PSY 1010 Exam 2

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life span.
Social
One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology involves a focus on
continuity and stages
A preference for our mother’s voice over our father’s voice has been detected as early as
the day after birth.
Babies are born with several reflexes for getting food. One of these is to
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.
Our earliest conscious memories seldom predate our third birthday. This best illustrates
infantile amnesia.
According to Piaget, imagining an action and mentally reversing it would be an example of a
mental operation
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According to Vygotsky, parents who say “No, no!” when pulling a child’s hand away from a cake are giving the child a tool for
self-control
One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates
secure attachment
Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of
attachment
Your understanding and awareness of who you are is your
self-concept
Adolescence extends from
the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
formal operational
Psychologist Jonathan Haidt has described our moral intuitions as
quick gut feelings.
In teen calls to hotline counseling services, the most discussed topic is
peer relationships
Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during
early adulthood
Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in
memory
Alzheimer’s disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce
acetylcholine
Researchers have discovered that the midlife transition between early and middle adulthood is characterized by unusually high levels of
none of these feelings or events.
Professor Parker suggested that heterosexual adults are genetically predisposed to form monogamous bonds because this practice facilitated the cooperative nurture and survival of children. The professor’s suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
evolutionary
There is very little relationship between the age of an adult and his or her
level of life satisfaction
The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
sensation
Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the
sensory receptors
Which of the following represents the very first of three steps basic to all sensory systems?
receiving sensory stimulation
During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall’s
absolute threshold
The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as
Weber’s law
A concept that helps us to interpret ambiguous sensations is called a
schema
The pupil is the
adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the
lens
Hubel and Weisel identified ________ that respond to specific aspects of visual stimulation.
feature detectors
The ability to see objects in three dimensions is most essential for making judgments of
distance
If two objects are assumed to be the same size, the object that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived to be
more distant
The phi phenomenon refers to
the perception of movement created by the successive blinking on and off of adjacent lights.
A clouding of the lens of the eye is called a
cataract
The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called
perceptual adaptation
The bones of the middle ear relay vibrations received from the
eardrum
Place theory suggests that
the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea’s basilar membrane is stimulated.
The classic gate-control theory suggests that pain is experienced when small nerve fibers activate and open a neural gate in the
spinal cord
For burn victims, a computer-generated virtual reality can help to control pain by means of
thought distraction
Receptor cells for our sense of ________ reproduce themselves every week or two
taste
Which of the following senses is best described as a chemical sense?
smell
Psychologists define learning as the process of
acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors.
Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n)
stimulus.
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was
the presentation of food in the dog’s mouth.
A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n)
conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, generalization refers to the tendency for the conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the
conditioned stimulus
Your heart may race when you are confronted by a lion but not when you are approached by a kitten. This best illustrates the adaptive value of
discrimination
Primary reinforcers could best be described as
innately satisfying stimuli
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.
intermittent
A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ________ schedule.
variable-ratio
Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is
positive punishment
The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of
cognitive processes
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves
extrinsic motivation
The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called
cognitive learning
In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of
observational learning
Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for
observational learning
Without conscious reflection, people often yawn when they observe others yawning. Researchers are now considering whether this can be attributed to
mirror neuron activity
Alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings. This best illustrates the value of observational learning for promoting
prosocial behavior
Correlational studies show that prolonged viewing of televised violence ________ increased rates of violent behavior.
predicts
Voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are called
operant behaviors
Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?
recognition
The retention of encoded information over time refers to
storage
Shelly was able to remember the names of three new class members for only a minute or two after they had been introduced to her. The new class members’ names were briefly stored in her ________ memory.
short-term memory
We encode implicit memories by means of
automatic processing
Echoic memory refers to
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.
Associating carrots with a mental image of a bun, milk with a mental image of a shoe, and paper towels with a mental image of a tree best illustrates
the peg-word system
Which type of memory has an essentially limitless capacity?
long-term memory
Which neural center in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage?
hippocampus
Explicit memory is also known as
declarative memory
Elevated levels of stress hormones most clearly contribute to developing
flashbulb memories
Words, images, and other bits of information used to access a stored memory are called
retrieval cues
When 80-year-old Ida looked at one of her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The picture served as a powerful
retrieval cue
The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.
serial position
An inability to retrieve information learned in the past is called
retrograde amnesia
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend’s name. Judy’s poor memory most likely results from a failure in
retrieval
The finding that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provides evidence that forgetting may involve
interference
Among contemporary memory researchers, increasing numbers think that ______ rarely, if ever, occurs.
repression
Dating partners who fall in love tend to ________ how much they liked each other when they first met. Dating partners who break-up tend to ________ how much they liked each other when they first met.
overestimate; underestimate
By consciously rehearsing facts you need to learn in many separate study sessions occurring throughout the semester, you are most clearly taking advantage of
the spacing effect
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of
retrieval cues