PSY 101 Chapter 1 Questions

(FIB1)____ is the study of behavior and mental processes.
(FIB2)A developmental psychologist studying the relationship between brain development and changes in learning ability over the life span would be using the ____ approach.
(FIB3)____ is the evolutionary mechanism through which Darwin said the fittest individuals survive to reproduce
Natural selection
(FIB4)A psychologist who attempts to find unconscious conflicts that have caused a psychological disorder is using the ____ approach.
(FIB5)A psychologist taking the ____ approach researches how rewards change people’s actions.
(FIB6)A clinical psychologist who works to understand the unique feelings and perceptions of a depressed client would be using a(n) ____ approach.
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(FIB7)The president of a campus student group interested in understanding how peer pressure affects student members’ political views should consult a(n) ____ psychologist.
(FIB8)A(n) ____ psychologist would study the effect of a drug on brain activity and the resulting impact on emotional responses
(FIB9)A teacher interested in understanding how students’ individuality influences their behavior would consult a(n) ____ psychologist.
(FIB10)Trying to determine the best type of treatment for an alcoholic would be of interest to a(n) ____ psychologist.
Clinical or Counseling
(FIB11)You would expect a(n) ____ psychologist to compare and contrast changes in learning ability from infancy through childhood, adolescence, middle age, and old age.
(FIB12)A(n) ____ psychologist would be interested in studying thought patterns underlying decision making in stressful situations.
(FIB13)A(n) ____ psychologist might develop programs to help integrate children with learning disabilities into regular classrooms.
(FIB14)The study of favorable human characteristics such as optimism, resilience, and happiness is known as ____
Positive psychology
(FIB15)A ____ is the accumulation of values, rules, forms of expression, religious belief, and so forth for a people with a common language and environment.
(CAE1)Which approach would be most likely to focus on this to understand a student’s behavior? “Do negative consequences such as detentions and expulsions deter a person from acting in a violent way?”
The BEHAVIORAL approach focuses on the consequences of behavior as an explanation for current behavior
(CAE2)Which approach would be most likely to focus on this to understand a student’s behavior? “Are certain types of decision-making styles more common among the violent students than the nonviolent students?”
Psychologists with the COGNITIVE approach would be most interested in knowing about beliefs, decision-making strategies, and perceptions.
(CAE3)Which approach would be most likely to focus on this to understand a student’s behavior? “Is violent behavior related to a student’s inability to deny other impulses?”
The PSYCHODYNAMIC approach claims that people send much of their energy trying to control their negative natural impulses.
(CAE4)Which approach would be most likely to focus on this to understand a student’s behavior? “Are the hormones associated with stress reactions at higher levels among students involved in violence?”
A researcher with a BIOLOGICAL approach would link behavior to hormone levels and other physiological differences such as brain activity, blood pressure, and muscle tension.
(The Problem of Depression1)What subfield does this question belong to? “Do depressed people have fewer or different quality social relationships than non depressed?”
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS try to see situational explanations for behavior and would look to see how social relationships and group dynamics might predict depression.
(The Problem of Depression2)What subfield does this question belong to? “Is there a point over the life span when one is most likely to become depressed?”
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS are interested in people’s physical, behavioral, and mental growth over the life span, and might search for the point in life at which risk for depression is highest.
(The Problem of Depression3)What subfield does this question belong to? “Are there particular characteristics in a person that predict who will become depressed?”
PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGISTS are interested in studying personal traits and might use patterns of traits, or characteristics, to predict susceptibility to depression.
(The Problem of Depression4)What subfield does this question belong to? “Does depression co-occur with anxiety disorders?”
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS study psychological disorders and would be most interested in finding out whether depressed people tend to also have anxiety disorders.
(The Problem of Depression5)What subfield does this question belong to? “Which neurotransmitters are involved in causing depression?”
BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS study the physiological factors that guid or control our behavior and would examine various neurotransmitters and how they explain behavior and experience, such as depression.
(Q1-1)Psychology is the study of ____
Behavior and mental processes
(Q1-2)Understanding the factors that promote well-being in people would likely be a topic of study in ____
Positive psychology
(Q1-3)William James; interest in how images, sensations, memories, and other mental events make up our flowing stream of consciousness was integral to the historical approach to psychology known as ____
(Q1-4)A psychologist who thinks current behavior is caused by unconscious conflicts was most likely trained in ____
(Q1-5)Which of the following is NOT a historical approach to psychology?
a. Behaviorism
b. Gestalt
c. Structuralism
d. Evolutionary
(Q1-6)Sometimes Janessa treats her clients with drugs, but at other times she tries to change the patterns of rewards and punishments the client receives. Janessa’s approach can best be described as ____
(Q1-7)Dr. Atilano says that behavior is caused by activity in the nervous system, genetic inheritance, and hormones. Dr. Atilano takes a ____ approach to psychological phenomena.
(Q1-8)The idea of natural selection is MOST consistent with which of the modern approaches to psychology?
(Q1-9)Deon believes that his friend Tome drives too fast on the interstate because Tome is unconsciously wishing for death. Deon suggests that Tom cannot admit he feels guilty about being independent from his family. Deon most likely has a ____ approach to psychology.
(Q1-10)Mercedes often procrastinates when faced with a big assignment. A psychologist with a behavioral approach would be most likely to say that Mercedes procrastinates because she ____
Is rewarded by the lighter workload during her early avoidance of the project.
(Q1-11)Psychologists who emphasize the role of mental processes in explains behavior take a(n) ____ approach.
(Q1-12)Jonna is taking a graduate engineering program. She wants to be part of the development design team to help make planes better protected from terrorists. One idea that has come up frequently is that the cockpit needs to be designed to be safer. To make the plane as a whole safer, what area of psychology should Jonna add to her graduate studies if she wants to understand how people interact with the technology inside and outside of the cockpit?
Engineering psychology
(Q1-13)You are a biological psychologist interested in the emotional reactions of students to exams. Which of the following would be of most interest to you?
Hormone levels
(Q1-14)Maria watches people to discover what unwritten rules for behavior they are following. Maria sees that people tend not to sit next to another person on the bus unless empty seats are limited. Maria’s interests are more like those of psychologists in the ____ subfield.
(Q1-15)Michelle studies how sociable, conscientious, and anxious children are at age eight. She intends to see if she can predict differences in the number of years of school they have completed by age twenty-five. Michelle is most likely a ____ psychologist.
(Q1-16)Which of the following is the best example of the work of a psychologist in the clinical subfield?
a. Sadie observes how changes in playground equipment affect the interactions between children.
b. Tad attempts to assist people who are extremely depressed.
c. Val compares the IQ scores of sociable people with those of shy people.
d. Vince wonders if people’s hormones influence their thinking.
Tad attempts to assist people who are extremely depressed
(Q1-17)Dr. Li tests students at a grade school and makes recommendations about who may benefit from an accelerated program and who may need a specific type of tutoring. Dr. Li is most likely a(n) ____ psychologist.
(Q1-18)An industrial and organizational psychologist would be most interested in which of the following questions?
a. How can we promote stop-smoking campaign?
b. What type of management style would generate the highest productivity?
c. What mental steps are involved in perception and decision making?
d. How do social skills evolve from the preschool years through old age?
What type of management style would generate the highest productivity?
(Q1-19)Which of the following is NOT an example of a sociocultural factor?
a. Gender
b. Ethnicity
c. Social class
d. Blood type
Blood type
(Q1-20)Nia is an educational psychologist at a conference and meeting new colleagues. Someone asks her to say a little about herself. If Nia is from a collectivist culture, she will likely say
a. “I got my Ph.D. in educational psychology from Harvard.”
b. “I love to play tennis and swim. Reading is one of my favorite hobbies, too.”
c. “I am really interested in studying how children respond to stereotype threat in a way no one else is investigating”
d. “My family sacrificed a lot for me to get my education and develop my research program.”
“My family sacrificed a lot for me to get my education and develop my research program.”
(Q2-1)Which of the following questions would a psychologist most likely ask?
a. How does one’s genetic makeup influence his or her risk for cancer?
b. Does God create people with antisocial personality?
c. Which ethical decision-making system is the best?
d. How do patterns of group development influence group productivity at work?
How do patterns of group development influence group productivity at work?
(Q2-2)Which of the following topics is least relevant to studies in positive psychology.
Determining factors that increase risk for depression.
(Q2-3)After speculating that a noisy environment reduces helping behavior, a psychologist using empiricism will most likely
design research to test the idea
(Q2-4)Ming’s research involves presenting participants with objects and asking them to report the sensations that they are experiencing. Ming is most likely a
(Q2-5)Roberto studies what people enjoy about listening to classical music. Roberto claims that it would be useless to isolate and listen to only a rhythm, a violin part, or any other single aspect of music, because it is the perception of the complete piece that is important. Roberto’s emphasis on NOT dividing music into parts is most similar to
Gestalt psychology.
(Q2-6)Larry says that people act the way they learned to act. Larry believes that if others stop regarding a person’s annoying behaviors, those behaviors will lessen. Larry most likely has a(n) ____ approach to psychology.
(Q2-7)Ruth is certain that her son is depressed because of some kind of chemical imbalance in him and that antidepressant medication would help. Laurence feels that his son is depressed because he is repressing memories of childhood abuse by a babysitter and that the son probably has not dealt with his anger about that abuse. Ruth takes the ____ approach to psychology, while Laurence takes the _____ approach.
Biological; psychodynamic
(Q2-8)A cognitive psychologist investigating why students study regularly would be most interested in ____
The students’ decisions about the advantages and disadvantages of putting off work.
(Q2-9)Marisa says that she often does not attend classes because she does not find her courses interesting. Her roommate, Leslie, claims that Marissa does not attend because her natural drive toward self-improvement has been blocked. Leslie’s view is most similar to a psychologist with a ____ approach.
(Q2-10)Helen, a first-year college student, wants to become a biological psychologist. Her counselor will probably tell her to take which of the following courses?
Physiology of behavior
(Q2-11)Jenna’s college roommate is driving her crazy! She’s constantly complain about how depressed she is and how worthless she feels. Jenna thinks that her roommate is “depressed” because it brings her attention. She believes her roommate is actually rewarded by most people for acting sad all the time. Jenna’s thinking reflects the ____ approach to psychology.
(Q2-12)Brendan runs a diversity-training program that allows people to discuss stereotypes and become more accepting of people with different backgrounds. Brendan is especially interested in the effect his training has on the ability of employees to work together. Brendan is most likely a (n) ____ psychologist.
Industrial and Organizational
(Q2-13)Rajesh is very concerned about meeting his parents’ expectations. Rajesh does not want to attract attention to himself; therefore, when he is successful, he will usually emphasize the role his family ____ culture.
(Q2-14)Alisha notices people in her classes becoming friends and wonders what attracts people to each other. Alisha’s interests are most like those of psychologists in the ____ subfield.
(Q2-15)Jill wants to start a personal-service business offering nannies; an adolescent big-brother and big-sister program;and companions for the elderly. Jill must be able to teach her employees how to fulfill the psychological needs of every age group. Jill should study ____ psychology.
(Q2-16)On a bus you overhear a man talking to himself. The man appears to be getting angry and eventually starts pounding one fist into the other palm and shouting unintelligibly. Because he seems like he has a psychological disorder and may need help, you would want to recommend that someone call a ____ psychologist.
(Q2-17)A psychologist who wants to prevent disorders by ensuring children have proper nutrition and education opportunities is most likely a(n) ____ psychologist.
(Q2-18)The scientific study of all levels of the nervous system, including neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurology, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology is know as ____
(Q2-19)Ethnic minorities earn approximately what percentage of new doctoral degrees in psychology each year?
(Q2-20)Jerry is trying to decide which job offer to accept. He has one offer that is close to home and family, but the pay is just “okay,” and the work is only marginally interesting to him. His other offer is for a fabulous job with excellent starting pay, but it is far from home, and his aging parents frequently benefit from his assistance. Jerry finally decides to take the fabulous job far from his folks, because “you’ve got to pursue your own dreams; no one will do it for you.” Jerry’s decision process suggests he is probably from a(n) ____ culture.