PSB-RN Exam

What does Boyle’s Law state?
Pressure and volume are INVERSELY proportional
What law is shown: p1v1 = p2v2
Boyle’s Law
What does this represent: PV=nRT?
The Ideal Gas Equation
What is the gas law shown: p1v1/t1 = p2v2/t2?
The Combined Gas Law
What does Gay Lussac’s Law state?
Pressure and temperature are DIRECTLY proportional
What does Charle’s Law state?
Volume and temperature are DIRECTLY proportional
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What is the message function of a sensory neuron?
Conveys a message from a sensory organ to the spinal cord.
What is light diffraction?
Spreading of light waves as they pass through a narrow opening.
Fahrenheit to Celsius Equation?
(F-32) x 5/9 = C
Celsius to Fahrenheit Equation?
F = 9/5C +32
What is Refraction?
Bending of light as it passes obliquely from one medium to another
Kelvin to Celsius Equation?
K=C+273
Sublimiation?
The direct change between a solid phase and gaseous phase w/o apparent liquid phase.
Liquid to Solid phase change?
Freezing
Gas to Liquid phase change?
Condensation
Liquid to gas phase change?
Evaporation
Solid to Liquid phase change?
Melting
What is the state of matter of a liquid?
Has more attractions between atoms than a gas and does not vary in its volume
What is the state of matter of a gas?
Attractions between atoms are weak, particles move around in an erratic pattern. Spreads volume to take shape of a container
What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element with the same # of protons but a different number of neutrons.
Is KI an Ionic or Covalent Bond?
Ionic
Is a proton bigger or smaller than an electron?
Bigger
The heart is located _________ the sternum?
Behind
Enzyme activity is driven by what internal structure?
Amino acid structure
Do prokaryotes contain a membrane bound nucleus?
No but plants, animals, and fungi do
The ______ stores bile and the _______ produces bile.
Gallbladder, Liver
Where does translation occur in Eukaryotic cells?
Ribosomes
What does amylase break starch down into?
Maltose
What does nicotine do to blood vessels and what is the consequence of that effect?
Nicotine constricts blood vessels. This decreases blood flow to the heart which can lead to heart disease.
Catabolism?
To breakdown molecules
Do all cells in the same body encode the same DNA? Express the same DNA?
Yes, No
Is CH4 an ionic or covalent bond?
Covalent because it is two non-metals
Is the mixture of Na+ and Cl- an exothermic or endothermic reaction?
Exothermic
In what stage of meiosis do chromosomes condense into tightly wound structures?
Prophase II
What are endothermic reactions?
Chemical reactions that absorb energy to proceed.
What are the innate 1st line defenses of the immune system?
Skin, mucous, digestive enzymes
What are exothermic reactions?
chemical reactions that release energy in the form of heat, light, or sound
What type of reaction is this AB —-> A+B
Decomposition
In what stage of meiosis do the chromosomes pair up and crossing over take place?
Prophase I
During DNA-RNA transcription, what regions are removed from the mature transcript?
Introns
What are the 7 visible forms of electromagnetic radiation from short to long wavelengths?
Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red
What is the result of telophase II?
Four Haploid Cells
What portion/brain system is responsible for memory & emotion?
The Limbic System
Anabolism
To build up/ add molecules together
In what stage of meiosis do chromatids separate, but the ploidy (# of chromosomes) is maintained?
Anaphase II
During what stage of meiosis is a cell’s chromosome number reduced by half?
Anaphase I
How do you identify polar and nonpolar covalent bonds?
In nonpolar bonds elements will have similar or equal electronegativity. Polar bonds will have an unequal electronegativity.
What is the bonding in which electrons are transferred from a metal to a non-metal causing ions to form?
Ionic Bonds
What nervous system is responsible for “Fight or Flight”?
Sympathetic Nervous System
What micronutrient is store in bone tissue?
Phosphorous
Where do WBCs originate?
Bone Marrow
What is the function of the spleen in a healthy adult?
Degrades old RBCs and produces lymphocytes
Anabolism and Evaporation are examples of what type of reactions?
Endothermic (absorbs energy)
What is the equation for potential energy?
PE =mgh
During embryogenesis, what germ layer gives rise to the bone, muscle, kidneys and heart?
Mesoderm
What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?
KE= 1/2 MV (squared)
What are pyridimines?
DNA molecules with only one ring. Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil in RNA
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
Sorts and prepares proteins for transport
What does truncated mean?
Shortened
Definition of Banal?
Bland
How do you calculate decimals to percents?
Move the decimal 2 places to the right and add a percent sign.
What law is represented: F=ma?
Newtons 2nd Law
What does force x distance equal?
Work
Quantities having both magnitude and direction are?
Vectors
What is the function of cones in the retina?
Determines various shades of color
What are 2 compounds have the same formula but different molecular structures?
Isomers
What is a tincture solution mixed of?
Iodine dissolved in alcohol
What is a plant that is growing toward a light source exhibiting?
phototropism
What organelle controls the entry and exit of materials into and out of an animal cell?
Cell Membrane
What is the relationship of genes, DNA, and chromosomes?
Genes are DNA found on chromosomes
How do you calculate percents to decimals?
Take of the percent sign and move the decimal 2 places to the left
A harmful example of a catalytic reaction involves the breakdown of ozone by the use of what?
Chlorine Ions
The veins of the upper part of the body are responsible for transporting blood to what area of the heart?
Superior Vena Cava
In enbryogenesis, what forms from the mesenchyme?
Skeleton/Circulatory Organs
What are the functions of the brain stem?
Coordinates survival functions like breathing, HR, sleep wake cycle.
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
Coordinates motor activities, makes balance, equilibrium, and posture possible.
Ionic bonds have _______ melting points than covalent bonds.
Higher
What are the only cells that can trigger the release of interferons?
Cells infected with a virus
What cells digest BOTH self and nonself cells?
Macrophages
What cells produce antibodies? And what immune response does this represent?
B Cells, Humoral response
What is the function of lymph nodes in mammals?
Filter debris from intracellular spaces
What is the function of ribosomes in a living cell?
Uses genetic info to build specific protein molecules and is where translation occurs
What are the sugars forming the backbone of nucleic acid molecules linked by?
Phosphodiester Bonds
What happens to blood pH when respiratory rate increases?
Blood pH will Rise
What is the function of the excretory system?
Maintain Homeostasis and remove wastes
What is the primary function of the cells lining the trachea and bronchi?
Secrete mucous and propel trapped debris toward the pharynx
What shape are chromosomes in prokaryotes?
Circular
What shape are chromosomes in eukaryotes?
Linear
What is anemia?
A disease resulting when hemoglobin in RBCs does not transport enough oxygen
What us Hemophilia?
The blood fails to clot properly and is the result of an absence of Clotting Factor in the blood
What are the characteristics of liquids?
No definite shape, definite volume, molecules touch but in no fixed position
What nervous system is responsible for voluntary responses?
Somatic Nervous System
What is the phase and energy change that occurs when a solid turns into a liquid?
Melting, endothermic.
Freezing represents what phase and energy change?
Liquid to Solid, Exothermic
What are allotropes?
Different forms of the same element
What is the phase and energy change from a solid to a gas with no liquid state?
Solid to Gas, Endothermic
During embryogenesis the CNS and Skin originate from which germ layer?
Ectoderm
What is the phase and energy change of deposition?
Gas to Solid, Exothermic
What are genes composed of?
Linear sequences of Nucleotides
The most inclusive taxonomic class smaller than phylum is?
Class
What happens in the S phase of interphase?
2 new strands are the end result with the help of DNA polymerase
What are purines?
DNA molecules with double rings. Adenine and guanine
What are the electromagnetic wavelengths from short to long?
gamma, x-ray, UV, visible, infrared, microwave, radio waves
What happens in G1 of interphase in mitosis?
DNA unwinds creates mRNA
What is the function of myosin?
Contains heads that contact actin and pull the actin fibers together in an ATP-dependent mechanism that causes muscles to contract
In a Liquid State, the arrangement and motion of molecules can be described as:
Closely packed in a random pattern with constant rapid motion
What is a polar covalent bond?
A bond with an unequal sharing of electrons
What electrolyte controls the water balance in the body? How?
Sodium. By increasing or decreasing osmolarity
Is photosynthesis and endothermic or exothermic reaction?
Endothermic reaction
What does the pancreas produce?
Insulin and digestive enzymes.
Where does blood enter the heart and is it oxygenated or deoxygenated?
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, deoxygenated
What organelles are involved in the separation of chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division?
Centrioles
What color does litmus paper turn to indicate an acid?
RED
What is the electronegativity trend of the periodic table?
Increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom
Which elements are the best electrical conductors?
Alkali Metals
The electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges forms what type of bonds?
Ionic
Do Bases liberate OH- in a solution?
Yes
During what stage of development do individual tissue layers begin to form?
Gastrulation
What is the function of RNA in eukaryotic cells?
Provide a template for protein synthesis
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is a cell’s 1st line of defense against mutations during DNA replication?
DNA polymerase proofreading
What are alkynes?
Hydrocarbons with triple bonds
What are alkenes?
Hydrocarbons with double bonds
What are Isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
What is a fission nuclear reaction?
A reaction where the nuclei are split.
What are the 5 properties of metals?
Shiny, malleable, ductile, conduct heat, conduct electricity
What are the properties of non-metals?
Lack luster, brittle, poor heat conductors, poor electricity conductors
What is electronegativity?
Ability to attract electrons
What is a fusion nuclear reaction?
Reaction in which the nuclei of atoms are joined
During embryogenesis, what germ layer gives rise to the lungs and digestive organs?
Endoderm
In what chemical state would molecules be separated in a random pattern with constant rapid motion?
Gas
What is the name and energy change of a gas to a liquid?
Condensation, exothermic
What are nonpolar covalent bonds?
Equal sharing of electrons
What is the flow of blood through the heart?
Superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, rt ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery, lungs (picks up oxygen), pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, to the body
Where does the breakdown of protein occur in the body?
Stomach
Where does the breakdown of carbs occur in the body?
The mouth
Where does the breakdown of fats occur in the body?
Small Intestine
What are liquids that evaporate at a high rate called?
Volatile
What is diapedesis?
The process of WBCs squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
Fever/heat, redness, swelling, pain
What nervous system controls heart beat and digestion?
Autonomic nervous system
In what chemical state would molecules be closely packed together in a regular pattern with vibrational motion?
Solid
What happens to the diaphragm during inspiration?
It contracts and pulls in oxygenated air
What blocks active sites of substrates causing greatly reduced enzymatic activity?
Inhibitors
Compared to liquids, gas is considered to have __________ intermolecular attractions and to exist at __________ temperatures
Weaker, Higher
callous
emotionally hardened
impertinent
improperly forward or bold
inertia
a disposition to remain inactive or inert
avarice
extreme greed for material wealth
admonition
cautionary advice about something imminent (especially imminent danger)
malingering
evading duty or work by pretending to be incapacitated
veneration
religious zeal
nominal
insignificantly small
menial
(adj.) lowly, humble, lacking importance or dignity; (n.) a person who does the humble and unpleasant tasks
obscure
not clearly understood or expressed
incongruous
lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness
dissident
disagreeing, especially with a majority
lope
a slow pace of running
saunter
a leisurely walk (usually in some public place)
canter
slow gallop
taciturn
habitually silent or quiet, inclined to talk very little
garrulous
full of trivial conversation
voluble
marked by a ready flow of speech
mundane
belonging to this earth or world
melancholy
characterized by or causing or expressing sadness
scrupulous
characterized by extreme care and great effort
squalid
foul and run-down and repulsive
dogged
stubbornly unyielding
supercilious
having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy
unscrupulous
lacking honesty and oblivious to what is honorable
vociferous
conspicuously and offensively loud
Lurid
glaringly vivid and graphic
impetuous
characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation
pusillanimous
cowardly
quiescent
being quiet or still or inactive
melodrama
a literary form in which events are exaggerated in order to create an extreme emotional response
pathos
a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow)
tacit
indicated by necessary connotation though not expressed directly
impetuous
characterized by undue haste and lack of thought or deliberation
interloper
someone who intrudes on the privacy or property of another without permission
reproved
reprimanded; scolded
conversant
familiar with; having knowledge of
guile
shrewdness as demonstrated by being skilled in deception
incredulous
not disposed or willing to believe
furtive
secret and sly or sordid
stoical
seeming unaffected by pleasure or pain
abstemious
sparing in consumption of especially food and drink
bedlam
a state of extreme confusion and disorder
apathetic
showing little or no emotion or animation
scurrilous
expressing offensive reproach
convivial
occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company
florid
(adj.) highly colored, reddish; excessively ornate, showy
pallid
abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress
irrepressible
impossible to repress or control
inalienable
incapable of being repudiated or transferred to another
indelible
cannot be removed, washed away or erased
vicissitudes
a change or variation; unexpected changes in life
pensive
showing pensive sadness
veracity
unwillingness to tell lies
indolent
disinclined to work or exertion
surly
inclined to anger or bad feelings with overtones of menace
suppurated
To form or discharge pus
perspicacious
acutely insightful and wise
sudorific
inducing perspiration
ubiquitous
being present everywhere at once