Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues
Dr. Matsuko’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a _____ psychologist.
During intercourse, approximately _____ million sperm are released.
Every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
the study of the relative power and limits of genetics and environmental influences on behavior
behavior genetics
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
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the biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins
twins who develop from a single (monozygotic) fertilized egg that split into two, creating two genetically identical organisms
identical twins
twins that develop from separate (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer that ordinary brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
fraternal twins
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principals of natural selection
evolutionary psychology
the principle that , among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
natural selection
What is the supposedly stunning finding referred to in the text that was implied from studies of hundreds of adoptive families?
People who grow up together, biologically related or not, do not resemble one another in personality.
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change is called a:
In emphasizing that heredity’s effects on behavior depend on a person’s home environment, psychologists are highlighting the importance of:
nature-nurture interactions.
Bacteria that resist a hospital’s antibiotics rapidly multiply as other bacteria die off. This best illustrates:
natural selection.
Ants that become less sensitive to the repellants that are sprayed on them and are able to survive and _____ are an example of natural selection.
Biology (of a characteristic) transmissible from parent to offspring.
As environments become less similar, heritability as an explanation for variations will:
Luther was born with one kidney. This variation in an inherited trait is caused by:
Two individuals are MOST likely to differ in personality if they are:
fraternal twins who were raised apart.
Your sister’s fiancĂ© has an identical twin brother who has been divorced three times. What research information would be most applicable to her situation?
Research has shown that divorce risks are about 50 percent attributable to genetic factors.
Which of the following best describes the interaction between genetic and environmental factors influencing behavior?
mutually dependent
Two individuals are MOST likely to differ in personality if they are _____ twins who were raised apart.
When Mandy was born, her parents worried about her lack of eye contact, her unwillingness to cuddle like other babies, and her withdrawn behavior. However, her parents were patient and slowly introduced Mandy to new situations and new people while always giving affectionate support. By the time Mandy was 2 years old, she blossomed into an outgoing, social, friendly child. This example serves as evidence of the importance of:
the interaction between genes and the environment.
Your brother has an independent study proposal due next week, and he has asked you for help deciding on a topic. He is interested in studying what makes humans so similar to each other. The field of psychology you should suggest for him to study is _____ psychology.
Dr. Simon is an evolutionary psychologist working on a research grant about the impact of _____ in everyday society.
a branch of psychology that studies physical,cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
developmental psychology
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
the developed human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
(literally monster maker) agents such as toxins, chemical and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
decreasing responsiviness ith repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
Dr. Cole’s major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Cole is a _____ psychologist.
Infants’ tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:
memory capacity
Biological maturation is best reflected in which of the following?
You read about a woman who is seven months pregnant and has been reciting poems and singing to her fetus. Is she wasting her time?
No, she is not wasting her time. Her baby can hear her and will likely recognize her voice immediately after birth.
Moral development is best reflected in which of the following?
Quentin is a 3-month-old baby who has become habituated to his puppet head. He will probably look at it _____ frequently now.
Those who emphasize _____ over stability would suggest that the first two years of life provide a poor basis for predicting a person’s eventual traits.
Brenda has suffered from epilepsy all her life. She takes Trileptal to control her seizures. Recently she found out she was pregnant with her first child. She read that her medication is a Category C medication, meaning the benefits may outweigh the risks. However, no adequate studies have been performed on the medication for pregnant women. While she was excited to be pregnant, she was concerned about continuing to take the medication. She asked her doctor whether Trileptal was a _____.
The conclusion of many researchers regarding the “stability vs. _____” developmental issue is that both are important.
Researchers who study biological maturation most likely believe in the _____ theory of development.
As Mehta reflects on her long life, she realizes that her life has been filled with stability and change. Change has given her hope while stability has provided Mehta with an _____.
Stability and Change
stability: provides our identity and
change: gives our hope for brighter future
Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issues of stability or _____.
nature and nurture
nature : our genetic inheritance
nurture: interact with our experiences
Continuity and Stages
what part of development are gradually and continuous? like a riding escalator
what part of development are abruptly in separate stages ? climbing rungs on a ladder
biological growth processes that enables orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
critical period
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
a concept of framework that organizes and interprets information
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
adapting our current understanding (schema) to incorporate new information
in phiget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
sensorimotor stage
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
object permanence
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
preoperational stage
the principle ( which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in form of the object
in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking anothers’ point of view
peoples ideas about their own and others’ mental stages-about their feeling, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
theory of mind
in Piaget’s therory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
concrete operational stage
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
formal operational stage
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
stranger anxiety
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress and separation
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
according to Erik Erikson a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
basic trust
From ages 3 to 6, the brain’s neural network is sprouting most rapidly in the _____ lobes.
The importance of _____ was most clearly highlighted by Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory.
Beginning at around 8 months, children may greet _____ by crying and reaching for their familiar caregivers.
Anatoli and Andrei are 11-month-old identical twins. Anatoli took his first steps yesterday. How soon will Andrei take his first steps?
Andrei will walk within a day; identical twins generally begin walking on or nearly on the same day.
During the _____operational stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, children are able to think logically about events, grasp analogies, and perform arithmetical operations.
“I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes; you will do so because I said so!” This statement is most representative of a(n) _____ parenting style.
Babies should be put to sleep on their backs to prevent:
Tommy was at the park with his father and excitedly pointed to the squirrel and exclaimed, “Kitty, kitty.” His father pointed out that this was a squirrel, not a kitty. This best illustrates the process of _____.
Ty’s parents divorced when he was 5. His father moved out of state, and his mother is kept busy with trying to keep a roof over their heads. Ty is now 13 and has been getting into some minor trouble with school and with the law. Despite this, his mother still allows Ty to come and go as he wishes. She rarely, if ever, punishes him, and gives in to whatever he wants. She feels guilty about the divorce and his absent father. Ty’s mother has a(n) _____ parenting style.
Hussein is concerned because he cannot remember events before he was about 4 years old. What is the most likely cause for this infantile amnesia?
His hippocampus was not developed enough.
Ferris is the son of a teenage mother. His mother could not handle taking care of him and put him up for adoption when he was 4 weeks old. Ferris was moved from one foster family to another. He was never adopted. It is most likely that Ferris will:
have anxiety and lower intelligence.
Authoritarian parenting is to authoritative parenting as strict rules are to _____.
clear guidelines
Ben is the son of a teenage mother. His mother could not handle taking care of him and put him up for adoption when he was 4 weeks old. Ben was placed in a foster home where he was abused. As an adult, Ben is more likely to be a(n) _____ parent.
Three-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist’s waiting room while his mother is in the room. However, if she briefly leaves and then returns, he will periodically go to her side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of:
secure attachment.
Juan is 3 years old. His brother jumped out the closet and frightened him. A few seconds later, Juan realized that it was his brother that scared him. What response would you expect Juan to have at this stage in his development?
He continued to cry, since he could not reverse the mental image.
Eva’s grandmother lives in Europe and likes to read bedtime stories to her grandchildren when she visits. Eva is almost 6, but her grandmother has not seen her since she was 3. Rapid growth in Eva’s _____ lobes allow her to sit and listen.
Five-year-old Ling is beginning to show signs of being able to plan ahead in a somewhat rational manner. At her age, this development is likely due to neural _____ sprouting in her frontal lobes.