately served as “claques,” or experts who signaled others in the audience when to applaud, or as “bisseurs,” who signaled when to call for encores. These experts served as a source of _______ for less sophisticated audience members.

A) irritation

B) contagion

C) normative social influence

D) public compliance

E) informational social influence

E) informational social influence
People are most susceptible to informational social influence when

A) they have low self-esteem.

B) they want to be liked by the group.

C) the situation is ambiguous.

D) they have no allies in the group.

E) there is a charismatic leader.

C) the situation is ambiguous.
Not all members of the radio audience of Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds broadcast panicked immediately. Indeed, some didn’t panic until they looked out of the window and saw empty streets, while others didn’t panic until they saw streets full of traffic. It was after checking out the situation that these citizens decided that the Martians had indeed invaded Earth. This example illustrates that contagion

A) can result when people interpret ambiguous situations consistently with their fears.

B) is especially likely when people are motivated to make independent decisions.

C) can result when cultural norms reinforce people’s most likely responses.

D) only applies to people who tend to be gullible.

E) occurs primarily because humans are by nature irrational creatures.

A) can result when people interpret ambiguous situations consistently with their fears.
Consider the following (edited) excerpt from a James Thurber New Yorker piece: “Suddenly someone began to run. It may be that he had simply remembered … an engagement to meet his wife, for which he was now frightfully late. Whatever it was, he ran east on Broad Street…. Somebody else began to run, perhaps a newsboy in high spirits…. Another man … broke into a trot…. A loud mumble gradually crystallized into the dread word ‘damn.’ ‘The dam has broke!’ The fear was put into words by a little old lady in an electric car, or by a traffic cop, or by a small boy: Nobody knows who…. Two thousand people were abruptly in full flight….” This literary excerpt illustrates the phenomenon known as

A) contagion.

B) conversion.

C) mass hysteria.

D) collective psychosis.

E) obedience.

A) contagion.
When it comes to informational social influence processes, we are more likely to conform with experts’ ideas and behaviours than with nonexperts’ because

A) experts convey clearer expectations of obedience.

B) expertise is associated with social status and power.

C) social norms dictate that experts should be obeyed.

D) experts are viewed as more credible sources of information.

E) experts are almost always correct.

D) experts are viewed as more credible sources of information.
You are on a flight from New York to California. Somewhere over the Rocky Mountains, the plane begins to dip and rise abruptly. The ride is getting more and more bumpy. You’re concerned and wonder if something is seriously wrong with the plane. To whom (or what) are you most likely to turn to clarify this extreme and ambiguous situation?

A) the passenger next to you who seems to be calm

B) the cockpit crew

C) the information pamphlet in front of your seat

D) the passengers in first class

E) the passenger next to you who seems to be afraid

B) the cockpit crew
The role of experts on social influence processes is credited in relation to the discovery that

A) professors rarely share the same view as the top students in their classes.

B) students’ views on social issues tend to reflect the views of their professors.

C) students’ attitudes on social issues change to gain approval from professors.

D) professors’ views tend to moderate over the course of their teaching career.

E) students are motivated to take the views opposite to those expressed by their professors.

B) students’ views on social issues tend to reflect the views of their professors.
Which of the following phenomena occurs because informational social influence has backfired?

A) private acceptance

B) public compliance

C) mass psychogenic illness

D) post-decision dissonance

E) normative social influence

C) mass psychogenic illness
Roger Buehler and Dale Griffin (1994) had participants interpret an ambiguous newspaper report about the shooting of a suspect by police. Participants were then told that others had assigned 75% of the blame for the tragedy to the police and 25% to the suspect. Some participants conformed to others” interpretations, while other participants did not. All participants then read the story again and provided a second interpretation of events. Results demonstrated that participants who initially conformed with other participants’ versions of events _______, whereas those who initially refused to conform with other participants’ versions _______.

A) changed their interpretations to bring them into line with others’; changed their interpretations to deviate more from others’.

B) later deviated from others’ interpretations; changed their interpretations to bring them into line with others’ interpretations.

C) changed their interpretations in a negative direction; changed their interpretations in a positive direction.

D) changed their interpretations in a positive direction; changed their interpretations in a negative direction.

E) did not change their interpretations; changed their interpretations to bring them into line with others’.

A) changed their interpretations to bring them into line with others’; changed their interpretations to deviate more from others’.
You’re the only one in your class to have taken a social psychology course. Thus, you are the only one to refuse to conform to you classmates’ consensus that it is appropriate for salespeople to pay closer attention to African-American shoppers than to European-American shoppers. Now that you have refused to conform to their views, you

A) reconsider your arguments for your views.

B) experience cognitive dissonance and change your attitude to be more tolerant of the practice.

C) soften your views and come up with examples in which the practice is
acceptable.

D) have been vindicated and your views remain the same as before.

E) become even more convinced than before that such a practice is discriminatory.

E) become even more convinced than before that such a practice is discriminatory.
The decision about whether to conform to informational social influence is an important one because

A) we gain an unjustified belief in a just world when we conform.

B) we risk social punishment if we do not conform.

C) we stand to gain social rewards like approval if we do conform.

D) both our interpretation of reality and our behaviours are affected.

E) we are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error if we conform.

D) both our interpretation of reality and our behaviours are affected.
The authors of your text report instances of teens “surfing” on the tops of electric trains in Brazil and on cars in the U.S. and Australia. Which of the following best explains such dangerous behaviour?

A) the power of normative social influence

B) the power of informational social influence

C) these teens have “excitement seeking” personalities

D) these are usually delinquent teens using this activity for gang initiations

E) the power of obedience to authority figures

A) the power of normative social influence
If a teenager starts to smoke cigarettes in order to look “cool” and fit in with her friends, it is an example of _______ at work.

A) obedience

B) the foot-in-the-door technique

C) mindless conformity

D) normative social influence

E) informational social influence

D) normative social influence
The concept of social norms refers to

A) implicit or explicit rules a group has for acceptable beliefs, values, or behaviour.

B) legal sanctions in response to deviant behaviour.

C) social sanctions in response to deviant behaviour.

D) social practices designed to promote cooperation in a group.

E) the most common beliefs, values, or behaviour in a group of people.

A) implicit or explicit rules a group has for acceptable beliefs, values, or behaviour.
In essence, normative social influence arises from humans’ fundamental

A) selfishness, which must be kept in check.

B) need for companionship, affection, and acceptance.

C) tendency to be obedient.

D) need for accurate perceptions and beliefs about a confusing world.

E) desire to submit to knowledgeable authorities.

B) need for companionship, affection, and acceptance.
When people conform in attitudes or behaviours in order to be accepted and liked by others, social psychologists say that _______ has occurred.

A) social approval

B) contagion

C) social acceptance

D) normative social influence

E) informational social influence

D) normative social influence
Imagine that you are attending a new high school and would like to make friends. On the first day of school, you observe that all of the students in your homeroom are crumpling paper into balls and throwing them on the floor. You begin to do the same. You have conformed to the group’s behaviour due to

A) informational social influence.

B) your low self-esteem.

C) normative social influence.

D) obedience to authority.

E) mindless conformity.

C) normative social influence.
Why might adolescents be more susceptible to normative conformity pressures than adults are?

A) Adolescents will go to more extreme measures to belong.

B) Adolescents do not fully consider the impact of their decisions.

C) Adolescents’ cognitive abilities are not fully developed.

D) Adults have more experience and thus do not need as much help in defining the situation.

E) Mindlessness decreases with increasing age.

A) Adolescents will go to more extreme measures to belong.
Going along with the crowd (e.g., swallowing goldfish, taking ecstasy, train-surfing) to avoid social censure is an example of

A) social impact.

B) obedience.

C) social dominance.

D) informational social influence.

E) normative social influence.

E) normative social influence.
_______ conformity is to the desire to be right as _______ conformity is to the desire to be liked.

A) Informational; normative

B) Mindless; normative

C) Normative; informational

D) Normative; mindless

E) Informational; mindless

A) Informational; normative
“Jeer pressure” is related to which of the following concepts?

A) expert advice

B) private acceptance

C) ambiguity of the situation

D) contagion

E) normative social influence

E) normative social influence
According to the results of Janes and Olsen’s (2000) study on the effects of rejection on peer conformity, who would be the most likely to comply with a peer group directive to engage in illegal behaviour?

A) Sean, who is the group leader and wants the others to go along with the suggestion

B) Adam, who has a new girlfriend and is anxious to spend time with her

C) John, who is hanging out with the group for the first time

D) William, who is also a member of a separate peer group that does not engage in illegal behaviour

E) Sam, who just observed another group member being ridiculed by the group leaders

E) Sam, who just observed another group member being ridiculed by the group leaders
Solomon Asch (1951, 1956) embarked on a series of studies in which participants were asked to estimate the lengths of lines that clearly differed in length. Asch undertook these experiments to

A) challenge the prevailing view that humans are inherently motivated to be accurate in their perceptions.

B) systematically replicate the earlier “autokinetic effect” studies of Muzafer Sherif, using different ambiguous stimuli.

C) show that in unambiguous situations, people will behave in reasonable, rational ways.

D) demonstrate how poor people tend to perform on tasks in groups.

E) demonstrate that in ambiguous situations, people would rather be “liked” than “right.”

C) show that in unambiguous situations, people will behave in reasonable, rational ways.
In a series of experiments, why did Solomon Asch (1951, 1956) ask participants to judge the lengths of lines, which were clearly different from one another?

A) Asch believed that Muzafer Sherif’s experiments were fatally flawed.

B) Asch wanted to study conformity in unambiguous situations.

C) Asch believed that people would conform in their judgments.

D) Asch wanted to study conformity in ambiguous situations.

E) Asch wanted to study obedience in a lab setting.

B) Asch wanted to study conformity in unambiguous situations.
Solomon Asch (1951, 1956) asked participants to estimate the lengths of lines. In response to the incorrect answers of others, some participants actually denied what their eyes saw. These studies provide evidence of

A) informational social influence.

B) obedience.

C) contagion.

D) normative social influence.

E) private acceptance.

D) normative social influence.
Normative social influence is to informational social influence as _______ is to _______.

A) private acceptance; public compliance.

B) knowledge; acceptance.

C) public compliance; private acceptance.

D) the foot-in-the-door technique; the door-in-the-face technique.

E) the door-in-the-face technique; the foot-in-the-door technique.

C) public compliance; private acceptance.
In a series of studies by Solomon Asch (1951, 1956), when participants judged the lengths of lines alone rather than in a group of confederates, their judgments were accurate about 99% of the time. Still, when other participants made judgments in a group of people who gave the wrong answers, they too, reported incorrect judgments. These findings suggest that

A) people will distort reality to avoid punishment or social censure.

B) normative social influence was at work.

C) people are easily distracted in a group setting.

D) experts exert informational social influence in ambiguous situations.

E) informational social influence happens, even in unambiguous situations.

B) normative social influence was at work.
What is the moral or the take-home message of Solomon Asch’s (1951, 1956, 1957) series of experiments in which participants were asked to judge the lengths of lines? People will go to great lengths

A) not to look like fools in front of others.

B) to interpret ambiguous stimuli.

C) to assert their independence.

D) to convince others of their points of view.

E) to please people on whom they depend.

A) not to look like fools in front of others.
In a variation of his standard experiment, Solomon Asch (1957) found that when participants could write their responses on a piece of paper, conformity dropped dramatically. This finding indicates that participants exhibited _______, not _______ during the standard experiment.

A) private acceptance; public compliance

B) logical reasoning; mindless conformity

C) public compliance; private acceptance

D) obedience; acceptance

E) mindless conformity; logical reasoning

C) public compliance; private acceptance
Pierre joins the other concert-goers in giving the symphony a standing ovation, even though he thought the performance was merely adequate. The next morning, Pierre confides to his girlfriend that the performance was “satisfactory, but not overwhelming.” In joining the standing ovation, Pierre displayed what kind of conformity?

A) mindless conformity

B) obedience

C) public compliance

D) private acceptance

E) social deviance

C) public compliance
Normative social influence often results in _______ but not _______.

A) individuation; total independence.

B) private compliance; public acceptance.

C) private acceptance; public compliance.

D) total independence; individuation.

E) public compliance; private acceptance.

E) public compliance; private acceptance.
Martin and Randal (2009) found that people in a New Zealand art gallery contributed greater amounts when the transparent donation box was previously stacked with large bills rather than small bills and change. This study demonstrated

A) the negative consequences of normative social influence.

B) the positive consequences of informational social influence.

C) the negative consequences of informational social influence.

D) the positive consequences of normative social influence.

E) the importance of immediacy in normative social influence.

D) the positive consequences of normative social influence.
A field study by Shultz and his colleagues (2007) attempted to get people to reduce their energy consumption. Consumers were given weekly feedback about the social norms for energy consumption in their neighbourhood and their own consumption levels was relative to their neighbours. Based on this study, which technique below would prevented a “boomerang effect” from occurring if people were given such feedback.

A) Consumers should also be given tips on energy conservation.

B) Neighbours should be encouraged to talk about and compare their energy
consumption levels.

C) A smiley face should appear on the bills of consumers whose energy consumption is below average.

D) Consumers should be given a monthly refund if they remain below average in energy consumption.

E) Consumers should have increased rates if their consumption is consistently above average.

C) A smiley face should appear on the bills of consumers whose energy consumption is below average.
When a member of a group violates a norm, others will first _______ him or her, and then eventually _______.

A) reject; accept them back to the group.

B) try to persuade him or her to conform; reject him or her.

C) reject; try to persuade him or her to rejoin the group.

D) decrease persuasive communication; increase persuasive communication.

E) use humor to persuade him or her to conform; use logic.

B) try to persuade him or her to conform; reject him or her.
Imagine that you are on the Olympics Planning Committee. Nine out of ten of the committee members hold the same opinions. However, one member, Laura, consistently deviates from the group’s opinion. How is your group most likely to act toward Laura to bring her in line with the group’s opinion?

A) The group will immediately punish Laura to force her to change her opinion.

B) The group will first increase communication with Laura. When that doesn’t work, the group will ignore and punish Laura.

C) The group will ignore Laura and refuse to communicate with her. If this tactic fails, the group will punish Laura.

D) The group will hold Laura in high regard for voicing her opinion.

E) The group will nominate Laura to be the chair of the committee.

B) The group will first increase communication with Laura. When that doesn’t work, the group will ignore and punish Laura.
The norm in your large psychology class is that students will remain quiet enough for others to hear the professor and one another during lectures and discussions. When you talk loudly to the person next to you and violate the “respect for others” norm, like the deviant in Stanley Schachter’s “Johnny Rocco” study, you can expect that your classmates will first

A) ask you to be quiet.

B) ignore you.

C) punish you with dirty looks.

D) immediately alert the professor.

E) tell you to sit someplace else during the next class meeting.

A) ask you to be quiet.
What did Canadian Forces Master Seaman Biden, who spoke out against the Military’s use of an outdated Anthrax virus, have in common with the deviant accomplice in Stanley Schacter’s “Johnny Rocco” study?

A) They both were forced to leave the group.

B) They both were convinced to join the group majority.

C) They both were successful in redefining in-group membership.

D) They both were punished by group members by being assigned boring, tedious tasks.

E) They both were able to convince the rest of the group to join their arguments.

D) They both were punished by group members by being assigned boring, tedious tasks.
Women’s attempts to achieve the culturally ideal body through excessive dieting is an example of

A) normative social influence.

B) informational social influence.

C) cultural impact theory

D) public acceptance.

E) social impact theory.

A) normative social influence.
Judith Anderson and her colleagues (1992) analyzed what people in 54 cultures considered to be the ideal female body: a heavy body, a body of moderate weight, or a slender body. They found that in cultures where _______, the _______ body was preferred.

A) food supplies were unreliable; heavy

B) food supplies were plentiful; heavy

C) women were oppressed; slender

D) Western magazines were available; slender

E) food supplies were unreliable; moderate

A) food supplies were unreliable; heavy
According to Judith Anderson and her colleagues (1992), why would a heavy female body be preferred in cultures where food supplies were scarce or unreliable?

A) In these cultures, physical fitness is impossible to attain, and therefore not associated with attractiveness.

B) In these cultures, heavy women are perceived as more powerful.

C) In these cultures, the media have not made inroads into the popular culture.

D) In these cultures, women are not subservient to men.

E) In these cultures, heavy women would be perceived as healthy and fertile.

E) In these cultures, heavy women would be perceived as healthy and fertile.
Brett Silverstein and colleagues (1986) conducted an archival analysis of photographs of women appearing in Vogue and Ladies Home Journal from 1901 to 1981. These researchers found that

A) there were remarkable changes in standards of beauty in North America during the twentieth century.

B) there have never been greater pressures for women to be thin than during the 1970s.

C) there have never been greater pressures for women to be thin than during the 1960s.

D) in contrast to women in other countries, women in North America have consistently aspired to “lean” and “thin.”

E) foreign issues of these magazines contained photos of more buxom (i.e., voluptuous and heavy) women.

A) there were remarkable changes in standards of beauty in North America during the twentieth century.
Brett Silverstein and colleagues (1986) conducted an archival analysis of photographs of women appearing in Vogue and Ladies Home Journal from 1901 to 1981. These researchers found that standards of female beauty in North America fluctuated over time. These findings reveal the power of _______ to shape physical appearance.

A) popular culture

B) normative social influence

C) the media as a means of social influence

D) adequate food supplies

E) informational social influence

B) normative social influence
Whereas _______ is the vehicle by which women learn what is attractive, _______ is the source of women’s attempts to attain the ideal body.

A) culture; informational influence

B) normative influence; informational influence

C) rewards; punishments

D) informational influence; normative influence

E) punishments; rewards

D) informational influence; normative influence
According to the authors of your text, in North America the sociocultural pressure for thinness in women and for a muscular physique for men is a potentially threatening form of _______ social influence.

A) informational

B) media-generated

C) sexist

D) gender-based

E) normative

E) normative
Kelsey has just joined a new ballet company in which thinness is of paramount importance in becoming a successful dancer. From Martha she learns how important it is to remain painfully thin. From Annette, she learns that laxatives are useful tools for weight control. The first “lesson” represents _______, whereas the second “lesson” represents _______.

A) informational social influence; contagion.

B) normative social influence; contagion.

C) informational social influence; normative social influence.

D) contagion; informational social influence.

E) normative social influence; informational social influence.

E) normative social influence; informational social influence.
According to information presented in your text, which of the following statements regarding social definitions of the “ideal” body is FALSE?

A) Because the self-concepts of men are based more on performance than appearance, when young men may fail to meet cultural standards regarding the ideal body, they are unlikely to suffer lowered self-esteem as a result.

B) Research has found that women may have a distorted perception of the size of their body especially if they have been exposed to media images of thin women.

C) Over the course of the twentieth century, the culturally-defined ideal body for women in North America has become thinner.

D) The ideal body type for both men and women has fluctuated throughout the past 80 years.

E) In countries with unreliable food resources the culturally-defined ideal body for women is heavier than it is in North America where food is more plentiful.

A) Because the self-concepts of men are based more on performance than appearance, when young men may fail to meet cultural standards regarding the ideal body, they are unlikely to suffer lowered self-esteem as a result.
We can conclude from an analysis of G.I. Joe action figures (Pope and colleagues, 1999) that cultural ideals of the attractive male body have undergone which of the following type of changes?

A) Men’s body image ideals have changed toward an exaggerated emphasis on muscle development.

B) Men’s body image ideals have shown similar changes to women’s with intense emphasis on slimness.

C) Men’s body image ideals have traditionally been focused on military images.

D) Men’s body image ideals have shown far more change than body image ideals for women.

E) Men’s body image ideals have shown far less change than body image ideals
for women.

A) Men’s body image ideals have changed toward an exaggerated emphasis on muscle development.
Changes in depictions of men’s and women’s bodies in the media demonstrate changes in
________ social influence, and changes in perceptions of one’s own actual and ideal body
demonstrate ________ social influence.

A) informational; informational

B) informational; normative

C) normative; informational

D) normative; normative

E) descriptive; injunctive

B) informational; normative
In a study by Pope and his colleagues (2000), men were asked to alter a computer image of a male body to accurately depict their own, to depict their ideal body, and the type of body they thought women preferred. Results from this study suggest that men saw their bodies accurately, but

A) the body type that they thought women preferred was much more muscular than their own.

B) they thought women were disgusted by a male body of their type.

C) they chose an ideal body that was less muscular than their own.

D) they chose an ideal body that was taller than their own.

E) they thought that their own body type was the kind that women preferred.

A) the body type that they thought women preferred was much more muscular than their own.
Joe has a fairly average body for a man and wants women to be attracted to him physically. Joe is most likely to (wrongly) think that women are attracted to

A) very tall men only.

B) a specific “type.”

C) muscular men.

D) the average male body.

E) men with small feet.

C) muscular men.
According to Bibb Latané’s social impact theory (1981), the likelihood that people will conform to social influence pressures depends on three variables:

A) conformity, obedience, and social pressure.

B) norms, values, and social practices.

C) pressure, resistance, and interdependence.

D) strength, immediacy, and number.

E) anonymity, situational ambiguity, and norms.

D) strength, immediacy, and number.
Which situation below best exemplifies the tenet of social impact theory that strength is directly related to conformity?

A) When Adam is with his “slacker” friends he doesn’t take school seriously; when he’s at home alone, he studies for hours on end.

B) When Jason’s friends use subtle influence attempts, he conforms; when they use coercive tactics, he resists them.

C) One-on-one, Melissa will talk a blue streak, but when she’s in a group she’s very quiet.

D) When eating with strangers, Suzie will talk with her mouth full, but not when eating with her friends.

E) When Belinda is with her hard partying friends she tends to be loud and outgoing, but when she is with her parents she tends to be quiet and reserved.

D) When eating with strangers, Suzie will talk with her mouth full, but not when eating with her friends.
Marcia values the opinions and desires of both her parents and her close friends. When she’s with her parents, she finds herself agreeing with them. When she’s with her friends, she finds herself agreeing with them, even though they sometimes disagree with her parents. This example represents the influence of Bibb Latané’s (1981) concept of _______ on normative conformity.

A) number

B) pressure

C) immediacy

D) power

E) strength

C) immediacy
If you wanted to resist an influence attempt, social impact theory (Latané, 1981) suggests that you should

A) ensure that the group members evaluate you favorably.

B) increase the distance between yourself and the group.

C) spend as much time as possible with the group.

D) ensure that the group is unanimous.

E) repeatedly think about how important the group is to your life.

B) increase the distance between yourself and the group.
Which of the following is NOT a variable considered by social impact theory?

A) how close in time other group members are to you

B) the expertise of other group members

C) how important the group is to you

D) how many people are in the group you are in

E) how close in space other group members are to you

B) the expertise of other group members
Teenagers are often more susceptible to influence attempts from peers than from their parents. This is because peers become more important to teenagers than their parents are. This example represents the influence of Bibb Latané’s (1981) concept of _______ on normative conformity.

A) strength

B) age

C) immediacy

D) pressure

E) number

A) strength
Bibb Latané’s (1981) social impact theory is useful to social psychologists who study conformity because its tenets

A) are easily quantifiable.

B) identify the costs of refusal to conform to norms.

C) identify variables that make a source more influential.

D) predict characteristics of people most likely to resist conformity pressures.

E) predict when conformity is adaptive and when it’s not.

C) identify variables that make a source more influential.
Which of the following comparisons represents the strength dimension as defined by social impact theory (Latané, 1981)?

A) a group of 2 acquaintances versus a group of 10 acquaintances

B) being with a friend right now or meeting a friend one month from now.

C) friends versus strangers

D) yielding to informational influence versus yielding to normative influence

E) living with your family versus living 100 miles away

C) friends versus strangers
According to Latané’s (1981) social impact theory, Katy will binge eat with her sorority sisters because

A) she is uncomfortable being a member of a sorority.

B) her sorority sisters are immediate and the sorority is very important to her.

C) she wants to be thin and accepted by others.

D) she is predisposed to binge eating.

E) she is in an ambiguous situation and so follows what others do around her.

B) her sorority sisters are immediate and the sorority is very important to her.
In his line judgment studies, Solomon Asch (1955) discovered that as the number of unanimously incorrect confederates exceeded four, increasing numbers of such confederates had little additional effect on participants’ conformity. These findings lend support to which of the following assumptions of social impact theory?

A) As immediacy decreases, conformity decreases.

B) Strength mirrors the law of diminishing returns in economics.

C) As impact increases, conformity increases.

D) An increase in strength will inevitably lead to an increase in conformity.

E) Ironically, as strength increases, conformity decreases.

B) Strength mirrors the law of diminishing returns in economics.
Which of the following statements regarding conformity is TRUE, according to information presented in your text?

A) Conformity is more highly valued in farming cultures than in those that rely on hunting and fishing.

B) A group of 8 people exerts about twice the pressure to conform on an individual as a group of 4 people.

C) There is usually less pressure to conform in highly cohesive groups because group members are more understanding of each other and tolerant of disagreement.

D) An individual who holds unpopular social beliefs usually feels stronger and more able to resist pressure to conform if she believes she is the only one who knows the truth.

E) Conformity is highly valued in countries like Canada.

A) Conformity is more highly valued in farming cultures than in those that rely on hunting and fishing.
Suppose you wanted your friend Nick to agree to join the Save the Seals campaign, a campaign that most of your other friends support. You should invite Nick to a meeting consisting of

A) two other friends of Nick who support Save the Seals.

B) four other friends of Nick who support Save the Seals.

C) two friends of Nick who support Save the Seals and two friends of Nick who
do not support Save the Seals.

D) seven friends of Nick who support Save the Seals, and three friends of Nick who do not support Save the Seals.

E) people Nick does not know who have strong support for Save the Seals.

B) four other friends of Nick who support Save the Seals.
According to Bibb Latané’s (1981) social impact theory, people are most likely to conform when

A) the group has a wide variety of opinions.

B) group size reaches four or five.

C) the group is small.

D) the group is dispersed throughout a wide area.

E) the group is diverse.

B) group size reaches four or five.
Tafarodi and colleagues (2002) asked Chinese Canadian women at the University of Toronto to rate paintings after they were exposed to ratings supposedly given by the majority group and their minority cultural group. Participants who completed the ratings in front of a mirror showed more conformity to the majority group ratings than those without the mirror. We can conclude from the results of this study that

A) concerns about body image can influence people’s perceptions of attractiveness.

B) informational social influence is stronger when people are self-conscious.

C) reminding people of their minority status can increase resistance to normative social influence.

D) identity can be manipulated by exposing people to their mirror image.

E) motivation to conform is strengthened if people are attracted to a group but reminded that they don’t quite fit in.

E) motivation to conform is strengthened if people are attracted to a group but reminded that they don’t quite fit in.
Jane’s softball team is planning to steal the other team’s mascot—a baby goat. Jane does not want to participate in such a scheme. Which of the following situations would make it more likely that Jane will refuse to help her team steal the goat?

A) Another member of the team decides not to participate.

B) The group is important to Jane.

C) Jane has many friends on the team.

D) The situation is ambiguous.

E) Jane has built up “favourability credits.”

A) Another member of the team decides not to participate.
When Solomon Asch (1955) conducted an experiment in which six confederates gave the wrong judgment about the lengths of lines and in which a seventh confederate gave the correct judgment, participants’ normative conformity dropped drastically. These findings support the importance of _______ in yielding conformity.

A) a unanimous group

B) authority

C) normative pressures

D) immediacy

E) strength

A) a unanimous group
Rod Bond and Peter Smith (1996) conducted a meta-analysis of 133 Asch line judgment studies conducted in 17 countries. They found that conformity was higher in _______ cultures because normative social influence _______.

A) industrialized cultures; norms are more widely shared.

B) individualistic cultures; conformity prevents conflict.

C) collectivistic cultures; promotes harmony.

D) agricultural cultures; survival depends on cooperation.

E) elderly cultures; were stronger in prior decades.

C) collectivistic cultures; promotes harmony.
Imagine that you are a member of the Cluny tribe, a tribe that values independence, assertiveness, and adventurousness. How would you most likely respond if you were participating in Asch’s study on conformity?

A) You would publicly conform to the group and privately change your opinion.

B) You would publicly conform to the group but not privately change your
opinion.

C) You would probably conform to the group.

D) You would probably not conform to the group.

E) You would attempt to change the opinions of the other people in the group.

D) You would probably not conform to the group.
Recall the cross-cultural conformity research conducted by J.W. Berry (1967) and others. When a group member conforms to others’ opinions, who is most likely to nod, wink, and smile knowingly?

A) a member of an African cattle-raising society

B) a member of an African farming society

C) a member of an Inuit fishing society

D) a member of a Norwegian community

E) a member of an Asian agricultural society.

C) a member of an Inuit fishing society
Cross-cultural replications of Solomon Asch’s original (1951) conformity studies (in which participants gave public judgments of the lengths of lines), have revealed that

A) people’s conformity in these situations varies depending on the culture in which they were reared.

B) implicit conformity pressures vary from culture to culture, but explicit pressures do not.

C) cultures differ in the extent to which private acceptance follows from public compliance.

D) explicit conformity pressures vary from culture to culture, but implicit pressures do not.

E) because humans are a social species, normative conformity pressures are universal.

A) people’s conformity in these situations varies depending on the culture in which they were reared.
Cross-cultural studies on the Asch line-judgment task suggest that _______ cultures value _______ social influence because it promotes social harmony.

A) collectivist; normative

B) individualist; informational

C) normative; individualistic

D) individualist; normative

E) collectivist; informational

A) collectivist; normative
In recent research, Murray and colleagues (2011) found that greater conformity in a culture was ________ related to ________.

A) positively; the level of pathogens in the country of origin.

B) negatively; the level of pathogens in the country of origin.

C) positively; the prevalence of hunting in the culture.

D) positively; the level of acculturation to Western values.

E) negatively; identification with an Asian collectivist culture.

A) positively; the level of pathogens in the country of origin.
According to Dominic Packer (2008), at which point in the Milgram experiment is the participant most likely to disobey authority?

A) when the learner moans in pain

B) when the participant learns that he has to administer electrical shocks to the learner

C) when the learner asks to be released from the experiment

D) when the learner mentions his heart condition

E) when the learner is no longer responding

C) when the learner asks to be released from the experiment
Kim is downloading music off a new website that showcases tunes from up-and- coming artists. The website also lets Kim see which songs other people have downloaded. Which tunes is Kim most likely to listen to and download?

A) the songs that had appealing titles

B) the songs that were posted most recently

C) the songs no-one else has downloaded yet

D) the songs that are in the particular genre that Kim likes

E) the songs that had been downloaded the most

E) the songs that had been downloaded the most
Daniel was a participant in the Milgram experiment. He has heard that it is very important that he completes the experiment and that all other participants completed the experiment and administered shock to the learner. But Daniel is feeling increasingly uncomfortable about his own participation. One way Daniel can resist the forces of conformity is to check the information he is getting from other people

A) against his internal moral compass.

B) and compare it to what other people in similar situations thinks.

C) with the experimenter.

D) with his friends.

E) with his professor.

A) against his internal moral compass.
Students who had watched the film of Milgram’s obedience study showed an increase in ________ especially if they were ________.

A) moral reasoning; female.

B) nonconformity; males.

C) reactance; female.

D) moral reasoning; male.

E) nonconformity; female.

A) moral reasoning; female.
Results of a meta-analysis conducted by Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (1981), which combined data from over 21,000 research participants in all kinds of conformity studies, have revealed that when it comes to conformity,

A) men are actually more easily influenced than women.

B) women are only slightly more “influenceable” than men.

C) women appear more conforming in experiments, but men appear more
conforming in surveys.

D) there is no gender difference in the extent to which people are influenced.

E) men appear more conforming in experiments, but women appear more
conforming in surveys.

B) women are only slightly more “influenceable” than men.
According to research by Alice Eagly (1987), when men and women _______, gender differences in conformity virtually disappear.

A) respond in private as opposed to in public

B) respond to their friends’ attempts to influence them

C) are in leadership positions

D) have high self-esteem

E) experience psychological reactance

A) respond in private as opposed to in public
In public situations, women are more conforming than men. In private situations, men and women are comparably conforming. According to Alice Eagly (1987), this pattern of results can be explained by

A) the different concepts men and women hold of themselves.

B) the fact that men are more publicly self-aware than women.

C) the different social roles men and women are taught in our society.

D) sex differences in the tendency to behave aggressively.

E) the fact that women are more publicly self-aware than men.

C) the different social roles men and women are taught in our society.
Alice Eagly and Linda Carli (1981) found that compared to female researchers, male researchers are more likely to find that female participants are more conforming than male participants. Although these findings are controversial, it is most likely that

A) women are more likely to fulfill the expectations of a high-status male experimenter.

B) female experimenters make female participants more aware of sex role expectations.

C) male researchers are more likely to display experimenter bias.

D) male and female experimenters are often biased in the stimulus materials they use.

E) male researchers give off subtle cues that influence women’s behaviours.

D) male and female experimenters are often biased in the stimulus materials they use.
Persuasive messages about _______ are most likely to cause male participants to appear more conforming than female participants.

A) the feasibility of solar powered cars

B) whether declining batting averages are statistical artifacts

C) the importance of good leadership skills

D) the importance of assertiveness in relationships

E) the dangers of steroids in athletic competitions

D) the importance of assertiveness in relationships
Persuasive arguments about _______ are most likely to cause female participants to appear less conforming than male participants.

A) the importance of emotional self-disclosure

B) the consequences of three-point shots in basketball

C) the choice of household pets

D) the advantages of multi-year athletic contracts

E) the importance of physical fitness

A) the importance of emotional self-disclosure
Joe is usually very agreeable, and goes along with his friends’ plans. Tonight, however, he tells his friends that he does not want to go with them to crash a party. Joe’s friends accept his refusal to join them, because Joe usually goes along with the group. This is because Joe has

A) above average social skills.

B) social power.

C) high self-esteem.

D) minority influence.

E) idiosyncrasy credits.

E) idiosyncrasy credits.
Idiosyncrasy credits

A) make it difficult for an individual to go against the wishes of the group.

B) can be transferred from one group member to another.

C) are earned by behaving deviantly on repeated occasions.

D) make it more likely that one will be punished for nonconformity.

E) allow the holder to behave deviantly without punishment from the group.

E) allow the holder to behave deviantly without punishment from the group.
Strahan and colleagues (2008) exposed male and female high school students to interventions that pointed out how distorted and unrealistic the body ideals in media were and emphasized the risks of try to conform to these ideals. Following these interventions, ________ subjects showed ________ in the extent to which their self- esteem was based on appearance.

A) only male; an increase

B) only female; a decrease

C) both male and female; a decrease

D) only male; a decrease

E) only female; an increase

B) only female; a decrease
Mark is a member of the Canadian Alliance Party. He just joined a Welfare Reform Committee made up of nine Liberals. Mark holds a minority opinion on this issue. If Mark wants his opinion to influence the group’s final recommendations, he should

A) express a consistent, unwavering viewpoint.

B) remain quiet to avoid upsetting the group.

C) adjust his opinion to better fit the opinion of the majority.

D) express his opinion, but voice the Liberal viewpoint from time to time as well.

E) express his opinion once and then remain quiet.

A) express a consistent, unwavering viewpoint.
The key to _______ is _______.

A) social influence; conformity.

B) nonconformity; minority influence.

C) obedience; information.

D) conformity; information.

E) minority influence; consistency.

E) minority influence; consistency.
People who hold minority opinions influence the majority group through

A) informational social influence.

B) assertive verbal jousting.

C) aggressive arguments.

D) public compliance.

E) normative social influence.

A) informational social influence.
Felicia is initially the only member of the jury who believes that the defendant is innocent. After hearing and debating Felicia’s arguments, the jury unanimously declares the defendant not guilty. The jurors’ decision will most likely be characterized by

A) contagion.

B) private acceptance.

C) public compliance without private acceptance.

D) public conversion.

E) obedience

B) private acceptance.
Majorities tend to rely on _______, whereas minorities tend to rely on _______.

A) normative social influence; idiosyncrasy credits.

B) informational social influence; conversion.

C) informational social influence; normative social influence.

D) normative social influence; informational social influence.

E) conversion; informational social influence.

D) normative social influence; informational social influence.
Majority influence is to _______ as minority influence is to _______.

A) informational power; normative power.

B) norms; values.

C) values; norms.

D) public compliance; private acceptance.

E) private acceptance; public compliance.

D) public compliance; private acceptance.
Social psychologists use the term _______ to describe behaviour change in response to a direct request from another person.

A) repression

B) obedience

C) compliance

D) concession

E) conformity

C) compliance
“Hello. I’m asking for donations to the Save the Mollusk Foundation. Would you please donate $400?” This solicitor is using the _______ technique.

A) the foot-in-the-door

B) lowballing

C) the door-in-the-face

D) the high-numbers-first

E) the door-on-the-foot

C) the door-in-the-face
Assume that you are canvassing a neighbourhood to collect donations to the Nuke a Whale Fund. You would be using the door-in-the-face technique if you first _______ and then _______.

A) described the fund; asked for a donation.

B) said “Every penny counts”; asked for $10.

C) asked for a small donation of time; asked for $100

D) complimented the potential donor; asked for a small donation.

E) asked for $500; asked for $10.

E) asked for $500; asked for $10.
When Robert Cialdini and his colleagues (1975) first asked participants to commit to a two-year volunteer stint at a juvenile detention center, those who refused that initial request were more likely than others to agree to take problem adolescents on a two-hour trip to the zoo. Why?

A) Participants felt guilty for refusing the large initial request.

B) Participants wanted to reciprocate the experimenter’s cooperation.

C) Participants wanted to reward the experimenter for his persistence.

D) Participants experienced psychological reactance to the first large request.

E) Participants wanted to help the juvenile detention center.

B) Participants wanted to reciprocate the experimenter’s cooperation.
When Maria gives me a batch of her famous chocolate chip cookies, I feel obligated to bring her a bag of my apples. This is a manifestation of

A) the influence norm.

B) the foot-in-the-door technique.

C) guilt management.

D) mindless conformity.

E) the reciprocity norm.

E) the reciprocity norm.
Survey researchers sometimes enclose a dollar bill along with questionnaires in order to increase the odds that recipients will complete and return them. This technique often works because

A) the monetary compensation puts respondents in a good mood.

B) a dollar bill is usually a strong enough motivator for filling out a questionnaire.

C) respondents decide that their time is worth less than a dollar.

D) respondents often mindlessly follow the reciprocity norm.

E) the dollar bill serves as a subtle cue that the survey is important.

D) respondents often mindlessly follow the reciprocity norm.
One disadvantage of the door-in-the-face technique is that

A) conformity is likely to be short-lived.

B) extreme requests often generate suspicions.

C) it has a low rate of success.

D) those who comply expect continuing reciprocation.

E) psychological reactance is often generated.

A) conformity is likely to be short-lived.
_______ is the source of the effectiveness of the door-in-the-face technique.

A) Private acceptance

B) The reciprocity norm

C) Conformity

D) Conversion

E) Informational social influence

B) The reciprocity norm
_______ is to door-in-the-face technique as _______ is to the foot-in-the-door technique.

A) Competition; cooperation

B) Cognitive dissonance; self-perception

C) Cooperation; competition

D) The reciprocity norm; self-image

E) Informational social influence; normative social influence

D) The reciprocity norm; self-image
The _______ technique refers to a way of inducing compliance by first presenting people with a small request and then a larger request.

A) foot-in-the-door

B) forced obedience

C) door-in-the-face

D) lowballing

E) reciprocal obligation

A) foot-in-the-door
Suppose you want to get people to donate money to the Heart and Stroke Foundation on a regular basis. Which of the following strategies would be most effective?

A) Ask people to donate ten dollars, and when they refuse, ask if they would consider donating a dollar.

B) Ask people to donate when they are in a good mood.

C) Ask people to donate over and over again, until they wearily decide to donate ten dollars.

D) Ask people to donate money in the middle of an engrossing sporting event.

E) Ask people to donate a dollar, and then next time ask them to donate ten dollars.

E) Ask people to donate a dollar, and then next time ask them to donate ten dollars.
The foot-in-the-door technique works because it triggers

A) guilt and a desire to restore self-esteem.

B) a change in self-perception.

C) obedience to authority.

D) the reciprocity norm.

E) a positive mood state

B) a change in self-perception.
Julio was asked to wear a button that said “Drive Safely.” Fred was asked to wear a button that said “Save the Whales.” Luisa was asked to give $100 to the “Drivers Safety Fund.” Maria was not asked to do anything. According to the foot-in-the- door theory, who would be more likely to agree to put a huge “Drive Carefully” sign in his or her front yard?

A) Luisa, because she will be more likely to comply with a small request than a large request

B) Julio or Fred would be equally because they both complied with a “small” favour, and will now feel obligated to do a “large” favour

C) Julio, because he now thinks of himself as a person who believes in the issue of safe driving

D) Maria, because she has not already “paid her dues” by wearing a button

E) Maria, because she would experience guilt for her lack of participation

C) Julio, because he now thinks of himself as a person who believes in the issue of safe driving
The term _______ refers to a practice whereby a salesperson initially accepts a customer’s offer, but then claims an error and quotes the customer a higher price.

A) highrolling

B) bait-and-switch

C) door-in-the-face

D) horse-trading

E) lowballing

E) lowballing
Carla has just written out a cheque for $13,000 to pay for her new car. Although the salesperson had initially accepted her cheque, she is now told that there was a mistake and that the final total should really be $14,250. Carla writes another cheque for $1250 to cover the difference so that she can drive out with her new car. Carla has just fallen prey to a questionable sales practice called

A) “keep ’em guessing.”

B) foot-in-the-door.

C) “lowballing.”

D) the “dissonance game.”

E) “bait and switch.”

C) “lowballing.”
When unscrupulous salespeople use lowballing as a means of selling cars, they take advantage of buyers illusions that their decision to buy a particular car was

A) freely chosen.

B) irrevocable.

C) coerced.

D) difficult to make.

E) easy to make.

B) irrevocable.
Reverse psychology is achieving compliance through

A) raising the price after a customer has agreed to purchase a product.

B) beginning with a large request then backing down to a smaller request when the first one is refused.

C) strategically getting someone to contradict you.

D) misleading a person into thinking you want one thing when actually you want another.

E) beginning with a small request which, if complied with, is followed by a larger request

C) strategically getting someone to contradict you.
The most common everyday instances of reverse psychology or strategic self- anticonformity found by MacDonald and colleagues (2011) were when it was used it to

A) elicit attitudinal change.

B) gain monetary advantages.

C) elicit behavioural change.

D) gain emotional reassurance from another.

E) annoy a person you dislike.

D) gain emotional reassurance from another.
After they have been dating for a month, Ari suddenly says to Anna, “You don’t really need me in your life do you?” Anna responds, “Oh! But I do need you, very much!” Which technique of compliance has Ari just used?

A) reverse conformity

B) lowballing

C) door-in-the-face technique

D) foot-in-the-door technique

E) strategic self-anitconformity

E) strategic self-anitconformity
In all likelihood, participants in Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments conducted in the 1960s and 1970s were willing to administer increasingly severe shocks to a confederate learner because they were concerned that the experimenter would be disappointed or perhaps even angry with them. Such concerns reflect the power of _______ to induce obedience to authority.

A) the reciprocity norm

B) mindless conformity

C) normative social influence

D) shame

E) informational social influence

C) normative social influence
Surveys of students, adults, and psychiatrists asked the respondents to predict what percentage of people would go all the way to 450 volts in Milgram’s experiments. The respondents

A) correctly predicted that only a small minority of about 20% would obey.

B) correctly predicted that the majority would comply.

C) incorrectly predicted that only a minority of about 20% would obey.

D) incorrectly predicted that only a very small percentage would obey.

E) correctly predicted that only a small minority of about 10% would obey.

D) incorrectly predicted that only a very small percentage would obey.
Which was NOT one of the instructions (prods) used by the experimenter to encourage obedience by the participants in Milgram’s experiments.

A) “Please continue.”

B) “The experiment requires that you continue.”

C) “You must continue until the experiment is completed.”

D) “It is absolutely essential that you continue.”

E) “You have no other choice; you must go on.”

C) “You must continue until the experiment is completed.”
Burger’s (2009) replication of Milgram’s studies on obedience to authority suggests that compared with people in the 1970s, people in today are _____________ authority.

A) less likely to obey

B) just as likely to obey

C) more likely to obey

D) not at all inclined to obey

E) more prepared to distrust

B) just as likely to obey
In Burger’s (2009) replication of Milgram’s studies on obedience to authority, he included both men and women (as did Milgram in some of his). Which of the following is true about the gender differences Burger found?

A) Men were more obedient than women.

B) Women were more obedient than men.

C) Men were more obedient, but only if the experimenter giving instructions was also a man.

D) There were no significant gender differences, just as in Milgram’s studies.

E) Women were more obedient, but only if the experimenter giving instructions was a man.

D) There were no significant gender differences, just as in Milgram’s studies.
Which of the following variations of Stanley Milgram’s (1963) original obedience experiment provides the strongest evidence of the operation of normative conformity when participants administer electric shocks to a confederate learner?

A) Participants are less likely to obey when they believe that the learner will have a chance to “teach” them later.

B) When the participants are in the same room as the learner, they obey less.

C) Older participants are less likely to obey than are younger participants.

D) When another (confederate) participant refuses to continue, participants obey less.

E) Participants are more likely to obey if they are given rewards.

D) When another (confederate) participant refuses to continue, participants obey less.
Which of the following types of conformity pressures induced most of the participants in Stanley Milgram’s obedience studies (Milgram, 1974) to deliver escalating and life-threatening shocks to an innocent learner?

A) informational influence

B) both informational and normative social influence

C) mindless conformity

D) blind conformity

E) normative influence

B) both informational and normative social influence
Recall that Stanley Milgram conducted a variation on his original obedience experiment. In this variation, there were two confederates in addition to the participant. When the participant threw the switch at 150 volts, one of the confederates refused to continue, even though the experimenter commanded that they do so. In this variation, only about 10% (compared to about 65% in the original study) went to the highest shock level. This experimental variation demonstrated the power of _______ in eliciting obedience.

A) normative social influence

B) the lowballing technique

C) the door-in-the-face effect

D) a non-unanimous majority

E) informational social influence

A) normative social influence
Given the role of informational and normative social influence processes in contributing to participants’ willingness to shock a confederate learner (e.g., Milgram, 1974), which of the following situations would yield the least obedience?

A) Before leaving the room, two experimenters disagree on instructions before finally telling participants to take their time and choose their own shock levels.

B) The experimenter tells the participant they must continue, but do not explain why.

C) The experimenter tells participants that the learner will later be allowed to administer shocks to them.

D) The experimenter administers shocks to himself to demonstrate that the shocks are not lethal.

E) The experimenter tells participants that the best teacher will be awarded a prize at the conclusion of the experiment.

A) Before leaving the room, two experimenters disagree on instructions before finally telling participants to take their time and choose their own shock levels.
It is likely that participants in Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments conducted in the 1960s and 1970s were willing to administer increasingly severe shocks to a confederate learner because when confronted with a confusing, unfamiliar, and upsetting situation, they would turn to the experimenter for cues as to how to proceed. This speculation in essence identifies _______ as a source of participants’ destructive obedience.

A) social norms

B) latent sadism

C) normative social influence

D) informational social influence

E) sociopathology

D) informational social influence
In an alternative version of his original experiment, Stanley Milgram had the experimenter leave the room after telling participants that they could deliver whatever level of shock they chose. After the experimenter left the room, a confederate suggested that the participant increase shock by one level each time the learner made a mistake. In this variation, only about 20% (compared to about 65% in the original study) went to the highest shock level. This experimental variation demonstrated the power of _______ in eliciting obedience.

A) informational social influence

B) normative social influence

C) peer influence

D) the door-in-the-face effect

E) contagion

A) informational social influence
In alternative versions of his original experiments, Stanley Milgram collected data that indicated informational social influence as a source of participants’ destructive obedience. More specifically, Milgram found that

A) participants who were instructed to place the learner’s hand on a shock plate refused to administer severe shocks.

B) participants administered less severe shocks when the experimenter left the room and a (confederate) co-teacher gave the instructions to continue.

C) culture plays a key role in how likely the participant was to administer the full range of shocks.

D) when the experimenter volunteered to flip the switches, participants were less likely to administer severe shocks.

E) when the learner complained of a heart condition, participants were less likely to shock him.

B) participants administered less severe shocks when the experimenter left the room and a (confederate) co-teacher gave the instructions to continue.
In an alternative version of his original experiment, Stanley Milgram used two experimenters who began to disagree with each other when the participants administered 150 volts and the learner began to complain. In this variation, participants refused to continue. According to the authors of your text, this variation demonstrates the importance of _______ in influencing obedience.

A) the door-in-the-face effect

B) unanimous normative influence

C) peer acceptance

D) clear informational influence

E) the foot-in-the-door effect

D) clear informational influence
Participants in Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments found themselves caught between two norms: “obey legitimate authorities” and “do not inflict needless harm.” According to the text, why was it especially difficult for participants to abandon the “obey authority” norm in favor of the “do no harm” norm?

A) The experimenter was in the same room and was a more salient normative stimulus than was the learner.

B) Participants were concerned they would lose the rewards they were promised for participating if they did not continue.

C) Task distractions and the fast pace made it difficult to decide that the “obey authority” norm was no longer appropriate.

D) Many participants had served in the military and had internalized the “obey authority” norm.

E) Participants were more concerned about how the experimenter would evaluate them than with how the learner would.

C) Task distractions and the fast pace made it difficult to decide that the “obey authority” norm was no longer appropriate.
Mika Haritos-Fatouros (1988) conducted interviews with former torturers of prisoners who were incarcerated in Greece during the late 1960s. Haritos-Fatouros found that prison authorities

A) employed a version of the lowballing technique to induce compliance.

B) made a twisted version of the reciprocity norm salient to the guards.

C) made effective use of the door-in-the-face technique in turning ordinary guards into torturers.

D) cited Stanley Milgram’s experiments as the inspiration for their obedience- inducing efforts.

E) used an incremental approach similar to the foot-in-the-door technique and Stanley Milgram’s experimental procedures.

E) used an incremental approach similar to the foot-in-the-door technique and Stanley Milgram’s experimental procedures.
In Milgram’s “obedience to authority”study, people were asked to increase the shocks they administered in very small increments. This aspect of those experiments increased the total shock that people administered by capitalizing on

A) the increase in certainty that is produced by informational social influence.

B) people’s fear of authority figures.

C) the gradually escalating effects of the door-in-the-face technique.

D) the increasing fear of rejection that results from normative social influence.

E) the process of self-justification and the reduction of cognitive dissonance.

E) the process of self-justification and the reduction of cognitive dissonance.
Even though the authors point to a number of situational variables that contributed to the destructive obedience of Stanley Milgram’s participants (e.g., normative and informational conformity pressures, conflicting norms), it might still be argued that people have lurking deep within them sadistic tendencies that can easily be elicited by situational variables. What experimental findings by Milgram call this “personal attribution” into question?

A) When the learner was introduced as a minister, participants gave lower shocks.

B) When the learner was introduced as a prison inmate, participants gave higher
shocks.

C) There are cultural differences in the amount of shock participants administer.

D) Violent prisoners administered lower shocks than non-prisoner participants.

E) When participants could chose the level of shock, they administered very low levels.

E) When participants could chose the level of shock, they administered very low
levels.