Principles of Sociology Chapter 4

A social position that a person holds
Status
All the statuses a person holds at a given time
Status Set
A social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life
Ascribed Status
A social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
Achieved Status
A status that had special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life
Master Status
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Social Construction Reality
W.I. Thomas’s claim that situations defined as real are real in their consequences
Thomas Theorem
Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Role
A number of roles attached to a single status
Role Set
Conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses
Role Conflict
Tension among the roles connected to a single status
Role Strain
Harold Garfinkel’s term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
Ethnomethodology
Technology that links people in social activity
Social Media
Erving Goffman’s term for the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
Dramaturgical Analysis
Erving Goffman’s term for a person’s efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
Presentation of Self
Communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
Nonverbal Communications
The surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
Personal Space
True or False? Humor is more more important than we think
True
The way we act and carry ourselves
Demeanor
True or false? Sociologist have argued that the rise of social media has connected people in new ways but weakened social ties among people who share physical space
True