A) in one way or another, prejudice affects all of us.
B) prejudice is destructive and difficult to eradicate.
C) prejudice is especially likely to be found in Western cultures.
D) stereotypes are applied unfairly by members of the dominant group.
E) prejudice is more likely in dominant groups.
A) Only ethnic minorities experience prejudice and discrimination.
B) Only ethnic minorities and women experience prejudice.
C) Any group can experience prejudice.
D) Prejudice is a thing of the past; no groups experience it anymore.
E) Racism is the only form of prejudice that creates true harm in society.
D) Modern racism
A) low-prejudice; less warmth
B) high-prejudice; less warmth
C) low-prejudice; more frequently
D) high prejudice; more warmth
E) low-prejudice; less frequently
A) Mrs. Evans
B) Miss Jones
C) Ms. Barnes
D) Mr. Green
E) J. Taylor, Esq.
A) consumer choice
A) the neosexism scale
B) the implicit association test (IAT)
C) the modern racism scale
D) the modern homonegativity scale
E) the associate attitude test (AAT)
A) the neosexism scale
B) the implicit association test (IAT)
C) the modern racism scale
D) the modern homonegativity scale
E) the associative attitude test (AAT)
A) diffuse; specific
B) positive; negative
C) specific; diffuse
D) benign; destructive
E) negative; positive
A) Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.
B) At parties Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.
C) Glen believes that high school dropouts are unintelligent.
D) Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.
E) Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.
A) Prejudice; discrimination
B) Stereotype; prejudice
C) Discrimination; prejudice
D) Discrimination; stereotype
E) Prejudice; stereotype
A) Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.
B) Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.
C) Cindy does not have any friends outside of her sorority.
D) Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.
E) Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.
C) cognitive focus
A) stereotypes about
B) negative affect toward
C) negative behaviour toward
D) prejudice toward
E) discrimination against
C) Negative stereotypes
D) In-group schemata
E) In-group biases
A) justifying; reassuring.
B) fully analyzing; slow.
C) simplifying; adaptive.
D) judging; decisive.
E) coding; destructive.
A) stereotyping is a way to simplify a complex world.
B) people are cognitively lazy.
C) negative stereotypes are motivated, but positive stereotypes are not.
D) it takes a tremendous amount of effort to abandon our stereotypes.
E) lazy people tend to hold the most stereotypes.
A) to help us conserve cognitive energy.
B) from personal experience.
C) because we are not motivated to fully think through important issues.
D) to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.
E) at the service of the ego.
B) are based on experience.
C) are overgeneralized to members of a group.
D) require cognitive effort.
E) reduce cognitive effort.
A) are selectively applied.
B) minimize differences within a group of people.
C) simplify a complex social world.
D) are generally accurate.
E) are reserved for ambiguous situations.
A) they expected sexism in the workplace.
B) they felt they would not belong in the workplace.
C) they found the language offensive.
D) they thought they could earn more elsewhere.
E) they felt they didn’t have the right skills for the job.
A) affirmative action
E) in-group bias
A) Luke thinks all women are manipulative.
B) Ryan feels mistrustful of Jews.
C) Laura scoots over a few feet when an African American sits next to her in a waiting room.
D) Jenny believes that all Hispanics are fluent in Spanish and can cook terrific Tex-Mex food.
E) Joe believes that all rich people are snobs who have acquired their money dishonestly.
A) affect; cognition.
B) cognition; stereotypes.
C) cognition; affect.
D) attitudes; behaviour.
E) behaviour; attitudes.
A) a stereotype threat.
B) an attribution error.
D) a meta-stereotype.
A) contagion and frustration
B) realistic conflict
C) self-justification processes
D) the frustration-aggression link
E) schemas and heuristics
A) attributional bias
C) faulty memory process
E) judgmental heuristic
A) based on their responses to internal rather than external cues.
B) based on a need to justify their behaviours and bolster their self-esteem.
C) differently than they process information about other groups.
D) based on faulty cognitions.
E) based on their responses to external rather than internal cues.
A) identification with similar others.
B) the categorization of people into groups.
C) the preference we give to in-groups.
D) our tendency to disparage out-groups.
E) identification with the out-group.
A) she will conclude that Murray Sinclair is not really intelligent, but became a judge because he received preferential treatment.
B) she will reevaluate her opinions of Native Canadians and conclude that they must be wrong.
C) she will conclude that Murray Sinclair is a different and unusual “type” of Native Canadian.
D) she will try even harder to think of Native Canadians that are like her stereotype in order to hang on to it.
E) she will not pay attention during the lecture.
A) enhance group harmony.
B) create in-groups and out-groups.
C) reduce prejudice.
D) minimize the effects of group membership.
E) perpetuate stereotypes.
A) how to reduce the effects of prejudice.
B) the minimal conditions for establishing in-group bias.
C) how to minimize competition between in-groups and out-groups.
D) when existing stereotypes will overshadow the effects of minimal categorization.
E) the effects of minimal categorization on people’s implicit personality theories.
A) a result of the need to perceive the world accurately.
B) an automatic product of information processing.
C) more likely in people who are “cognitive misers.”
D) more likely in people who are high in the need for cognition.
E) motivated at least in part by the desire to enhance self-esteem.
A) the location of the group
B) the size of the group
C) the similarity of group members
D) a person’s identification with the group
E) a person’s membership in the group
A) base group.
D) minimal group.
E) focus group.
A) quicker information processing and a more coherent world view.
B) social identity benefits and self-esteem enhancement.
C) the need to perceive the world accurately and conform to in-group demands.
D) ensuring survival of our group and of ourselves.
E) a desire to express our negative energy and experience the catharsis that follows.
A) increased prejudice towards the out-group.
B) endorsement of measures to protect in-group sovereignty.
C) increased ratings of out-group superiority.
D) increased desire to leave the in-group and join the out-group.
E) a decrease in self-esteem.
A) If you strongly identify with your social group, you feel less threatened by out- group members.
B) Discriminating against members of other groups can make you like your own group more.
C) If you strongly identify with your social group, you are less likely to discriminate against members of other groups.
D) Discriminating against other groups is more likely to occur if you have been assigned to a group than if you have chosen it.
E) Favouring your own group is more likely to occur if you have been assigned to a group than if you have chosen it.
A) English-speaking francophones identified with anglophones but French- speaking anglophones did not identify with the francophone group.
B) the anglophones showed identification with the francophone culture.
C) even though students felt competence with the other language, it did not lead to cross identification with the other group. They only identified with their own cultural group.
D) as the minority group, francophones strongly identified only with their own culture.
E) competence within the other cultural group’s language facilitates identification with the other group for both anglophones and francophone students.
A) Jim’s identification and appreciation of francophone culture has no impact on his anglophone identity.
B) Alain no longer identifies with his francophone culture due to extensive experience with English culture.
C) Sarah’s identification with anglophone culture has come in conflict with her francophone identity now that she is learning English.
D) Laura’s increasing identification with francophone culture has come in conflict with her anglophone identity.
E) Even though Marie-Eve has become much more proficient in English she feels no connection to anglophone culture.
A) the power of the situation can override the activation of negative stereotypes.
B) competition often leads to prejudice.
C) stereotypes can influence the way we process incoming information.
D) stereotype activation can affect both specific and general judgments.
E) competition can activate negative stereotypes.
A) there is an imperfect relation between prejudice and discrimination.
B) heuristics make stereotypes more accessible.
C) stereotypes are easily activated and can affect behaviours.
D) priming does not impact stereotypes.
E) some stereotypes are more accessible than others.
A) automatically activated; controlled processing
B) gender; interacting with others
C) simple; complex contradictory information
D) negative; experience
E) specific; our moods
A) difficult; effortless.
B) distressing; a relief.
C) controlled; automatic.
D) learned; automatic.
E) automatic; controlled.
A) common; use
B) suspended; activate or use
C) known; reveal
D) known; activate
E) accessible; refute or ignore
A) negative feelings and negative behaviours.
B) negative thoughts and negative feelings.
C) automatic processing and controlled processing.
D) activation of the stereotype and engaging in discrimination.
E) negative thoughts and negative behaviours.
A) some people do not experience a negative reaction to stereotyped groups.
B) stereotypes are only activated for people who are not high in the need for cognition.
C) high or low prejudice is not associated with the ease with which stereotypes are activated.
D) stereotypes are only activated in high-prejudiced people.
E) low-prejudiced people are more sensitive to stereotype activation attempts, and are able to detect them.
A) symbolic beliefs; emotions
B) symbolic beliefs; in-group bias
C) emotions; symbolic beliefs
D) outgroup identifications; in-group bias
E) emotions; in-group bias
A) they received a negative evaluation by a member of a different racial group.
B) they received no evaluation by a members of a different racial group.
C) they received a positive evaluation by a member of their own racial group.
D) they received a negative evaluation by a member of their own racial group.
E) they received a positive evaluation by a member of a different racial group.
B) out-group stereotypes.
C) second-order stereotypes.
D) higher-order stereotypes.
E) in-group stereotypes.
A) experience a loss of self-esteem.
B) compensate by anticipating more positive emotions during the interaction.
C) anticipate feeling negative emotions during the interaction.
D) experience a loss of self-worth.
E) work harder than usual to overcome that negative stereotype.
A) high-prejudice white people and Aboriginal participants were similar in that they both were overly preoccupied with how they would be perceived.
B) high-prejudice white people were targets of stereotyping as much as Aboriginal participants.
C) the white Canadians were stereotyped while the Aboriginals were not.
D) the minority group stereotyped the majority group and vice versa.
E) the Aboriginals were stereotyped while the white Canadians were not.
A) how negative our experiences with members of an out-group have been
B) how much interaction we have with the out-group
C) how well-defined our stereotypes about an out-group are
D) how much we believe an out-group hinders values that we cherish
E) how strong the emotions elicited by an out-group are
A) “How do you feel about gay marriage?”
B) “What kinds of experiences have you had in your interactions with gay people?”
C) “What emotions do you feel when you think about gays?”
D) “In what ways do you think the values promoted by the gay community contradict your own personal values?”
E) “What kinds of personality traits do you think gay people possess?”
A) stereotype threat
B) realistic conflict
D) in-group bias
E) the ultimate attribution error
A) realistic conflict approach
B) attributional approach
C) out-group homogeneity approach
D) in-group approach
E) minimal group
A) subtypes are applied to members of an in-group.
B) the fundamental attribution error is applied to members of an out-group.
C) people refuse to make attributions for objectionable out-group behaviours.
D) in-group members do not spend much time together.
E) out-group members behave in ways that contradict in-group stereotypes.
A) Stereotype; prejudice
B) Fundamental attribution error; ultimate attribution error
C) Prejudice; stereotype
D) Accuracy; biases
E) Personal attribution; collective attribution
A) skill; good luck.
B) hard work; good luck.
C) luck; ability.
D) ability; hard work.
E) hard work; ability.
A) stereotypes about women have become more positive over the last two decades.
B) gender stereotypes (about men and women) have changed over the last two decades.
C) female actors make different attributions for their success than observers do.
D) stereotypes about women have remained consistent over the last two decades.
E) stereotypes about women have become more negative over the last two decades.
A) negative emotions did not predict prejudice for either group.
B) negative emotions influence prejudice levels for minority groups but not for majority groups.
C) negative emotions were less predictive of prejudice than individual differences.
D) the more negative emotion people expect to feel while interacting with members of another group, the greater their prejudice towards that group.
E) negative emotions influence prejudice levels for majority groups but not for
A) “Well, I did study for ten hours,”; “Some people have it and some people don’t.”
B) “I really learned the material well,”; “Man, I really got lucky this time.”
C) “Math is one of my strong subjects,”; “I can’t believe I did so well on a difficult test.”
D) “It’s 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration,”; “I should have studied this way all along.”
E) “Women are just as good at math as men are,”; “I guess that studying hard pays off.”
B) negative stereotypes.
C) losing out-group status.
E) scarce resources.
A) Triangular theory
B) Attribution theory
C) Realistic conflict theory
D) Relative deprivation theory
E) The self-fulfilling prophecy
C) realistic conflict
A) the notion that people are particularly likely to make the ultimate attribution error when judging out-groups.
B) predictions made by realistic conflict theory.
C) predictions made by stereotype priming theory.
D) the principle of normative conformity.
E) the hypothesis that the emotions a group arouses in us cause stereotypes to be activated.
A) created minimal groups; set up a series of competitive situations.
B) created in-group cohesiveness; set up a series of competitive situations.
C) set up a series of competitive situations; created in-group cohesiveness.
D) created out-group cohesiveness; initiated competitive games.
E) created minimal groups; generated frustration by taking away desired objects.
A) realistic conflict
B) out-group disparagement
C) ultimate attribution theory
E) in-group enhancement
A) very positively due to the fact that they are good citizens
B) neutrally as the information has little relevance
C) somewhat positively since he perceives that they will not be a burden on society
D) positively as the information has little relevance
E) negatively due to the fact that their success may be threatening
B) the rejection of
C) the avoidance of
D) ignorance of
E) conformity to
A) informational conformity
B) competition for scarce resources
D) in-group pride
E) normative conformity
A) the low correlation between the two sets of data mean that people are adept at covering up their hidden prejudices.
B) the moderate correlation means that although some people show prejudiced attitudes not everyone shares these views.
C) the low correlation means that there are few shared norms about which groups are targets of prejudice in society.
D) the low correlation is not an important finding because it can be interpreted in several different ways.
E) the high correlation between the two sets of data means that asking about the norms of prejudice is practically the same thing as asking about the actual prejudicial attitudes held.
A) right-wing authoritarianism.
B) self-fulfilling prophecy.
D) stereotype threat.
A) avoid stereotype threat.
B) defend the status quo.
C) identify with the in-group.
D) seek mutual interdependence.
E) reject the current system.
A) feel depressed.
B) be satisfied with relations between men and women.
C) show sexism towards males.
D) take action to improve women’s rights.
E) show sexism to other women.
A) measure sexist attitudes in school children.
B) measure sexism in the workplace.
C) measure anti-male attitudes as well as anti-female attitudes.
D) measure attitudes towards lesbians and gay men.
E) measure negative attitudes towards women that people might not want to express overtly.
A) less insidious
B) less obvious
C) less serious
D) more explicit
E) more blatant
C) Realistic conflict theory
E) Modern prejudice
A) modern prejudice.
D) meta stereotypes
E) outgroup bias.
A) provide extrinsic reinforcement for anti-prejudiced behaviours.
B) blur the distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ and promote common goals.
C) highlight the differences between ethnic groups.
D) punish prejudiced behaviours.
E) educate parents to be better role models for their children.
A) conservatism; prejudice; dominance.
B) submission; dominance; nonconformity.
C) submission; aggression; conventionalism.
D) aggression; conservatism; traditionalism.
E) prejudice; dominance; conventionalism.
A) authoritarian fundamentalism
B) authoritarian submission
C) authoritarian self-righteousness
E) authoritarian rigidity
A) Adapt the jigsaw technique to adult problem solving.
B) Inform them that their attitudes are different from the majority as conformity is an important value for them.
C) Publicly criticize them for open expression of prejudicial beliefs.
D) Ask them to state why they hold these beliefs.
E) Encourage educational travel to allow exposure to other cultures.
A) the correlation between right-wing authoritarianism and prejudice
B) the correlation between belief in a just world and prejudice
C) the correlation between social dominance orientation and prejudice
D) the correlation between religious fundamentalism and prejudice
A) minimal group bias.
B) out-group error.
C) self-fulfilling prophecy.
D) fundamental attribution error.
E) expectations relapse.
A) became more convinced that their initial negative expectations were confirmed.
B) actually behaved in less effective and comfortable ways.
C) confronted the interviewers and terminated the conversation.
D) experienced a loss of self-esteem.
E) were in a negative mood state which lead to improved performance.
A) dislike of; lower
B) attraction towards; higher
C) pleased about interacting with; higher
D) dislike of; higher
E) attraction towards; lower
A) stereotype threat.
B) attribution error.
C) group hostility.
D) cultural bias
E) class anxiety.
A) Stereotypic anxiety
B) Stereotype threat
C) Prejudice anxiety
D) Performance ambivalence
E) Evaluation apprehension
A) African-Americans shared the cultural stereotype.
B) African-Americans were overwhelmed by a fear of success.
C) Anglo-Americans were determined that African-Americans would not “outscore” them.
D) African-Americans experienced performance ambivalence.
E) African-Americans experienced stereotype vulnerability.
A) a calculus examination.
B) a gender-neutral task.
C) a philosophy assignment.
D) an English assignment.
E) a vocational interest questionnaire.
A) students in the control group who were not reminded of their gender or ethnicity
B) students who were reminded of their gender
C) students who were previously punished for poor performance
D) students who were reminded of their ethnicity
E) students who were rewarded for good performance
A) a high correlation between parents’ and children’s degree of prejudice.
B) a correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes, but only for prejudiced parents.
C) a correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes, but only for egalitarian parents.
D) virtually no correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes.
E) a low correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes for egalitarian parents and a high correlation for prejudiced parents.
C) slightly prejudiced
D) homophobic but not racist
E) slightly racist but not sexist
A) perceptual bias.
B) the benefits of diversity.
C) prejudice and discrimination.
D) the importance of teamwork.
E) the Civil Rights Movement.
A) reinforcing existing beliefs
B) generating competition for resources
C) generating competition for attention
D) providing a new criterion for categorization
E) contradicting existing beliefs
A) an out-group.
B) realistic conflict.
C) out-group homogeneity
D) minimal groups.
E) an in-group.
A) low-prejudice child; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.
B) adult; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.
C) psychologist; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.
D) low-prejudice child; increased prejudice in the high-prejudice child.
E) member of another ethnic group; increased prejudice in both.
A) the child’s personality will ultimately determine if he or she will be prejudiced.
B) children may also be effective at teaching one another.
C) this socialization is negated by negative stereotypes of ethnic groups portrayed in the mass-media.
D) the effects are not long-lasting.
E) prejudice-reduction is better left to psychologists.
A) if you make the effort to become friends with a member of an out-group it can have far-reaching positive effects.
B) extended contact between ethnic groups lead to competition for resources, derogation, and discrimination against the competing group.
C) extended contact causes members of an out-group to experience fear that they’ll behave in a manner that confirms existing stereotypes.
D) there is no relationship between cross-group friendships and levels of prejudice.
E) extended contact enhances the in-group bias of both groups.
A) jig-saw classrooms.
B) extended contact hypothesis.
D) cognitive dissonance.
A) the number of cross-group friendships a person has does not influence levels of prejudice.
B) the more people in our ethnic group who have friendships with out-group members, the less prejudiced we are towards that group.
C) the more people in our ethnic group who have friendships with out-group members, the more prejudiced we are towards that group.
D) cross-group friendships only reduce prejudice if they include ethnic groups who share similar social values.
E) cross-group friendships are more likely to reduce prejudice in women than in men.
A) intergroup hypothesis.
B) interactional theory.
C) mere exposure paradigm.
D) interpersonal model.
E) contact hypothesis.
A) leaders endorsed a truce between the two rival groups.
B) groups were rewarded when they cooperated with one another.
C) they brought the groups together in neutral situations.
D) groups were punished for behaving with hostility.
E) they constructed situations that fostered mutual interdependence.
A) Zero-sum dynamics
C) Group dynamics
D) Mutual exclusivity
E) Mutual interdependence
A) Cook a good hearty meal and have them all gather at the table.
B) Send them outside to play in the yard.
C) Have a family meeting so that they can air their grievances.
D) Promise to take them to a Jack Black movie only if they clean the playroom in 30 minutes.
E) Explain to the children that it is important that they get along.
A) the reduction of frustration and a common goal.
B) reduced stereotype threat and role differentiation
C) a neutral setting and role differentiation.
D) mutual interdependence and a common goal.
E) one-on-one interactions between in-group and out-group members and an informal setting.
A) Contact must occur in a tightly structured situation controlled by authority.
B) Contact must occur in situations in which social norms promote equality.
C) Contact must occur in situations that minimize stereotypical beliefs
D) Contact must occur in the service of attaining a common goal.
E) Contact must occur in a friendly setting where group members can interact on a one-to-one basis.
A) stereotype suppression, enhanced independence, and positive affect. B) biased attenuation, schematic interference, and hierarchical status.
C) affective suppression, mutual dependence, and repeated contact.
D) schematic interference, mutual dependence, and positive affect.
E) multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and stereotype suppression.
A) teacher supports common goals, but the students do not.
B) teacher holds negative stereotypes about minority children.
C) was designed to reinforce segregation.
D) is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.
E) is too large for teachers to give attention to all students who need it.
A) asking friendly and good questions.
B) focusing their attention on students who have mastered the material.
C) asking the student to work harder.
D) asking the teacher to clarify things.
E) taking over and doing the student’s assignment.
A) Minority children are required to compete when they otherwise wouldn’t.
B) It is in each child’s self-interest to cooperate with others.
C) Children are aware of their roles.
D) It appeals to young children’s natural empathy for others.
E) Students’ responsibilities are informally structured.
A) jigsaw technique.
B) extended contact hypothesis.
C) outgroup homogeneity.
E) mutual interdependence.