PSY 226 Chapter 12: Prejudice

When the authors assert that prejudice is a ubiquitous social phenomenon, they mean that

A) in one way or another, prejudice affects all of us.

B) prejudice is destructive and difficult to eradicate.

C) prejudice is especially likely to be found in Western cultures.

D) stereotypes are applied unfairly by members of the dominant group.

E) prejudice is more likely in dominant groups.

A) in one way or another, prejudice affects all of us.
Prejudice against ethnic minorities is well-known. Which of the following is true about the scope of the experience of prejudice?

A) Only ethnic minorities experience prejudice and discrimination.

B) Only ethnic minorities and women experience prejudice.

C) Any group can experience prejudice.

D) Prejudice is a thing of the past; no groups experience it anymore.

E) Racism is the only form of prejudice that creates true harm in society.

C) Any group can experience prejudice.
_______ refers to a negative attitude towards a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their group membership.

A) Stereotypes

B) Racism

C) Prejudice

D) Modern racism

E) Discrimination

C) Prejudice
Vorauer and Sasaki (2010) provided students with information that promoted multiculturalism. In response ________ students communicated ________ to an Aboriginal student who sent them a message.

A) low-prejudice; less warmth

B) high-prejudice; less warmth

C) low-prejudice; more frequently

D) high prejudice; more warmth

E) low-prejudice; less frequently

B) high-prejudice; less warmth
Based on research by Dion and colleagues (1999), which of the following would receive the most negative rating just based on their names and titles.

A) Mrs. Evans

B) Miss Jones

C) Ms. Barnes

D) Mr. Green

E) J. Taylor, Esq.

C) Ms. Barnes
In their classic “doll studies” with African-American children, social psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark (1947) demonstrated the negative effects of prejudice on children’s _____ even early in life.

A) consumer choice

B) altruism

C) empathy

D) self-esteem

E) attachments

D) self-esteem
A well-developed measure of modern prejudice is ________ which asks participants to respond to works paired with pictures of faces, then measures speed of response.

A) the neosexism scale

B) the implicit association test (IAT)

C) the modern racism scale

D) the modern homonegativity scale

E) the associate attitude test (AAT)

B) the implicit association test (IAT)
Which of the following is not one of the recently developed measures of modern prejudice discussed in your text?

A) the neosexism scale

B) the implicit association test (IAT)

C) the modern racism scale

D) the modern homonegativity scale

E) the associative attitude test (AAT)

E) the associative attitude test (AAT)
Prejudice refers to both the general attitude structure and the _______ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.

A) affective

B) dominant

C) cognitive

D) behavioural

E) illustrative

A) affective
Although psychologists usually refer to prejudice only in a _______ sense, it is possible for a person to have a _______ prejudice about a particular group.

A) diffuse; specific

B) positive; negative

C) specific; diffuse

D) benign; destructive

E) negative; positive

E) negative; positive
Which of the following best exemplifies the concept of “prejudice” as used by social psychologists?

A) Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.

B) At parties Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.

C) Glen believes that high school dropouts are unintelligent.

D) Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.

E) Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.

D) Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.
_______ is to affect as _______ is to cognition.

A) Prejudice; discrimination

B) Stereotype; prejudice

C) Discrimination; prejudice

D) Discrimination; stereotype

E) Prejudice; stereotype

E) Prejudice; stereotype
Which of the following examples best captures the social-psychological concept of a stereotype?

A) Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.

B) Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.

C) Cindy does not have any friends outside of her sorority.

D) Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.

E) Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.

D) Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.
The term _______ was coined by journalist Walter Lippman (1922), who referred to these phenomena as “the little pictures we carry around in our heads.”

A) stereotype

B) heuristics

C) cognitive focus

D) generalization

E) prejudgments

A) stereotype
Stereotypes are the _______ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.

A) cognitive

B) specific

C) behavioural

D) denotative

E) affective

A) cognitive
Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than men. These are examples of Shane’s _______ women.

A) stereotypes about

B) negative affect toward

C) negative behaviour toward

D) prejudice toward

E) discrimination against

A) stereotypes about
_______ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.

A) Schemas

B) Stereotypes

C) Negative stereotypes

D) In-group schemata

E) In-group biases

B) Stereotypes
Stereotyping is a way of _______ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes _______.

A) justifying; reassuring.

B) fully analyzing; slow.

C) simplifying; adaptive.

D) judging; decisive.

E) coding; destructive.

C) simplifying; adaptive.
Social psychologist Gordon Allport referred to stereotyping as “the law of least effort.” By this he meant that

A) stereotyping is a way to simplify a complex world.

B) people are cognitively lazy.

C) negative stereotypes are motivated, but positive stereotypes are not.

D) it takes a tremendous amount of effort to abandon our stereotypes.

E) lazy people tend to hold the most stereotypes.

A) stereotyping is a way to simplify a complex world.
When Gordon Allport (1954) described stereotyping as “the law of least effort,” he was suggesting that stereotypes arise

A) to help us conserve cognitive energy.

B) from personal experience.

C) because we are not motivated to fully think through important issues.

D) to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.

E) at the service of the ego.

A) to help us conserve cognitive energy.
Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they

A) exist.

B) are based on experience.

C) are overgeneralized to members of a group.

D) require cognitive effort.

E) reduce cognitive effort.

C) are overgeneralized to members of a group.
Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they

A) are selectively applied.

B) minimize differences within a group of people.

C) simplify a complex social world.

D) are generally accurate.

E) are reserved for ambiguous situations.

C) simplify a complex social world.
Gaucher and colleagues (2011) found that advertisements for male-dominated jobs had more masculine stereotypical words (e.g., competitive, dominate). They also found that women were reluctant to apply for such jobs because

A) they expected sexism in the workplace.

B) they felt they would not belong in the workplace.

C) they found the language offensive.

D) they thought they could earn more elsewhere.

E) they felt they didn’t have the right skills for the job.

B) they felt they would not belong in the workplace.
The definition of ___________ is “unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group.”

A) affirmative action

B) prejudice

C) discrimination

D) racism

E) in-group bias

C) discrimination
Which of the following is an example of discrimination?

A) Luke thinks all women are manipulative.

B) Ryan feels mistrustful of Jews.

C) Laura scoots over a few feet when an African American sits next to her in a waiting room.

D) Jenny believes that all Hispanics are fluent in Spanish and can cook terrific Tex-Mex food.

E) Joe believes that all rich people are snobs who have acquired their money dishonestly.

E) Joe believes that all rich people are snobs who have acquired their money dishonestly.
Prejudice is to discrimination as _______ is/are to _______.

A) affect; cognition.

B) cognition; stereotypes.

C) cognition; affect.

D) attitudes; behaviour.

E) behaviour; attitudes.

D) attitudes; behaviour.
Discrimination is the _______ component of negative attitudes toward a group of people.

A) dominant

B) cognitive

C) affective

D) behavioural

E) pejorative

D) behavioural
Belinda is thinking of joining the women’s hockey team at the University. She is, however, concerned that the players on the men’s team will mock them because ‘girls can’t play hockey’. Belinda’s beliefs can best be describes as

A) a stereotype threat.

B) an attribution error.

C) disengagement.

D) a meta-stereotype.

E) disidentification.

D) a meta-stereotype.
Which of the following concepts is most closely related to a social cognition approach to prejudice?

A) contagion and frustration

B) realistic conflict

C) self-justification processes

D) the frustration-aggression link

E) schemas and heuristics

E) schemas and heuristics
“Similar is good, but different is bad” represents a(n) _______ that might contribute to prejudice.

A) attributional bias

B) stereotype

C) faulty memory process

D) schema

E) judgmental heuristic

E) judgmental heuristic
People pay more attention to information that is consistent with schemas about particular groups of others. This is an example of an important implication of schemas. People who hold schemas about particular groups will process information about those groups

A) based on their responses to internal rather than external cues.

B) based on a need to justify their behaviours and bolster their self-esteem.

C) differently than they process information about other groups.

D) based on faulty cognitions.

E) based on their responses to external rather than internal cues.

C) differently than they process information about other groups.
From a social cognitive perspective, the first step toward prejudice is

A) identification with similar others.

B) the categorization of people into groups.

C) the preference we give to in-groups.

D) our tendency to disparage out-groups.

E) identification with the out-group.

B) the categorization of people into groups.
Marianne has grown up believing that all Native Canadians are unintelligent and lazy. One day she attends a lecture by Judge Murray Sinclair, an educated and articulate Native Canadian. Research conducted at the University of Waterloo by Kunda and Oleson (1997) would predict that, on the basis of this encounter it is most likely that

A) she will conclude that Murray Sinclair is not really intelligent, but became a judge because he received preferential treatment.

B) she will reevaluate her opinions of Native Canadians and conclude that they must be wrong.

C) she will conclude that Murray Sinclair is a different and unusual “type” of Native Canadian.

D) she will try even harder to think of Native Canadians that are like her stereotype in order to hang on to it.

E) she will not pay attention during the lecture.

C) she will conclude that Murray Sinclair is a different and unusual “type” of Native Canadian.
“Klee style” versus “Kandinsky style,” blue eyes versus brown eyes, and tall versus short all represent meaningless criteria with which to

A) enhance group harmony.

B) create in-groups and out-groups.

C) reduce prejudice.

D) minimize the effects of group membership.

E) perpetuate stereotypes.

B) create in-groups and out-groups.
British social psychologist Henri Tajfel (1982) divided strangers into groups based on such criteria as whether their artistic taste represented a “Klee style” or a “Kandinsky style.” Tajfel designed such experiments to determine

A) how to reduce the effects of prejudice.

B) the minimal conditions for establishing in-group bias.

C) how to minimize competition between in-groups and out-groups.

D) when existing stereotypes will overshadow the effects of minimal categorization.

E) the effects of minimal categorization on people’s implicit personality theories.

B) the minimal conditions for establishing in-group bias.
The tendency to favour the in-group and discriminate against the out-group is

A) a result of the need to perceive the world accurately.

B) an automatic product of information processing.

C) more likely in people who are “cognitive misers.”

D) more likely in people who are high in the need for cognition.

E) motivated at least in part by the desire to enhance self-esteem.

E) motivated at least in part by the desire to enhance self-esteem.
What distinguishes an in-group from an out-group?

A) the location of the group

B) the size of the group

C) the similarity of group members

D) a person’s identification with the group

E) a person’s membership in the group

D) a person’s identification with the group
Marc and Barbara are part of a study group that gathers for lunch. They like sushi, but the other two members of the study group do not. Over time, Marc and Barbara come to feel that the other members do not work as hard as they do and are less friendly. This may be an effect of Marc and Barbara forming a(n)

A) base group.

B) clique.

C) out-group.

D) minimal group.

E) focus group.

D) minimal group.
Tajfel’s social categorization perspective suggests that we are motivated to show in- group bias for two reasons. These are

A) quicker information processing and a more coherent world view.

B) social identity benefits and self-esteem enhancement.

C) the need to perceive the world accurately and conform to in-group demands.

D) ensuring survival of our group and of ourselves.

E) a desire to express our negative energy and experience the catharsis that follows.

B) social identity benefits and self-esteem enhancement.
When the identity of a group was threatened by absorption into an out-group (Wohl et al., 2011) (e.g., if Canada were about to become part of the US), the response of those who strongly identify with their group was

A) increased prejudice towards the out-group.

B) endorsement of measures to protect in-group sovereignty.

C) increased ratings of out-group superiority.

D) increased desire to leave the in-group and join the out-group.

E) a decrease in self-esteem.

B) endorsement of measures to protect in-group sovereignty.
Which of the following statements about group membership is true according to your text?

A) If you strongly identify with your social group, you feel less threatened by out- group members.

B) Discriminating against members of other groups can make you like your own group more.

C) If you strongly identify with your social group, you are less likely to discriminate against members of other groups.

D) Discriminating against other groups is more likely to occur if you have been assigned to a group than if you have chosen it.

E) Favouring your own group is more likely to occur if you have been assigned to a group than if you have chosen it.

B) Discriminating against members of other groups can make you like your own group more.
Clément and colleagues (2001; 1996) compared cultural group identification of bilingual francophone and anglophone students at the University of Ottawa. They found that

A) English-speaking francophones identified with anglophones but French- speaking anglophones did not identify with the francophone group.

B) the anglophones showed identification with the francophone culture.

C) even though students felt competence with the other language, it did not lead to cross identification with the other group. They only identified with their own cultural group.

D) as the minority group, francophones strongly identified only with their own culture.

E) competence within the other cultural group’s language facilitates identification with the other group for both anglophones and francophone students.

E) competence within the other cultural group’s language facilitates identification with the other group for both anglophones and francophone students.
Applying the results of Clément and colleagues’ research on cultural identity of anglophone and francophone students, which scenario is most likely?

A) Jim’s identification and appreciation of francophone culture has no impact on his anglophone identity.

B) Alain no longer identifies with his francophone culture due to extensive experience with English culture.

C) Sarah’s identification with anglophone culture has come in conflict with her francophone identity now that she is learning English.

D) Laura’s increasing identification with francophone culture has come in conflict with her anglophone identity.

E) Even though Marie-Eve has become much more proficient in English she feels no connection to anglophone culture.

A) Jim’s identification and appreciation of francophone culture has no impact on his anglophone identity.
Jeff Greenberg and Tom Pyszczynski (1985) showed participants a debate between an African-American and a European-American, and asked them to rate the debaters’ skills. These researchers found that when participants overheard a confederate make a racist comment about the African-American debater, their ratings of the African- American were lower on a number of dimensions. The results suggest that

A) the power of the situation can override the activation of negative stereotypes.

B) competition often leads to prejudice.

C) stereotypes can influence the way we process incoming information.

D) stereotype activation can affect both specific and general judgments.

E) competition can activate negative stereotypes.

D) stereotype activation can affect both specific and general judgments.
Eaaron Henderson-King and Richard Nisbett (1997) found that when an African- American confederate took one minor misstep, white participants were hesitant to interact with another African-American person. These results suggest that

A) there is an imperfect relation between prejudice and discrimination.

B) heuristics make stereotypes more accessible.

C) stereotypes are easily activated and can affect behaviours.

D) priming does not impact stereotypes.

E) some stereotypes are more accessible than others.

C) stereotypes are easily activated and can affect behaviours.
Patricia Devine (1989) argues that even though we all hold _______ stereotypes, _______ can influence whether we believe and act on them.

A) automatically activated; controlled processing

B) gender; interacting with others

C) simple; complex contradictory information

D) negative; experience

E) specific; our moods

A) automatically activated; controlled processing
Even nonprejudiced participants in research by Patricia Devine (1989) can recognize such negative stereotypes as “Jews are money-hungry” or “homosexual men are effeminate.” Still, nonprejudiced participants do not endorse those stereotypes. This is because the activation of stereotypes is _______, whereas the refutation of stereotypes is _______.

A) difficult; effortless.

B) distressing; a relief.

C) controlled; automatic.

D) learned; automatic.

E) automatic; controlled.

E) automatic; controlled.
Patricia Devine’s (1989) research indicates that both low-prejudiced and high- prejudiced people’s stereotypes are _______, but low-prejudiced people want to _______ their stereotypes.

A) common; use

B) suspended; activate or use

C) known; reveal

D) known; activate

E) accessible; refute or ignore

E) accessible; refute or ignore
The two steps in Devine’s (1989) model of cognitive processing of stereotypes are

A) negative feelings and negative behaviours.

B) negative thoughts and negative feelings.

C) automatic processing and controlled processing.

D) activation of the stereotype and engaging in discrimination.

E) negative thoughts and negative behaviours.

C) automatic processing and controlled processing.
Patricia Devine (1989) assumes that negative stereotypes are automatically triggered in everyone and that what differentiates low-prejudiced people from high-prejudiced people is what happens after those negative stereotypes are activated. In contrast, Russell Fazio and his colleagues (1995) believe that

A) some people do not experience a negative reaction to stereotyped groups.

B) stereotypes are only activated for people who are not high in the need for cognition.

C) high or low prejudice is not associated with the ease with which stereotypes are activated.

D) stereotypes are only activated in high-prejudiced people.

E) low-prejudiced people are more sensitive to stereotype activation attempts, and are able to detect them.

A) some people do not experience a negative reaction to stereotyped groups.
Research by Haddock, Zanna, and Esses (1993, 1994) assessed attitudes towards different ethnic groups and towards gays and lesbians. Their findings suggest that _____________________ are the best predictor of attitudes for the group toward which participants were least prejudiced, whereas _____________________ best predicted attitudes for the groups towards which participants were most prejudiced.

A) symbolic beliefs; emotions

B) symbolic beliefs; in-group bias

C) emotions; symbolic beliefs

D) outgroup identifications; in-group bias

E) emotions; in-group bias

C) emotions; symbolic beliefs
Research by Sinclair and Kunda (1999) found that people are most likely to inhibit the activation of their racial stereotypes if

A) they received a negative evaluation by a member of a different racial group.

B) they received no evaluation by a members of a different racial group.

C) they received a positive evaluation by a member of their own racial group.

D) they received a negative evaluation by a member of their own racial group.

E) they received a positive evaluation by a member of a different racial group.

E) they received a positive evaluation by a member of a different racial group.
Your beliefs about the stereotypes that members of other groups hold about you and your own group are called

A) meta-stereotypes.

B) out-group stereotypes.

C) second-order stereotypes.

D) higher-order stereotypes.

E) in-group stereotypes.

A) meta-stereotypes.
According to research conducted by Vorauer and her colleagues, if you expect to interact with someone you believe holds a negative stereotype of your group, you will

A) experience a loss of self-esteem.

B) compensate by anticipating more positive emotions during the interaction.

C) anticipate feeling negative emotions during the interaction.

D) experience a loss of self-worth.

E) work harder than usual to overcome that negative stereotype.

C) anticipate feeling negative emotions during the interaction.
Vorauer and Kumhyr (2001) paired up Aboriginal and white Canadians in conversation. Each person made ratings of his or her own partner and predicted how his or her partner perceived them. The conclusion for the study was that

A) high-prejudice white people and Aboriginal participants were similar in that they both were overly preoccupied with how they would be perceived.

B) high-prejudice white people were targets of stereotyping as much as Aboriginal participants.

C) the white Canadians were stereotyped while the Aboriginals were not.

D) the minority group stereotyped the majority group and vice versa.

E) the Aboriginals were stereotyped while the white Canadians were not.

A) high-prejudice white people and Aboriginal participants were similar in that they both were overly preoccupied with how they would be perceived.
Which of the following has been found to be the weakest predictor of prejudiced attitudes?

A) how negative our experiences with members of an out-group have been

B) how much interaction we have with the out-group

C) how well-defined our stereotypes about an out-group are

D) how much we believe an out-group hinders values that we cherish

E) how strong the emotions elicited by an out-group are

C) how well-defined our stereotypes about an out-group are
As a researcher you know that, in general, members of a certain society are very prejudiced against gays. If you want to predict the attitudes of specific group members towards gays, the best question you could ask would be,

A) “How do you feel about gay marriage?”

B) “What kinds of experiences have you had in your interactions with gay people?”

C) “What emotions do you feel when you think about gays?”

D) “In what ways do you think the values promoted by the gay community contradict your own personal values?”

E) “What kinds of personality traits do you think gay people possess?”

D) “In what ways do you think the values promoted by the gay community contradict your own personal values?”
The authors of the text suggest that ________ can have an ironic effect in that it involves taking the perspective of an out-group member, usually see as a prejudice decreasing strategy. But in this case it often leads to an increase in negative feelings about the out-group.

A) stereotype threat

B) realistic conflict

C) meta-stereotyping

D) in-group bias

E) the ultimate attribution error

C) meta-stereotyping
One source of prejudice and discrimination lies in our attempts to understand not only why individuals behave as they do, but also why groups of people act as they do. This statement best reflects the _______ to understanding the causes of prejudice.

A) realistic conflict approach

B) attributional approach

C) out-group homogeneity approach

D) in-group approach

E) minimal group

B) attributional approach
From a social cognitive perspective, prejudice and discrimination often result when

A) subtypes are applied to members of an in-group.

B) the fundamental attribution error is applied to members of an out-group.

C) people refuse to make attributions for objectionable out-group behaviours.

D) in-group members do not spend much time together.

E) out-group members behave in ways that contradict in-group stereotypes.

B) the fundamental attribution error is applied to members of an out-group.
_______ is to individuals as _______ is to groups.

A) Stereotype; prejudice

B) Fundamental attribution error; ultimate attribution error

C) Prejudice; stereotype

D) Accuracy; biases

E) Personal attribution; collective attribution

B) Fundamental attribution error; ultimate attribution error
Janet Swim and Lawrence Sanna (1996) systematically studied a series of 58 experiments conducted over the last 20 years. These researchers found that when men succeed at a given task, participants attribute his success to _______, whereas when women succeed at that same task, participants attribute their success to _______.

A) skill; good luck.

B) hard work; good luck.

C) luck; ability.

D) ability; hard work.

E) hard work; ability.

D) ability; hard work.
Janet Swim and Lawrence Sanna (1996) systematically studied a series of 58 experiments conducted over the last 20 years. These researchers found that when men succeed at a given task, participants attribute their success to ability, whereas when women succeed at that same task, participants attribute their success to hard work. These findings are significant because they suggest that

A) stereotypes about women have become more positive over the last two decades.

B) gender stereotypes (about men and women) have changed over the last two decades.

C) female actors make different attributions for their success than observers do.

D) stereotypes about women have remained consistent over the last two decades.

E) stereotypes about women have become more negative over the last two decades.

D) stereotypes about women have remained consistent over the last two decades.
Research by Corenblum and Stephan (2001) concerning the role of emotions as a predictor of the prejudice that minority groups feel toward majority groups revealed that

A) negative emotions did not predict prejudice for either group.

B) negative emotions influence prejudice levels for minority groups but not for majority groups.

C) negative emotions were less predictive of prejudice than individual differences.

D) the more negative emotion people expect to feel while interacting with members of another group, the greater their prejudice towards that group.

E) negative emotions influence prejudice levels for majority groups but not for
minority groups.

D) the more negative emotion people expect to feel while interacting with members of another group, the greater their prejudice towards that group.
amal and Tina just earned the top two scores on their calculus examination. In response to this good news, Tina is likely to say _______ whereas Jamal is likely to say _______

A) “Well, I did study for ten hours,”; “Some people have it and some people don’t.”

B) “I really learned the material well,”; “Man, I really got lucky this time.”

C) “Math is one of my strong subjects,”; “I can’t believe I did so well on a difficult test.”

D) “It’s 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration,”; “I should have studied this way all along.”

E) “Women are just as good at math as men are,”; “I guess that studying hard pays off.”

A) “Well, I did study for ten hours,”; “Some people have it and some people don’t.”
According to realistic conflict theory, prejudice and discrimination often follow from

A) aggression.

B) negative stereotypes.

C) losing out-group status.

D) frustration.

E) scarce resources.

E) scarce resources.
_______ posits that increased prejudice and discrimination result from limited resources and consequent inter-group conflict.

A) Triangular theory

B) Attribution theory

C) Realistic conflict theory

D) Relative deprivation theory

E) The self-fulfilling prophecy

C) Realistic conflict theory
Consider the following examples of prejudice: anti-Chinese prejudice in the United States after the transcontinental railroad was completed, anti-Mexican prejudice in the United States when agricultural jobs are scarce, anti-Native prejudice in New Brunswick after a dispute over lobster fishing rights, and anti-immigrant prejudice during times of high unemployment. These examples best illustrate the _______ theory of prejudice.

A) scarcity

B) authoritarian

C) realistic conflict

D) cultural

E) contact

C) realistic conflict
When Canadian university students were made to focus on the scarcity of jobs in Canada and then were told that a group of immigrants from “Sandir” would be arriving in Canada, they construed (or interpreted) the traits of Sandirians in more negative ways than students who hadn’t focused on job scarcity. This result supports

A) the notion that people are particularly likely to make the ultimate attribution error when judging out-groups.

B) predictions made by realistic conflict theory.

C) predictions made by stereotype priming theory.

D) the principle of normative conformity.

E) the hypothesis that the emotions a group arouses in us cause stereotypes to be activated.

B) predictions made by realistic conflict theory.
Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues (1961) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Intergroup hostility was relatively easy to generate. To do this, the researchers first _______ and then _______.

A) created minimal groups; set up a series of competitive situations.

B) created in-group cohesiveness; set up a series of competitive situations.

C) set up a series of competitive situations; created in-group cohesiveness.

D) created out-group cohesiveness; initiated competitive games.

E) created minimal groups; generated frustration by taking away desired objects.

B) created in-group cohesiveness; set up a series of competitive situations.
Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues (1961) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Once in-group cohesiveness was established, they set up a series of competitive situations such as tug-of-war and other competitive games. Conflict between the two groups escalated. This field study provided support for the _______ theory of prejudice.

A) realistic conflict

B) out-group disparagement

C) ultimate attribution theory

D) scapegoat

E) in-group enhancement

A) realistic conflict
As part of a research study James is given a story about the Sandirians coming to Canada. He reads that Sandirians are a resourceful and adaptive people that do well in tough economic times and are able to gain employment and support themselves soon after immigrating. Based on the results of Esses and colleagues’ (2001) study on reactions to immigration, how do you think he will rate Sandirians?

A) very positively due to the fact that they are good citizens

B) neutrally as the information has little relevance

C) somewhat positively since he perceives that they will not be a burden on society

D) positively as the information has little relevance

E) negatively due to the fact that their success may be threatening

E) negatively due to the fact that their success may be threatening
Prejudice may be maintained by _______ normative rules.
A) breaking

B) the rejection of

C) the avoidance of

D) ignorance of

E) conformity to

E) conformity to
Fiona isn’t really sure what to believe about Indian immigrants to England, but she knows what her parents and friends think. Because she is concerned with being accepted by these important people in her life, Fiona adopts their beliefs and feelings about this out-group. This example best illustrates _______ as a source of prejudicial attitudes.

A) informational conformity

B) competition for scarce resources

C) scapegoating

D) in-group pride

E) normative conformity

E) normative conformity
Crandall and colleagues compared two groups of participants’ responses to two different tasks. One group was to indicate how acceptable it was to have negative feelings toward particular groups in society and the other group was asked how positively or negatively they felt about these social groups. The results and their interpretation suggest

A) the low correlation between the two sets of data mean that people are adept at covering up their hidden prejudices.

B) the moderate correlation means that although some people show prejudiced attitudes not everyone shares these views.

C) the low correlation means that there are few shared norms about which groups are targets of prejudice in society.

D) the low correlation is not an important finding because it can be interpreted in several different ways.

E) the high correlation between the two sets of data means that asking about the norms of prejudice is practically the same thing as asking about the actual prejudicial attitudes held.

E) the high correlation between the two sets of data means that asking about the norms of prejudice is practically the same thing as asking about the actual prejudicial attitudes held.
When people see the social norm (the way things are) as the way things are supposed to be, they are involved in a process termed

A) right-wing authoritarianism.

B) self-fulfilling prophecy.

C) injunctification.

D) stereotype threat.

E) meta-stereotyping.

C) injunctification.
Researchers Kay and Gaucher suggest that injunctification is most likely to occur when we are motivated to

A) avoid stereotype threat.

B) defend the status quo.

C) identify with the in-group.

D) seek mutual interdependence.

E) reject the current system.

B) defend the status quo.
When women were exposed to benevolent sexism rather than hostile sexism (Lau et al., 2008), they were less likely to

A) feel depressed.

B) be satisfied with relations between men and women.

C) show sexism towards males.

D) take action to improve women’s rights.

E) show sexism to other women.

D) take action to improve women’s rights.
Tougas and her colleagues at the University of Ottawa developed the “Neosexism Scale” in order to

A) measure sexist attitudes in school children.

B) measure sexism in the workplace.

C) measure anti-male attitudes as well as anti-female attitudes.

D) measure attitudes towards lesbians and gay men.

E) measure negative attitudes towards women that people might not want to express overtly.

E) measure negative attitudes towards women that people might not want to
express overtly.
Modern prejudice is _______ than “traditional” prejudice.

A) less insidious

B) less obvious

C) less serious

D) more explicit

E) more blatant

B) less obvious
_______ refers to the idea that because people have learned to hide negative attitudes to avoid allegations of racism, they reveal their bias in more subtle and indirect ways.

A) Scapegoating

B) Reactance

C) Realistic conflict theory

D) Displacement

E) Modern prejudice

E) Modern prejudice
The fact that one gives overly positive evaluations to targets of prejudice is one of the indicators of

A) modern prejudice.

B) racism.

C) stereotyping.

D) meta stereotypes

E) outgroup bias.

A) modern prejudice.
According to the text, one way to lower prejudice is to

A) provide extrinsic reinforcement for anti-prejudiced behaviours.

B) blur the distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ and promote common goals.

C) highlight the differences between ethnic groups.

D) punish prejudiced behaviours.

E) educate parents to be better role models for their children.

B) blur the distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ and promote common goals.
The ‘cluster’ of attitudes that defines right-wing authoritarianism includes authoritarian ________, authoritarian ________ and ________.

A) conservatism; prejudice; dominance.

B) submission; dominance; nonconformity.

C) submission; aggression; conventionalism.

D) aggression; conservatism; traditionalism.

E) prejudice; dominance; conventionalism.

C) submission; aggression; conventionalism.
According to Bob Altemeyer’s concept of right-wing authoritarianism, which of the following terms is defined as “a high degree of conformity to the rules that are established by authority figures.”

A) authoritarian fundamentalism

B) authoritarian submission

C) authoritarian self-righteousness

D) conventionalism

E) authoritarian rigidity

D) conventionalism
Which is a technique that has been shown by Altemeyer (2001) to be effective in influencing right-wing authoritarians to move towards greater acceptance of minorities?

A) Adapt the jigsaw technique to adult problem solving.

B) Inform them that their attitudes are different from the majority as conformity is an important value for them.

C) Publicly criticize them for open expression of prejudicial beliefs.

D) Ask them to state why they hold these beliefs.

E) Encourage educational travel to allow exposure to other cultures.

B) Inform them that their attitudes are different from the majority as conformity is an important value for them.
Which of the following correlations would be predicted by the principles of Realistic Conflict Theory?

A) the correlation between right-wing authoritarianism and prejudice

B) the correlation between belief in a just world and prejudice

C) the correlation between social dominance orientation and prejudice

D) the correlation between religious fundamentalism and prejudice

C) the correlation between social dominance orientation and prejudice
When we have unwittingly caused our stereotypic expectations to be confirmed by an out-group member’s behaviour, we have actually created a(n)

A) minimal group bias.

B) out-group error.

C) self-fulfilling prophecy.

D) fundamental attribution error.

E) expectations relapse.

C) self-fulfilling prophecy.
Word, Zanna, and Cooper (1974) tested the self-fulfilling prophecy as it relates to prejudicE) They observed the differential behaviours of Anglo-American interviewers who interviewed either African-American or Anglo-American job candidates. They then trained other interviewers to imitate these two different interview styles. When the new interviewers later interviewed Anglo-American job applicants, the applicants who were treated as African-Americans had been treated in the first study

A) became more convinced that their initial negative expectations were confirmed.

B) actually behaved in less effective and comfortable ways.

C) confronted the interviewers and terminated the conversation.

D) experienced a loss of self-esteem.

E) were in a negative mood state which lead to improved performance.

B) actually behaved in less effective and comfortable ways.
When male confederates behaved in a sexist way (showing dominance and sexual interest) towards female engineering students, the women were more likely to feel ________ the confederate and to score ________ on an engineering test.

A) dislike of; lower

B) attraction towards; higher

C) pleased about interacting with; higher

D) dislike of; higher

E) attraction towards; lower

E) attraction towards; lower
As the only African-American in his class, LaMont tends to worry about committing errors because he does not want all of his white counterparts to think that all African- Americans are intellectually inferior. LaMont is experiencing

A) stereotype threat.

B) attribution error.

C) group hostility.

D) cultural bias

E) class anxiety.

A) stereotype threat.
_______ refers to the apprehension among minority group members that they might confirm existing cultural stereotypes.

A) Stereotypic anxiety

B) Stereotype threat

C) Prejudice anxiety

D) Performance ambivalence

E) Evaluation apprehension

B) Stereotype threat
In a series of experiments, Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson (1995) had both African-American and Anglo-American students at Stanford University take a verbal test. In one condition, the test was described as a valid measure of intelligence, and in the other condition, the test was described as neither a reliable nor valid measure of intelligence. In the former condition, African-Americans performed more poorly than did Anglo-Americans because

A) African-Americans shared the cultural stereotype.

B) African-Americans were overwhelmed by a fear of success.

C) Anglo-Americans were determined that African-Americans would not “outscore” them.

D) African-Americans experienced performance ambivalence.

E) African-Americans experienced stereotype vulnerability.

E) African-Americans experienced stereotype vulnerability.
A woman would be most likely to experience stereotype threat when completing

A) a calculus examination.

B) a gender-neutral task.

C) a philosophy assignment.

D) an English assignment.

E) a vocational interest questionnaire.

A) a calculus examination.
Shih, Pittinsky, and Ambady (1999) administered mathematics tests to Asian- American female university students. They found that _______ had the highest scores on the test.

A) students in the control group who were not reminded of their gender or ethnicity

B) students who were reminded of their gender

C) students who were previously punished for poor performance

D) students who were reminded of their ethnicity

E) students who were rewarded for good performance

D) students who were reminded of their ethnicity
Research by Rohan and Zanna (1996) on parents’ and children’s attitude and value similarity found

A) a high correlation between parents’ and children’s degree of prejudice.

B) a correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes, but only for prejudiced parents.

C) a correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes, but only for egalitarian parents.

D) virtually no correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes.

E) a low correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes for egalitarian parents and a high correlation for prejudiced parents.

C) a correlation between parents’ and children’s attitudes, but only for egalitarian parents.
Based on research presented in your text by Rohan and Zanna (1996), if Timmy’s parents hold egalitarian beliefs, what types of beliefs is Timmy likely to hold as an adult?

A) egalitarian

B) bigoted

C) slightly prejudiced

D) homophobic but not racist

E) slightly racist but not sexist

A) egalitarian
Jane Elliot’s (1977) “eye-colour exercise” was designed to teach a racially homogeneous group of school children about

A) perceptual bias.

B) the benefits of diversity.

C) prejudice and discrimination.

D) the importance of teamwork.

E) the Civil Rights Movement.

C) prejudice and discrimination.
By _______, third-grade teacher Jane Elliot generated negative stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination among elementary school children.

A) reinforcing existing beliefs

B) generating competition for resources

C) generating competition for attention

D) providing a new criterion for categorization

E) contradicting existing beliefs

D) providing a new criterion for categorization
When third-grade teacher Jane Elliot sorted school children based on eye colour, she created

A) an out-group.

B) realistic conflict.

C) out-group homogeneity

D) minimal groups.

E) an in-group.

D) minimal groups.
Aboud and Doyle (1996) found that pairing a high-prejudice child with a(n)______________ for a discussion on perceptions of different racial groups resulted in_____________________.

A) low-prejudice child; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.

B) adult; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.

C) psychologist; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.

D) low-prejudice child; increased prejudice in the high-prejudice child.

E) member of another ethnic group; increased prejudice in both.

A) low-prejudice child; reduced prejudice in the high-prejudice child.
Research by Aboud and Doyle (1996) suggests that while adults play an important role in socializing children not to be prejudiced,

A) the child’s personality will ultimately determine if he or she will be prejudiced.

B) children may also be effective at teaching one another.

C) this socialization is negated by negative stereotypes of ethnic groups portrayed in the mass-media.

D) the effects are not long-lasting.

E) prejudice-reduction is better left to psychologists.

B) children may also be effective at teaching one another.
The take-home message from the research on the extended contact hypothesis is

A) if you make the effort to become friends with a member of an out-group it can have far-reaching positive effects.

B) extended contact between ethnic groups lead to competition for resources, derogation, and discrimination against the competing group.

C) extended contact causes members of an out-group to experience fear that they’ll behave in a manner that confirms existing stereotypes.

D) there is no relationship between cross-group friendships and levels of prejudice.

E) extended contact enhances the in-group bias of both groups.

A) if you make the effort to become friends with a member of an out-group it can have far-reaching positive effects.
The hypothesis that prejudice between groups can be reduced by creating cross- group friendships and making members of each group aware of these friendships is called

A) jig-saw classrooms.

B) extended contact hypothesis.

C) assimilation.

D) cognitive dissonance.

E) accommodation.

B) extended contact hypothesis.
Research on the extended contact hypothesis (Wright and colleagues) suggests that

A) the number of cross-group friendships a person has does not influence levels of prejudice.

B) the more people in our ethnic group who have friendships with out-group members, the less prejudiced we are towards that group.

C) the more people in our ethnic group who have friendships with out-group members, the more prejudiced we are towards that group.

D) cross-group friendships only reduce prejudice if they include ethnic groups who share similar social values.

E) cross-group friendships are more likely to reduce prejudice in women than in men.

B) the more people in our ethnic group who have friendships with out-group members, the less prejudiced we are towards that group.
The idea that prejudice can be reduced by interacting with members of an out-group is called the

A) intergroup hypothesis.

B) interactional theory.

C) mere exposure paradigm.

D) interpersonal model.

E) contact hypothesis.

E) contact hypothesis.
Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues (1951) created conflict between two groups of boys in a summer camp. Once in-group cohesiveness was established, they set up a series of competitive situations such as tug-of-war and other competitive games. Conflict between the two groups escalated. Sherif and his colleagues were only successful in reducing conflict and hostility when

A) leaders endorsed a truce between the two rival groups.

B) groups were rewarded when they cooperated with one another.

C) they brought the groups together in neutral situations.

D) groups were punished for behaving with hostility.

E) they constructed situations that fostered mutual interdependence.

E) they constructed situations that fostered mutual interdependence.
_______ characterizes a situation in which two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal important to each group.

A) Zero-sum dynamics

B) Collectivism

C) Group dynamics

D) Mutual exclusivity

E) Mutual interdependence

E) Mutual interdependence
Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. What is the best way to do this?

A) Cook a good hearty meal and have them all gather at the table.

B) Send them outside to play in the yard.

C) Have a family meeting so that they can air their grievances.

D) Promise to take them to a Jack Black movie only if they clean the playroom in 30 minutes.

E) Explain to the children that it is important that they get along.

D) Promise to take them to a Jack Black movie only if they clean the playroom in 30 minutes.
Alice’s three children are driving her crazy. They are constantly squabbling, calling one another names, and generally tormenting one another. To preserve what’s left of her sanity, Alice has decided to try to convince the youngsters to get along. She promises them that she will take them to a Jack Black movie if they will work together to clean their playroom in under 30 minutes. To reduce hostilities, Alice has fulfilled two necessary preconditions for reducing conflict,

A) the reduction of frustration and a common goal.

B) reduced stereotype threat and role differentiation

C) a neutral setting and role differentiation.

D) mutual interdependence and a common goal.

E) one-on-one interactions between in-group and out-group members and an informal setting.

D) mutual interdependence and a common goal.
In a typical classroom, informal contact between students is often called “talking to your neighbour” and is discouraged. This violates which precondition for the reduction of prejudice and hostility between students?

A) Contact must occur in a tightly structured situation controlled by authority.

B) Contact must occur in situations in which social norms promote equality.

C) Contact must occur in situations that minimize stereotypical beliefs

D) Contact must occur in the service of attaining a common goal.

E) Contact must occur in a friendly setting where group members can interact on a one-to-one basis.

E) Contact must occur in a friendly setting where group members can interact on a one-to-one basis.
Conditions under which contact situations reduce prejudice include

A) stereotype suppression, enhanced independence, and positive affect. B) biased attenuation, schematic interference, and hierarchical status.

C) affective suppression, mutual dependence, and repeated contact.

D) schematic interference, mutual dependence, and positive affect.

E) multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and stereotype suppression.

E) multiple contacts, mutual interdependence, and stereotype suppression.
According to the authors, one reason why school desegregation efforts didn’t have the anticipated positive effects is that the typical classroom

A) teacher supports common goals, but the students do not.

B) teacher holds negative stereotypes about minority children.

C) was designed to reinforce segregation.

D) is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.

E) is too large for teachers to give attention to all students who need it.

D) is competitive and students do not participate on an equal footing.
In the jigsaw classroom, when a student is having trouble mastering his or her material, other group members benefit most by

A) asking friendly and good questions.

B) focusing their attention on students who have mastered the material.

C) asking the student to work harder.

D) asking the teacher to clarify things.

E) taking over and doing the student’s assignment.

A) asking friendly and good questions.
Why does the jigsaw classroom yield such positive results with regard to self- esteem, achievement, and positive informal contact between children of various racial and ethnic groups?

A) Minority children are required to compete when they otherwise wouldn’t.

B) It is in each child’s self-interest to cooperate with others.

C) Children are aware of their roles.

D) It appeals to young children’s natural empathy for others.

E) Students’ responsibilities are informally structured.

B) It is in each child’s self-interest to cooperate with others.
Reduction of prejudice due to awareness that a member of one’s own group has a close relationship with another group is called

A) jigsaw technique.

B) extended contact hypothesis.

C) outgroup homogeneity.

D) tokenism.

E) mutual interdependence.

B) extended contact hypothesis.