Unit HSC 2024 –Undertake agreed pressure area care 1. 1 Pressure sores or decubitus ulcers are the result of a constant deficiency of blood to the tissues over a bony area such as a heel which may have been in contact with a bed or a splint over an extended period of time. The surface of the skin can ulcerate which may become infected. Eventually deeper tissues are damaged. Besides the heel, other areas commonly involved are the skin over the buttocks, sacrum, ankles hips and other bony sites of the body. 1. 2
Common pressure points on the body include the tail bone (sacrum), hip bone areas, and the ankle and heel. Less common sites include the elbows, spine, ribs, and back of the head. Pressure sores may also result from friction caused by your skin rubbing against another surface, or when two layers of skin slide on each other, moving in opposite directions and causing damage to the underlying tissue. This may happen if you are transferred from a bed to a stretcher, or if you slide down in a chair. 1. 3 Pressure sores are more likely to develop persons who are at higher risk due to one or more risk factors..
Once a person is identified as being at increased risk for pressure sores, measures should be undertaken to reduce or eliminate those risks. Confinement to bed, chair, or wheelchair. Persons confined to beds, chairs, or wheelchairs who are unable to move themselves, can develop pressure-induced injuries in as little as 1-2 hours if the pressure is not relieved; Inability to change positions without help. (Eg, an individual in a coma, who is paralyzed, or recovering from a hip fracture or other mobility limitation. ) Loss of bowel or bladder control.
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Sources of moisture on the skin from urine, stool, or perspiration can irritate the skin. Poor hygiene , not washing regularly or drying properly Poor nutrition and/or dehydration. Bed sores are more likely to form when the skin is not properly nourished. Decreased mental awareness. An individual with decreased mental awareness may not have the level of sensory perception or ability to act to prevent the development of pressure-induced injury. The lack of mental awareness may arise from medications. 1. 4 Incorrect positioning can cause pressure on the area.
Sliding can cause friction and shearing. Friction caused by the client lifted incorrectly causing the skin to be damaged because the pressure is more that the skin cannot hold, so the result will be breakage of the skin. Rubbing of clothes, shoes and slings will also cause friction. Incorrectly putting a sling into place, and not using mobility aids available. 1. 5 Following the correct policies and procedures set in place will help prevent or help clear any sores. Monitoring the skin and following instructions to manage this will also help prevent and sores.
Correct hygiene and moving techniques. Ensuring an individual regularly moves even if they may be limited. 1. 6 Redness of an area, dry skin, sore skin, broken skin, and marked areas, all need to be reported, as these are signs that the skin is breaking down. 2. 1 Read our company policies and procedures on pressure care. Also CQC has guidelines, what is expected of you. 2. 2 Read our policies aim what is expected of you from the company. Read care plans on pressure care and carry out an waterlow risk assessment.
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