What does Boyle’s Law state?
Pressure and volume are INVERSELY proportional
What law is shown: p1v1 = p2v2
Boyle’s Law
What does this represent: PV=nRT?
The Ideal Gas Equation
What is the gas law shown: p1v1/t1 = p2v2/t2?
The Combined Gas Law
What does Gay Lussac’s Law state?
Pressure and temperature are DIRECTLY proportional
What does Charle’s Law state?
Volume and temperature are DIRECTLY proportional
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What is the message function of a sensory neuron?
Conveys a message from a sensory organ to the spinal cord.
What is light diffraction?
Spreading of light waves as they pass through a narrow opening.
Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation?
(F-32) x 5/9 = C
Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation?
F = 9/5C +32
What is Refraction?
Bending of light as it passes obliquely from one medium to another
Kelvin to Celsius Equation?
The direct change between a solid phase and gaseous phase w/o apparent liquid phase.
Liquid to Solid phase change?
Gas to Liquid phase change?
Liquid to gas phase change?
Solid to Liquid phase change?
What is the state of matter of a liquid?
Has more attractions between atoms than a gas and does not vary in its volume
What is the state of matter of a gas?
Attractions between atoms are weak, particles move around in an erratic pattern. Spreads volume to take shape of a container
What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element with the same # of protons but a different number of neutrons.
Is KI an Ionic or Covalent Bond?
Is a proton bigger or smaller than an electron?
The heart is located _________ the sternum?
Enzyme activity is driven by what internal structure?
Amino acid structure
Do prokaryotes contain a membrane bound nucleus?
No but plants, animals, and fungi do
The ______ stores bile and the _______ produces bile.
Gallbladder, Liver
Where does translation occur in Eukaryotic cells?
What does amylase break starch down into?
What does nicotine do to blood vessels and what is the consequence of that effect?
Nicotine constricts blood vessels. This decreases blood flow to the heart which can lead to heart disease.
To breakdown molecules
Do all cells in the same body encode the same DNA? Express the same DNA?
Yes, No
Is CH4 an ionic or covalent bond?
Covalent because it is two non-metals
Is the mixture of Na+ and Cl- an exothermic or endothermic reaction?
In what stage of meiosis do chromosomes condense into tightly wound structures?
Prophase II
What are endothermic reactions?
Chemical reactions that absorb energy to proceed.
What are the innate 1st line defenses of the immune system?
Skin, mucous, digestive enzymes
What are exothermic reactions?
chemical reactions that release energy in the form of heat, light, or sound
What type of reaction is this AB —-> A+B
In what stage of meiosis do the chromosomes pair up and crossing over take place?
Prophase I
During DNA-RNA transcription, what regions are removed from the mature transcript?
What are the 7 visible forms of electromagnetic radiation from short to long wavelengths?
Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red
What is the result of telophase II?
Four Haploid Cells
What portion/brain system is responsible for memory & emotion?
The Limbic System
To build up/ add molecules together
In what stage of meiosis do chromatids separate, but the ploidy (# of chromosomes) is maintained?
Anaphase II
During what stage of meiosis is a cell’s chromosome number reduced by half?
Anaphase I
How do you identify polar and nonpolar covalent bonds?
In nonpolar bonds elements will have similar or equal electronegativity. Polar bonds will have an unequal electronegativity.
What is the bonding in which electrons are transferred from a metal to a non-metal causing ions to form?
Ionic Bonds
What nervous system is responsible for “Fight or Flight”?
Sympathetic Nervous System
What micronutrient is store in bone tissue?
Where do WBCs originate?
Bone Marrow
What is the function of the spleen in a healthy adult?
Degrades old RBCs and produces lymphocytes
Anabolism and Evaporation are examples of what type of reactions?
Endothermic (absorbs energy)
What is the equation for potential energy?
PE =mgh
During embryogenesis, what germ layer gives rise to the bone, muscle, kidneys and heart?
What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?
KE= 1/2 MV (squared)
What are pyridimines?
DNA molecules with only one ring. Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil in RNA
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
Sorts and prepares proteins for transport
What does truncated mean?
Definition of Banal?
How do you calculate decimals to percents?
Move the decimal 2 places to the right and add a percent sign.
What law is represented: F=ma?
Newtons 2nd Law
What does force x distance equal?
Quantities having both magnitude and direction are?
What is the function of cones in the retina?
Determines various shades of color
What are 2 compounds have the same formula but different molecular structures?
What is a tincture solution mixed of?
Iodine dissolved in alcohol
What is a plant that is growing toward a light source exhibiting?
What organelle controls the entry and exit of materials into and out of an animal cell?
Cell Membrane
What is the relationship of genes, DNA, and chromosomes?
Genes are DNA found on chromosomes
How do you calculate percents to decimals?
Take of the percent sign and move the decimal 2 places to the left
A harmful example of a catalytic reaction involves the breakdown of ozone by the use of what?
Chlorine Ions
The veins of the upper part of the body are responsible for transporting blood to what area of the heart?
Superior Vena Cava
In enbryogenesis, what forms from the mesenchyme?
Skeleton/Circulatory Organs
What are the functions of the brain stem?
Coordinates survival functions like breathing, HR, sleep wake cycle.
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
Coordinates motor activities, makes balance, equilibrium, and posture possible.
Ionic bonds have _______ melting points than covalent bonds.
What are the only cells that can trigger the release of interferons?
Cells infected with a virus
What cells digest BOTH self and nonself cells?
What cells produce antibodies? And what immune response does this represent?
B Cells, Humoral response
What is the function of lymph nodes in mammals?
Filter debris from intracellular spaces
What is the function of ribosomes in a living cell?
Uses genetic info to build specific protein molecules and is where translation occurs
What are the sugars forming the backbone of nucleic acid molecules linked by?
Phosphodiester Bonds
What happens to blood pH when respiratory rate increases?
Blood pH will Rise
What is the function of the excretory system?
Maintain Homeostasis and remove wastes
What is the primary function of the cells lining the trachea and bronchi?
Secrete mucous and propel trapped debris toward the pharynx
What shape are chromosomes in prokaryotes?
What shape are chromosomes in eukaryotes?
What is anemia?
A disease resulting when hemoglobin in RBCs does not transport enough oxygen
What us Hemophilia?
The blood fails to clot properly and is the result of an absence of Clotting Factor in the blood
What are the characteristics of liquids?
No definite shape, definite volume, molecules touch but in no fixed position
What nervous system is responsible for voluntary responses?
Somatic Nervous System
What is the phase and energy change that occurs when a solid turns into a liquid?
Melting, endothermic.
Freezing represents what phase and energy change?
Liquid to Solid, Exothermic
What are allotropes?
Different forms of the same element
What is the phase and energy change from a solid to a gas with no liquid state?
Solid to Gas, Endothermic
During embryogenesis the CNS and Skin originate from which germ layer?
What is the phase and energy change of deposition?
Gas to Solid, Exothermic
What are genes composed of?
Linear sequences of Nucleotides
The most inclusive taxonomic class smaller than phylum is?
What happens in the S phase of interphase?
2 new strands are the end result with the help of DNA polymerase
What are purines?
DNA molecules with double rings. Adenine and guanine
What are the electromagnetic wavelengths from short to long?
gamma, x-ray, UV, visible, infrared, microwave, radio waves
What happens in G1 of interphase in mitosis?
DNA unwinds creates mRNA
What is the function of myosin?
Contains heads that contact actin and pull the actin fibers together in an ATP-dependent mechanism that causes muscles to contract
In a Liquid State, the arrangement and motion of molecules can be described as:
Closely packed in a random pattern with constant rapid motion
What is a polar covalent bond?
A bond with an unequal sharing of electrons
What electrolyte controls the water balance in the body? How?
Sodium. By increasing or decreasing osmolarity
Is photosynthesis and endothermic or exothermic reaction?
Endothermic reaction
What does the pancreas produce?
Insulin and digestive enzymes.
Where does blood enter the heart and is it oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, deoxygenated
What organelles are involved in the separation of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division?
What color does litmus paper turn to indicate an acid?
What is the electronegativity trend of the periodic table?
Increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom
Which elements are the best electrical conductors?
Alkali Metals
The electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges forms what type of bonds?
Do Bases liberate OH- in a solution?
During what stage of development do individual tissue layers begin to form?
What is the function of RNA in eukaryotic cells?
Provide a template for protein synthesis
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is a cell’s 1st line of defense against mutations during DNA replication?
DNA polymerase proofreading
What are alkynes?
Hydrocarbons with triple bonds
What are alkenes?
Hydrocarbons with double bonds
What are Isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is a fission nuclear reaction?
A reaction where the nuclei are split.
What are the 5 properties of metals?
Shiny, malleable, ductile, conduct heat, conduct electricity
What are the properties of non-metals?
Lack luster, brittle, poor heat conductors, poor electricity conductors
What is electronegativity?
Ability to attract electrons
What is a fusion nuclear reaction?
Reaction in which the nuclei of atoms are joined
During embryogenesis, what germ layer gives rise to the lungs and digestive organs?
In what chemical state would molecules be separated in a random pattern with constant rapid motion?
What is the name and energy change of a gas to a liquid?
Condensation, exothermic
What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
Equal sharing of electrons
What is the flow of blood through the heart?
Superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, rt ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, lungs (picks up oxygen), pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, to the body
Where does the breakdown of protein occur in the body?
Where does the breakdown of carbs occur in the body?
The mouth
Where does the breakdown of fats occur in the body?
Small Intestine
What are liquids that evaporate at a high rate called?
What is diapedesis?
The process of WBCs squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Fever/heat, redness, swelling, pain
What nervous system controls heart beat and digestion?
Autonomic nervous system
In what chemical state would molecules be closely packed together in a regular pattern with vibrational motion?
What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration?
It contracts and pulls in oxygenated air
What blocks active sites of substrates causing greatly reduced enzymatic activity?
Compared to liquids, gas is considered to have __________ intermolecular attractions and to exist at __________ temperatures
Weaker, Higher
emotionally hardened
improperly forward or bold
a disposition to remain inactive or inert
extreme greed for material wealth
cautionary advice about something imminent (especially imminent danger)
evading duty or work by pretending to be incapacitated
religious zeal
insignificantly small
(adj.) lowly, humble, lacking importance or dignity; (n.) a person who does the humble and unpleasant tasks
not clearly understood or expressed
lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness
disagreeing, especially with a majority
a slow pace of running
a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)
slow gallop
habitually silent or quiet, inclined to talk very little
full of trivial conversation
marked by a ready flow of speech
belonging to this earth or world
characterized by or causing or expressing sadness
characterized by extreme care and great effort
foul and run-down and repulsive
stubbornly unyielding
having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy
lacking honesty and oblivious to what is honorable
conspicuously and offensively loud
glaringly vivid and graphic
characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation
being quiet or still or inactive
a literary form in which events are exaggerated in order to create an extreme emotional response
a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow)
indicated by necessary connotation though not expressed directly
characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation
someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission
reprimanded; scolded
familiar with; having knowledge of
shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception
not disposed or willing to believe
secret and sly or sordid
seeming unaffected by pleasure or pain
sparing in consumption of especially food and drink
a state of extreme confusion and disorder
showing little or no emotion or animation
expressing offensive reproach
occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company
(adj.) highly colored, reddish; excessively ornate, showy
abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress
impossible to repress or control
incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another
cannot be removed, washed away or erased
a change or variation; unexpected changes in life
showing pensive sadness
unwillingness to tell lies
disinclined to work or exertion
inclined to anger or bad feelings with overtones of menace
To form or discharge pus
acutely insightful and wise
inducing perspiration
being present everywhere at once