PSY 100 Exam 2

The rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning with a language are collectively known as ________.
a. morphemic rules
b. phonemic rules
c. grammar
d. linguistic relativity
c. grammar
According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one’s sense of self is called ______.
a. bonding
b. intimacy
c. attachment
d. attraction
b. intimacy
Attachment usually takes place within the _____ of life.
a. first year
b. first month
c. first six months
d. first four months
c. first six months
Which is the correct order of development of the Six Motor Milestones according to research?
a. sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over
b. crawling, walking, raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support
c. raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
d. rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking, raising head and chest
c. raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking
Monozygotic twins ______.
a. are genetically identical
b. are genetically different
c. will be of different sexes
d. are more likely to occur when a woman is taking fertility drugs
a. are genetically identical
A _______ reinforce, such as money or praise, gets its value through an association with a(n) ______ reinforcer.
a. positive; negative
b. primary; secondary
c. natural; artificial
d. secondary; primary
d. secondary; primary
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What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
a. confirmation bias
b. convergent thinking
c. availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
a. confirmation bias
______ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
a. learning
b. adaptation
c. memory enhancement
d. muscle memory
a. learning
Gardner and his associates are known for proposing ______.
a. the generalized theory of intelligence
b. the triarchic theory of intelligence
c. the theory of multiple intelligences
d. the theory of emotional intelligence
c. the theory of multiple intelligences
Retroactive interference, as used in the study of memory, refers to when _______.
a. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of older information
b. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
c. information is not attended and fails to be encoded
d. information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time
b. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
Trying to remember someone’s name whom you met long ago is an example of what type of process?
a. storage
b. retrieval
c. encoding
d. decoding
b. retrieval
Suppose Maria’s mental age is 20 and her chronological age is 10. What is her IQ?
a. 320
b. 80
c. 200
d. 100
c. 200
Erikson saw the major challenge of young adulthood as that of ______.
a. intimacy versus isolation
b. generativity versus stagnation
c. intentity versus role confusion
d. integrity versus despair
a. intimacy versus isolation
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was _______.
a. Skinner
b. Tolman
c. Kohler
d. Pavlov
d. Pavlov
In the process of fertilization, the ______ and _____ unite, resulting in a single cell.
a. sperm; ovum
b. zygote; sperm
c. embryo; zygote
d. ovum; fetus
a. sperm; ovum
The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, advanced by Rescorla and others, adds the concept of _______ to conditioning theory.
a. generalization
b. habituation
c. memory loss
d. expectancy
d. expectancy
Learning that takes place without actual performance (a kind of latent learning) is called ______.
a. the learning/performance distinction
b. the innate performance preference
c. the delayed learning paradigm
d. the observational delay
a. the learning/performance distinction
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items are gone. This is an example of the _______.
a. encoding specificity effect
b. serial position effect
c. TOT effect
d. reintegrative effect
b. serial position effect
If one wanted to use the best method to get storage into long-term memory, one would use _______.
a. maintenance rehearsal
b. rote rehearsal
c. elaborative rehearsal
d. sleep learning
c. elaborative rehearsal
Which of the following is true of research on insight?
a. researchers have found hat only human beings are capable of insight learning
b. researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning
c. researchers have found that apes are capable of insight only after being taught this by humans
d. researchers have proven that all creatures, even one-celled organisms such as the amoeba, are capable of insight learning
b. researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning
Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and walking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being a(n) _______ child.
a. easy
b. difficult
c. slow-to-warm-up
d. undemanding
a. easy
A system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statements can be made is called _______.
a. pragmatics
b. language
c. semantics
d. grammar
b. language
A male has a defect in the X chromosome of the 23rd pair. As children, people with this syndrome experience symptoms that can range from mild to severe or even profound intellectual disability. This is known as _______.
a. fragile X syndrome
b. down syndrome
c. fetal alcohol syndrome
d. familial retardation
a. fragile X syndrome
Memories for general facts and personal information are called ______.
a. episodic memory
b. procedural memories
c. declarative memories
d. factual memory
c. declarative memories
An advantage of algorithms over heuristics is that _______.
a. algorithms are much faster
b. algorithms guarantee a correct answer if one is available
c. algorithms are shortcuts
d. algorithms use rules-of-thumb
b. algorithms guarantee a correct answer if one is available
Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
a. learning is another word for “maturation”
b. learning is relatively permanent
c. learning involves changes in behavior
d. learning involves experiences
a. learning is another word for “maturation”
The type of research design that compares various participants at several points in time to examine age-related differences and changes is called a _______.
a. cross-sequential design
b. longitudinal design
c. behavior genetics design
d. cross-sectional design
b. longitudinal design
According to Rescorla’s theory, the CS must ______ the USC or conditioning does not occur.
a. replace
b. come after
c. appear simultaneously with
d. predict
d. predict
If memory were like the sea, we could say that _______ is long-term memory, _______ are the specific memories, and ________are retrieval cues.
a. the sea; fish; hooks
b. a boat; worms; fish
c. a boat; hooks; worms
d. an island; worms; fishing poles
a. the sea; fish; hooks
The internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of _______.
a. short-term memory
b. episodic memory
c. long-term memory
d. procedural memory
c. long-term memory
The levels-of-processing concept would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory o the word frog?
a. “does it rhyme with blog?”
b. “is it in capital letters?”
c. “is it written in cursive?”
d. “would it be found in a pond?”
d. “would it be found in a pond?”
When people are asked to say how many windows they have in their dwelling, the amount of time people take to come up with the answer _______.
a. doesn’t depend on the number of windows
b. depends on the number of windows
c. depends on the size of the windows
d. depends on whether the house had one or two stories, not the number of windows
b. depends on the number of windows
In one study, over 2,500 photographs were shown to participants, one every 10 seconds. Participants were then shown pairs of photographs in which one member of each pair was one of the previously seen photographs. Accuracy for identifying the previously seen photos was ______.
a. 10 – 20 %
b. 50 – 60 %
c. 70 – 80 %
d. 85 – 95 %
d. 85 – 95 %
Pavolv placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs and they began to salivate. Pavolv’s student noticed that after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student’s footsteps. The salivation to the sound of the footsteps was a _______.
a. primary reinforcer
b. positive reinforcer
c. conditioned response
d. secondary reinforcer
c. conditioned response
Which of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crises revolves around the child’s learning to direct his or her own behavior?
a. trust vs mistrust
b. initiative vs guilt
c. industry vs inferiority
d. autonomy vs shame and doubt
d. autonomy vs shame and doubt
Mary and Juan are twins who developed from two separate fertilized ova that were fertilized by two different sperm. What type of twins are they?
a. monozygotic twins
b. maternal twins
c. dizygotic twins
d. wombmates
c. dizygotic twins
If a child is exposed to the “strange situation,” then he or she ________.
a. should receive immediate medical attention
b. will view novel and eccentric stimuli
c. will be in a room with other children that they don’t know
d. will be left with a stranger or alone in an unfamiliar situation
d. will be left with a stranger or alone in an unfamiliar situation
When adults who are speaking to infants change the pitch and rhythm in their speech, hey are altering their _______.
a. syntax
b. grammar
c. morphemes
d. intonation
d. intonation
A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of _________.
a. learned helplessness
b. avoidance learning
c. aversive conditioning
d. vicarious learning
a. learned helplessness
Which sense is the least functional at birth?
a. touch
b. taste
c. smell
d. vision
d. vision
Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as “drawing figures and figuring drawings.” In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure, such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call ______.
a. heuristics
b. logarithms
c. algorithms
d. convergence
c. algorithms
A characteristic that first shows up in the formal operational stage is ________.
a. irreversibility
b. egocentrism
c. abstract thinking
d. logical thinking
c. abstract thinking
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the last items on the list. This is known as ______.
a. phi phenomenon
b. chunking effect
c. recency effect
d. primacy effect
d. primacy effect
Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called _______.
a. insight
b. innate learning
c. vicarious learning
d. latent learning
d. latent learning
The “aha!” experience is known as ________.
a. latent learning
b. insight learning
c. thoughtful learning
d. serial enumeration
b. insight learning
What type of thinking could be described as taking different directions in search of a variety of answers to a question?
a. decisive
b. convergent
c. heuristic
d. divergent
d. divergent
At what point during infancy can babies tell the difference between their own mother’s milk scent and another woman’s milk scent?
a. within a few days after birth
b. within a few weeks after birth
c. within a few months after birth
d. within a year after birth
a. within a few days after birth
People are termed gifted in terms of intelligene if their IQ is above _______.
a. 120
b. 130
c. 140
d. 150
b. 130
Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called ______.
a. biological preparedness
b. inherited conditioned dispositions
c. long-term spontaneous recovery
d. single repetition conditioning
a. biological preparedness
Which of the following is not an example of operant behavior?
a. a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher’s approval for her behavior
b. a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior
c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
d. a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior
c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
What did Terman’s groundbreaking tudy of gifted children accomplish?
a. it put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century
b. it proved that gifted children and adults are more prone to mental illnesses or odd behavior than other groups
c. it demonstrated that they also have more than their share of failures
d. it demonstrated that genius is the only factor that influences real success in life
a. it put to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the twentieth century
Researchers have found that, despite the number of color names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive color are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of ________.
a. Piccard and Worf
b. Sapir and Whorf
c. Skinner and Watson
d. Tolman and Thorndike
b. Sapir and Whorf
Dallis is a 10 year old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be _____.
a. 80
b. 100
c. 115
d. 130
b. 100
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of _____.
a. an eidetic image
b. a flashbulb memory
c. a semantic memory
d. a procedural memory
b. a flashbulb memory
Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification?
a. it involves the process of shaping
b. it is useful only for teaching autistic children
c. it is different from behavior modification
d. it cannot be used with animals
a. it involves the process of shaping
The case of Father Bernard Pagano, who was identified by seven eyewitnesses as a criminal, was an instance of a ______.
a. tip-of-the-tongue effect
b. retrieval failure
c. primacy effect
d. false positive
d. false positive
Which of these is an element of the formal definition of intellectual disability?
a. adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
b. evidence of brain damage
c. slower than normal reflexes
d. onset of deficits prior to age 6
a. adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
The concept of the confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe ______.
a. the scientific method as true
b. information that agrees with our thinking
c. information that refutes our thinking
d. logical thinking
b. information that agrees with our thinking
What was Mary Ainsworth trying to determine when she devised an experimental method called the “strange situation”?
a. the nature of gestural communication between mothers and babies
b. aspect of purposeful exploration as the baby investigates a strange environment
c. parental discipline styles in the first year of life
d. the nature of attachment between caretakers and babies
d. the nature of attachment between caretakers and babies
Which of the following cognitive abilities declines during adulthood?
a. intellectual abilities
b. speed of processing
c. wisdom
d. verbal ability
b. speed of processing
Your memory of the moment you heard about the planes crashing into New York’s Twin Towers on 9/11 would most appropriately termed a(n) ______ memory.
a. episodic
b. autobiographical
c. flashbulb
d. repressed
c. flashbulb
Bandura conducted a classic study known as the “Bobo” doll study. The term Bobo refers to ______.
a. Bandura’s pet name for the dog used in the study
b. Bandura’s loyal but strange assistant that carried out the study
c. Bandura’s nickname that his wife had given him
d. the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study
d. the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study
The most likely cause for miscarriage during the first three months of pregnancy is _______.
a. a genetic defect
b. alcohol use
c. not taking prenatal vitamins
d. lack of exercise
a. a genetic defect
The first thing that comes to mind when asked to name an example from a category is called the _______.
a. schema
b. prototype
c. concept marker
d. category marker
b. prototype
Germain tends to rule his home with an iron first. His children know the rules and they are expected to obey them without question or there will be harsh consequences. Diana Baumrind would describe Germain’s parenting style as _______.
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. ironclad
d. indulgent
a. authoritarian
Vision is not very well developed at birth. As a result, which statement is not true about vision at birth?
a. color and vision acuity takes approximately 6 months to develop more clearly from birth
b. newborns have a clear vision field of 12-14 inches at birth
c. newborns prefer to look at 3 dimensional objects vs 2 dimensional
d. newborns prefer to look at complex patterns and also the human face than other stimuli
b. newborns have a clear vision field of 12-14 inches at birth
Times when certain internal and external influences have a major impact on development are called ______.
a. fetal periods
b. critical periods
c. germinal periods
d. latency periods
b. critical periods
PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image, _______.
a. the image is generated by the retinal ganglion cells and sent to the cortex
b. the image is generated by thalamus and sent to the brain
c. the areas associated with stored knowledge send information to the visual cortex
d. there is no locus in the brain that can be determined for the generation of visual images
c. the areas associated with stored knowledge send information to the visual cortex
A child from which of the following parenting types would be most likely to lack social skills later in life?
a. ambivalent
b. authoritative
c. authoritarian
d. permissive
d. permissive
Which of the following examples represents the shallowest processing as described by the levels of processing model?
a. recalling an object’s function
b. attending to the sound of a word
c. thinking about the meaning of a word
d. recalling that an object was rectangular
b. attending to the sound of a word
According to Gilligan, Kohlberg’s theory of moral development:
a. should only be applied to males
b. explains moral reasoning in multiple cultures
c. should be extended to males
d. is a comprehensive theory without missing components
a. should only be applied to males
In Bandura’s study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMID stands for ________.
a. attention, memory, imitation, desire
b. alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward
c. achievement, momentum, initiative, memory
d. achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory
a. attention, memory, imitation, desire
The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called _______.
a. syntax
b. semantics
c. phonology
d. regularization
b. semantics
For which famous memory researcher is memory a problem-solving activity in which the problem is to give a coherent account of some past even and the memory is the solution to that problem?
a. Bartlett
b. Meyer
c. Ebbinghaus
d. Skinner
a. Bartlett
Which learning theorist is responsible for the discovery of conditioned taste aversions?
a. Seligman
b. Garcia
c. Skinner
d. Watson
d. Watson
“If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.” This is a statement of ________.
a. the Law of Positive Reinforcement
b. Rescorla’s cognitive perspective
c. Thorndike’s Law of Effect
d. Garcia’s conditional emotional response
c. Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Which type of attachment is characterized by babies who do not seem to care very much whether the mother is present or absent and are equally comfortable with her and a stranger?
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disorganized
b. avoidant
The placenta is _________.
a. the tube through which a developing baby receives nourishment
b. the technical name for the belly button
c. a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby
d. the name for the developing organism until it is 8 weeks old
c. a specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby
Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair tests?
a. they should minimize or eliminate the use of language
b. they should not attempt to measure intelligence
c. they should be composed of items that vary from culture to culture
d. they should measure values based on a person’s cultural background
a. they should minimize or eliminate the use of language
The correct sequence of the five stages o death and dying postulated by Kubler-Ross is ______.
a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. denial, anger, bargaining, acceptance, depression
c. anger, denial, bargaining, acceptance, depression
d. anger, denial, bargaining, depression, acceptance
a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Adrianna is trying to memorize the names of the bones in the hand. She had gone through a list of them when her phone rang. After she gets off the phone, she is most likely to remember the first few bone names because of the _______.
a. elaboration effect
b. recency effect
c. primacy effect
d. maintenance effect
c. primacy affect
Which was not a finding of the Terman and Oden (1947) study of gifted kids?
a. they were socially well adjusted
b. they were more resistant to mental illness
c. they were clearly much more likely to be females
d. they were above average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness
c. they were clearly much more likely to be females
In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, in which an individual becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking is the ___________ stage.
a. concrete operations
b. sensorimotor
c. preoperational
d. formal operations
a. concrete operations
Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contain genes are referred to as ________.
a. DNA
b. sex-linked traits
c. chromosomes
d. amines
c. chromosomes
In the game show Jeopardy contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is ______.
a. procedural
b. semantic
c. episodic
d. working
b. semantic
The divergent thinking technique of writing down everything that comes to mind about a topic without revising or proofreading until all of the information is recorded and then organizing it later is known as _______.
a. brainstorming
b. keeping a journal
c. freewriting
d. mind or subject mapping
c. freewriting
One problem with relying on eidetic imagery to study for tests is that ________.
a. you remember too much material and the professor will think you’re cheating
b. eidetic images fade is .25 seconds as Sperling has shown
c. you may be able to recall the material but you don’t necessarily understand it
d. it only helps you remember things from other cultures
c. you may be able to recall the material but you don’t necessarily understand it
Your little brother has a big ball of clay. While he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. He begins to cry because he think he has less clay now. Which of Piaget’s stages is your brother likely to be in?
a. sensorimotor
b. preoperational
c. formal operational
d. concrete operational
b. preoperational
Marisa is at a point in her pregnancy when the zygote is moving down to her uterus and the placenta and umbilical cord are beginning to form. Which period of prenatal development is Marisa currently experiencing?
a. fetal
b. embryonic
c. placental
d. germinal
d. germinal
The words “care” and “bear” differ in one ______.
a. morpheme
b. phoneme
c. gesture
d. syntax
b. phoneme
What are the two major types of rehearsal (for moving information from short-term to long-term memory)?
a. condensed and expanded
b. elaborative and permanent
c. maintenance and permanent
d. elaborative and maintenance
b. elaborative and permanent
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to he. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy’s ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ______.
a. iconic sensory memory
b. echoic sensory memory
c. short-term memory
d. tactile sensory memory
b. echoic sensory memory
On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half and 150 on the second half. What does this test appear to lack?
a. reliability
b. standardization
c. predictive validity
d. appropriate norms
a. reliability
An advantage of using heuristic over an algorithm is _______.
a. the heuristic ensures the correct answer
b. the heuristic takes longer and is more accurate
c. the heuristic can be quicker
d. the heuristic always works the same way
c. the heuristic can be quicker
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?
a. short answer
b. essay
c. fill-in-the-blank
d. all of these are examples that use recall
d. all of these are examples that use recall
Piaget’s term for the knowledge that an object exists even when it is out of sight is ___________.
a. conservation
b. object permanence
c. centration
d. egocentrism
b. object permanence
The growth spurt for girls typically begins at what age?
a. 9
b. 12
c. 10
d. 15
c. 10
A(n) _______ is a section of DNA containing a sequence of amines.
a. compound
b. gene
c. chromosome
d. amine
b. gene
In order to treat a child’s attention problems in a classroom, a technique that uses the EEG and video game-style technology called __________ has been employed.
a. neurogenetics
b. neurofeedback
c. biofeedback
d. videographics
b. neurofeedback
Amy is 30 years old and she as difficulty forming meaningful relationships with others. According to Erikson, she is most likely in the __________ stage.
a. intimacy vs. isolation
b. identity vs. role confusion
c. basic trust vs. mistrust
d. integrity vs. despair
a. intimacy vs. isolation