Prepared Public Speaking

_____ is a figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects, or concepts.
personification
The arrangement of words into patterns so that the sound of the words together enhances the meaning of a phrase is called:
rhythm
_____ is a figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things using the word like or as.
simile
A request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior is known as a _____, and is often located at the conclusion of the speech.
call to action
Arguments against the speakers own point of view are:
counterarguments
A speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions is:
a persuasive speech.
We will write a custom essay sample on
Any topic specifically for you
For only $13.90/page
Order Now
A speech that attempts to explain how things work must convince the audience of the usefulness and accuracy of the information. This kind of speech is:
an informative speech
The following is the best example of a persuasive speech:
all of these are persuasive speeches
The following is the best example of an informative speech:
a teacher giving a classroom lecture.
A question that addresses whether something is true or not is a:
question of fact
A question that addresses the best course of action or the best solution to a problem is a:
question of policy
A question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action, or belief is a:
question of value
A two-sided message is a strategy that:
all of these
A _____ is an argument that seems valid, but it flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning.
fallacy
A(n) _____ is an argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than that person’s arguments.
ad hominem fallacy
A(n) _____ is an argument I which a speaker claims that our options are “A or B,” when actually more than two options exist.
either-or fallacy
A(n) _____ is an argument in which a speaker claims that taking a first step in one direction will lead to inevitable and undesirable further steps.
slippery slope fallacy
A(n) _____ introduces irrelevant information into an argument to distract an audience from the real issue.
red herring fallacy
A(n) _____ is an argument that something is correct or good simply because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it.
bandwagon fallacy
Similarities, shared interests, and mutual perspectives a speaker has with an audience are known as:
common ground
An audience’s view of a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, or knowledge of a subject:
competence
An audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character is known as the speaker’s _____.
credibility
“Which pattern of reasoning is demonstrated in the following?
A = B, B = C, therefore A = C. “
deductive reasoning
“Which pattern of reasoning is demonstrated in the following?
Every FFA member in this room is wearing an FFA jacket. Therefore, all FFA members must have FFA jackets. “
inductive reasoning
A listener who needs to hear verbal explanations and descriptions in order to learn well.
auditory listener
Local or regional expressions or dialect are known as _____, and can sometimes cause confusion when the audience does not come from the same home as the listener.
colloquialisms
A speech that makes it as simple as possible for the audience to process information is known as a(n):
considerate speech
A critical listener:
pays close attention to the speech’s accuracy and the implication of the speaker’s message.
Language that respectfully recognizes the differences among the many members of our society is known as:
culturally-inclusive language
A(n) _____ substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant.
euphemism
A listener who needs to touch, explore, and participate in what is being described is a(n):
experiential listener
Language that recognize that both men and women are active participants in the world is:
gender-inclusive language
Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity:
is all of these.
A(n) _____ is considerate and delivered in an oral style.
listenable speech
Informal, nonstandard vocabulary is called _____ and should be avoided in formal speeches.
slang
A listener who needs to see something in order to understand it is a(n):
visual listener
Extra words that pad sentences and claims, but do not add meaning to the speech are called:
verbal clutter
A set of statements that allows you to develop your evidence to establish the validity of your claim is a(n):
argument
The logical outcome of an argument results from the major and minor premises and is called the:
conclusion
An error in reasoning in which a speaker reaches a conclusion without enough evidence to support it is called:
hasty generalization
An error in reasoning in which a speaker assumes that one event caused another simply because the first event happened before the second.
false cause
Claim in an argument that states a familiar, commonly accepted belief (also called the general principle).
major premise
Claim in an argument that states a specific instance linked to the major premise.
minor premise
The repetition of a particular sound in a sentence or phrase is referred to as a(n):
alliteration
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration in order to emphasize is called:
hyperbole
A(n) _____ is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something else.
metaphor
Arrangement of related words so that they are balanced, or of related sentences so that they have identical structures, are examples of this writing structure.
parallelism
The predisposition to act for or against a person or position is referred to as which of the following?
attitude
Most speeches should be prepared for which of the following audiences?
Specific
Which of the following patterns of organization would be most suitable for speeches such as “The Events Leading to World War II,” “The Development of Language in the Child,” and “The Major Steps in Learning to Use a Computer?”
Chronological
In both classical and contemporary views of public speaking, primary attention is given to which of the following?
substance or content of the speech
A speaker’s credibility relates most directly to which of the following?
believability
In a speech, a thesis statement should be clear, concise, and easy to remember.
TRUE
Thesis statements should be as vague as possible in order to include each and every kind of audience.
FALSE
It is important to consider your specific audience when developing the thesis statement for a speech.
TRUE
The purpose of the informative speech is to provide interesting, useful, and unique information to your audience.
TRUE
The use of humor is always appropriate in public speaking presentations.
FALSE
“Read the following excerpt from a speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.:
“”When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative.””
Which of the following verbal structure is used?”
parallelism
“Read the following slogan from the Pan-American Coffee Bureau:
“”Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong.””
Which of the following figures of speech is used?”
simile
“Read the following quote from Shakespeare’s As You Like It:
“”All the world’s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;””
Which of the following figures of speech is used in this quote?”
metaphor
“Read the following slogan of the Wall Street Journal:
“”The daily diary of the American dream.””
Which of the following figures of speech is used?”
alliteration
Claiming the words or ideas of another as your own is:
all of these
What is the BEST way to establish credibility with your audience?
establish common ground
In a speech, a political figure refers to his rival candidate as a “jerk.” This is an example of what kind of fallacy?
ad hominem
A student is asking a teacher for an extension on a paper’s due date. The teacher refuses to allow the extension, saying that “If I make an exception for you then I’ll have to make an exception for everyone.” What kind of argument is the teacher using?
slippery slope fallacy
“Read the following statement:
‘If we don’t provide farmers with low-interest loans, they will go bankrupt.’
What kind of fallacious argument is being used?”
either-or fallacy, because the speaker is leaving out other possible alternatives
Speaking from a manuscript:
all of these
An extemporaneous speech:
is likely to be more dynamic than manuscript speeches.
The speech format that is most likely to sound canned, robotic, and lack spontaneous emotion is:
a memorized speech
Excellent speakers do not feel nervousness before presentations.
FALSE
It is in your audience’s best interest for your speech to succeed.
FALSE
A statement that summarizes the main point or points which you want to communicate to your audience is a(n):
thesis statement
A thesis statement should be specific to the audience it addresses.
TRUE
Which of the following is an appropriate way to gain the audience’s attention during a speech’s introduction?
All of these are effective and appropriate.
When selecting a topic for a speech or presentation, a speaker should:
choose a topic with which they have personal experience or expertise.
In both classical and contemporary views of public speaking, primary attention is given to which of the following?
Substance of content of the speech
A speech divided into the three main divisions of animal, vegetable, and mineral would be best organized according to which of the following patterns?
Topical
Speaker credibility refers most closely to which of the following?
Believability
In his famous “Liberty or Death” speech, Patrick Henry said: For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility, which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings. This excerpt provides an example of Henry’s attempt to do which of the following?
Establish his credibility
The assumption that a person who is competent in one field is also competent in another field is referred to as which of the following?
Halo effect
The predisposition to act for or against a person or position is referred to as which of the following?
Attitude
Most speeches should be prepared for which of the following audiences?
Specific
Which of the following terms is used for the argument that what a person hears last is remembered best and has the greatest effect?
Recency
Which of the following patterns of organization would be most suitable for speeches such as “The events leading to World War II,” “the development of language in the child,” and “the major steps in learning to use a computer”?
Chronological
The degree to which the audience members have counterarguments ready to answer an attack on their beliefs, attitudes, and values is referred to as which of the following?
Inoculation
Which of the following is NOT an example of effective individual brainstorming
Robin decides to write fancy titles or sentence descriptions of speech possibilities for the next five minutes.
Concerning topic selection, your authors suggest that you select topics that you are knowledgeable about. When selecting a topic:
Your knowledge of the topic can come from your own experience and involvement, from turning to other people for information and by turning to other resources.
When you narrow your topic, you should consider
All of the answers
Which generalization is most often true concerning audiences?
Voluntary audiences tend to be homogeneous while captive audiences tend to be heterogeneous
Which student is considering only the demographic traits of their audience:
Philip is analyzing his audience’s distinctions such as names, year in school, and age.
Which of the following students have effectively combined audience analysis with ethics:
Mia finds the audience knows very little about her topic, so she changes her approach to be much more basic, covering the key terms but not the complex ones
As a speaker, you should use audience analysis to:
All of the answers
If you were giving a persuasive speech to an audience who does not support your view, the one thing you would MOST want to learn from your audience analysis would probably be:
Their specific objections to your proposal
A good speech topic:
Is adapted, involves your listeners and also interests you.
A(n) __________ audience is characterized by many differences among individuals.
Heterogeneous
A(n) __________ audience is an audience that has not chosen to hear a particular speaker or speech
Captive
A(n) _____ is a predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a person, an object, and idea or an event. Examples from your text include “pro-life” or “pro-animal rights.”
Attitude
You must cite the source of a supporting material when you obtain it from a print medium, however when it is an interview you need not do this because an oral footnote would distract from your audience adaptation.
FALSE
When researching materials for your speech, you should:
Use a variety of resource materials to give a more balanced approach to your speech.
When giving a speech, speakers must cite sources by:
Using an oral footnote and citing the materials in the written representation of the speech
The most correct way to cite an Internet source is:
“According to the June 22, 1999 on-line version of the Chicago Sun Times, Dr. Herald, a doctor at ABC Hospital, says…”
When you want to illustrate your point by giving a specific instance of what you are discussing, you should use which of the following types of supporting materials:
Examples
To determine if you are using ethical tactics in your speech, your authors suggest you:
All of the answers
________ is the “use of someone else’s ideas or words, without credit.”
Plagiarism
Which of the following is NOT an example of a goal for informative speaking:
Patrick will advocate a position on the Reformed Political Party.
In an effective speech introduction, all of the following should be included EXCEPT:
A development of your main points with supporting materials.
Which of the following is NOT an effective way to gain your audience’s attention:
Insult them with a racist joke to prove your point.
Which of the following is an example of an effective preview statement:
“Today I will explain first how to reduce your waste, second how to recycle items and third, how to reuse materials
The body of the speech:
Expands upon the main points previewed in the preview statement.
Arranged in random order below are a main point, two sub-points and two sub-sub-points from a speech outline. Which choice listed is the only “main point.”
When writing WebPages you can use a basic HTML writing program or a more advanced software program
“Arranged in random order below are a main point, two sub-points and two sub-sub-points from a speech outline. Which are the sub-points? a. One example of a prepackaged software program is Microsoft’s FrontPage.
b. Advanced software programs are helpful in writing WebPages.
c. When writing WebPages you can use a basic HTML writing program or a more advanced software program.
d. Another way you might write WebPages would be through learning the actual HTML language codes.
e. A second software program which helps you develop a website is Netscape Composer.
Selections b and d
“Arranged in random order below are a main point, two sub-points and two sub-sub-points from a speech outline. Which are the sub-sub- points
a. One example of a prepackaged software program is Microsoft’s FrontPage.
b. Advanced software programs are helpful in writing WebPages.
c. When writing WebPages you can use a basic HTML writing program or a more advanced software program.
d. Another way you might write WebPages would be through learning the actual HTML language codes.
e. A second software program which helps you develop a website is Netscape Composer.
Selections a and e
When used in a speech introduction all of the following except one illustrate methods of getting the audience’s attention. Which is NOT an attention-getting statement?
I have 12 years of teaching experience and I am a parent.
Keisha has reduced her final outline down to a smaller version to practice with. This practice outline consists of important words and phrases to help jog her memory when she is giving the speech. The practice outline described here is called a(n):
Key-Word Outline
Tawanna is giving a speech on how weather fronts move from the west coast, to the mid-west, and then to the east cost. Her speech follows which of the following organizational patterns:
Spatial/relations
Identify the organization pattern that would be best to describe the four major bike paths in Duluth, Minnesota
Spatial/relations
A speech describing the path of migration directional path of an animal moving from north to south is best structured using a _______ design.
Spatial/relations
You plan to give a speech on the three most popular approaches to quitting smoking. Your most likely choice for a speech design would be
Problem/Solution
Effective speech transitions:
All of the answers
Which of the following is a function of a conclusion?
To summarize the speaker’s message
The ____ of a speech is its largest portion, in which the speaker places his or her arguments and ideas, substantiation and examples, and proofs and illustrations
Body
An ______ is a “written plan that uses symbols, margins, and content to reveal the order, importance, and substance of your speech.”
Outline
Phrases which indicate where you are in the speech such as, “First, I will illustrate…, ” “A second idea is…,” “Finally, we will…,” “Furthermore, you should consider…”, and “In conclusion…” are called ___________.
Signposts
A ________ is a formal list of the sources used in your speech
All the answers
A preliminary organization of the outline of your speech which you use as your starting point to write your sentence outline from is called a __________ __________ outline.
Rough Draft
The best way to arouse audience interest in the subject matter of your speech is to show clearly how the topic relates to them personally.
TRUE
One function of an introduction of a persuasive speech is to call the audience to action
FALSE
The main idea behind a bibliography is to state a plan of action for the audience to take after the speech.
FALSE
Which of the below is a good place to look for information on the internet?
“libraryofcongress.gov”
Chose the answer that is most correct: When brainstorming, it’s all about:
Quantity not Quality
When picking a topic, you should
Analyze then select
Which of these is NOT a good resource for an informative speech:
They are all good sources
In the introduction of your speech you gain what from your audience?
Attention
Testimony, statistics, examples and what are all part of supporting material?
Narratives
What are three types of organizational patterns?
Chronological, Topical, and Spatial
What is the most common organizational pattern for public speeches?
Topical
What is a statement connecting one thought to another?
Transition
What are the four major types of supports?
Testimony, statistics, narratives, and examples
What are examples of connectives?
Brakelight, sign posts, and transitions
What should NOT be in the introduction of a speech?
Subpoints
What SHOULD NOT be said in the conclusion?
That’s it…
What are the three main components of a speech?
Introduction, body, and conclusion
Which of the following is used as support material?
Narratives
What is the mode of delivery for a spontaneous, informative speech?
Extemporaneous
What would be a good number of main points in a speech?
3
Which of these would you not find in the introduction?
Brakelight before going to the next section
Which of these is a correct definition for signposts?
Ways in which a speaker signals to an audience where the speech is going.
Which one is not a vocal aspect of delivering a speech?
Range
When do you cite your sources?
All of the answers
In the introduction of a speech you need?
Credibility Statement
Which one of the following is not an organizational pattern?
Comparison/Abstract Organization
A type of visual aid is:
All of the answers
Examples, surveys, and statistics are types of what?
Supporting Materials
What one of the following is not a function of an introduction?
Establish your qualifications for speaking on the topic
What is the written plan that uses symbols, margins, and content to reveal the order, importance, and substance of your speech?
Body
Which of the following is NOT a type of support material?
Inferences
Which is the best for topic selection?
Brainstorming
What is a good way to gain your audience’s attention?
All of the answers
Which visual aid would be a good exhibit in a speech about dogs?
Having the dog in the room during the entire speech so they can monitor its actions
The type of organizational pattern associated with categories is?
Topical
The key ideas to visual aid being effective are?
All of the answers
When using visual aids you should always:
Keep it simple
What is important to have between each main point in a speech?
Transitions
What three things may be used to support a main point in an outline?
Story, hard fact, testimony
What are the three steps to the writing process?
Prewriting, writing, post writing
All of these are vocal aspects of delivery except?
Facial Expressions
If your speech is well written, body language is not important.
FALSE
If you pass off another person’s ideas as your own when writing your speech, you are plagiarizing.
TRUE
A phrase or sentence that cannot be understood literally is
an idiom
An effective listener uses empathy, which means the listener
understands what the speaker has experienced
Listening for facts involves the same techniques as listening for feelings.
FALSE
Empathy in listening is the same thing as sympathy.
FALSE
Words alone determine the meanings an audience receives from a speaker.
FALSE
In public communication, a speaker presents a message to several listeners and receives primarily nonverbal feedback.
TRUE
What is the tone of your voice?
the way your message sounds
Speaking is the most important communication skill.
FALSE
A good listener shows outward signs of interest when another person is speaking.
TRUE
A good listener never takes his or her eyes away from the person who is speaking.
FALSE
Good listening skills can improve speaking skills
TRUE
Authorities generally agree that speaking is the weakest link in oral communication.
TRUE
Emphasizing positive aspects in any speaking situation
is good business practice
In speaking and writing, the term diction refers to
choice of words
When you give an oral presentation without warning, what kind of a presentation are you giving?
impromptu
The _____ protects free speech and freedom of the press in the United States.
First Amendment
To be effective, a speech must be developed with the listener in mind.
TRUE
To make a successful speech, you must do background preparation, develop a draft of your speech, and practice your speech.
TRUE
Overlistening allows the listener to retain the major points of a speech.
FALSE
Speeches, lectures and presentations, are examples of informal business communications.
FALSE
Adding an interesting fact, anecdote, or joke to get the audience’s attention are good strategies to use when giving a speech.
TRUE
Memorizing a presentation is usually an effective way to prepare for the delivery of an oral presentation.
FALSE
In the closing of an oral presentation, you should summarize main points.
TRUE
Talking too fast during an oral presentation says nonverbally, “I’m nervous.”
TRUE
Which of the following would be considered a short oral presentation?
an introduction of a presenter at a social club
Which of the following is NOT a common attention-getting technique?
summaries
The three main parts of an oral presentation are
an introduction, the body, and the closing
The three main parts of the delivery of an oral presentation are
vocal qualities, nonverbal symbols, and visual aids
Which of the following should always be part of an introduction of an oral presentation?
a preview
During a presentation, a speaker’s poise influences his or her credibility with an audience.
TRUE
Varying the pitch and speed of your voice makes a presentation more effective.
TRUE
An extemporaneous presentation is memorized.
FALSE
It is difficult for most people to read a presentation in a natural and interesting way.
TRUE
Understanding the demographics of an audience is important when giving a presentation.
TRUE
In delivering an oral presentation, the most important consideration is that the
content is accurate
Visuals and handouts for an oral presentation should be
appropriately designed and distributed, if used
You will make an initial oral presentation to a board of directors of an international company. All members of the board are competent speakers of English as a second language. You should
enunciate precisely and speak more slowly than normal
Which is NOT a question you would ask to determine whether your oral presentation requires visual aids?
will visual aids entertain my audience?
Analyzing your audience is an important part of planning for an oral presentation.
TRUE
The disadvantage of using visuals in an oral presentation is that the audience will spend time looking at the material and less at the speaker.
FALSE
Too much rehearsal will rob an oral presentation of spontaneity, which is important for maintaining audience interest.
FALSE
A critical listener accepts or rejects the presentation based on the evidence offered.
TRUE
Which type of connective is the following phrase “now that we have talked about the dangers of smoking, I will talk about the other four contributors to poor health”?
internal preview
When an audience believes the speaker has credibility before he begins speaking it is called
initial credibility
When the audience believes that the speaker has their interests in mind it is called
goodwill
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “The History of Coin Collecting”?
chronological order
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “Constructing the Statue of Liberty”?
spatial order
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “The Effects of Cigarettes on the Lungs”?
causal order
When you restate someone’s words it is called
paraphrase
Changes in the speaker’s tone is known as
inflection
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “In Order for Teenagers to Listen, their Parents Must Become Involved”?
problem/solution order
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “How to Bake a Cake”?
chronological order
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “How to Keep Off Unwanted Pounds”?
causal order
What is NOT an example of plagiarism?
telling a foul joke
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “Constructing a Suspension Bridge”?
spatial order
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “The Major Steps in Learning the Piano”?
chronological order
Which of the following is the second phase of the listening process?
attending
Which of the following is not a demographic?
attractiveness
When is the best time to begin research for a speech?
as soon as possible
An anecdote is a
story
Which type of connective is the following phrase “let’s now discuss”?
transition
Which of the following is not a type of persuasive speech?
question of morals
Which of the following is NOT a type of reasoning?
either/or
Which reasoning fallacy is also known as circular reasoning?
begging the question
When giving a speech without a bias it is known as
non-partisan
Which type of connective is the following phrase “How can we now better ourselves?”
signpost
A book of synonyms is known as a
thesaurus
The meaning suggested by associates or emotions triggered by a word is known as
connotative
The literal meaning of a phrase is called
denotative meaning
Which of the following refers to the highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice?
pitch
The constant tone of a speaker’s voice is known as
monotone
Which type of connective is the following phrase “we’ve discussed the main key point behind getting children to stay in school”?
internal summary
The loudness of a speaker’s voice is known as
volume
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “Renewing a Marriage License After Five Years Will Reduce Divorce”?
causal order
Which of the following is NOT a goal of public speaking?
to plagiarize
Which pattern of organization would be most suitable for the following speech “Famous Women Speakers”?
chronological order
Which of the following is NOT an example of nonverbal communication?
whispering
What is it called when someone expresses themselves clearly?
articulate
The literal meaning of a word is called
denotative
What is the suggested meaning of a word based on context?
connotative
When your speech uses too many words to say a simple thought it is
cluttered
When you use the words “like” or “as” in a comparison it is called
a simile
The statement “it’s raining cats and dogs” is
a cliché
When you DO NOT use the words “like” or “as” in a comparison it is called
a metaphor
When you arrange statements that are similar or specific opposites you are using
parallelism
Contrasting ideas is called
antithesis
“All blondes are dumb” is an example of
stereotype
Alliteration of the repetition of a sound. Which of the following is an example of alliteration?
fathers-forth
The way a word is spoken
pronunciation
Language that is unique based on accent, pronunciation or vocabulary
dialect
Which of the following should you do during your speech?
None answers listed are correct
Which of the following should be avoided while giving a speech?
All answers listed are correct
In both classical and contemporary views of public speaking, primary attention is given to which of the following?
Substance or content of the speech
A speech divided into the three main divisions of animal, vegetable, and mineral would be best organized according to which of the following patterns?
Topical
Speaker credibility refers most closely to which of the following?
Believability
“In his famous “”Liberty or Death”” speech, Patrick Henry said:
For my own part, I consider it as nothing less
than a question of freedom or slavery; and in
proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought
to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this
way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and
fulfill the great responsibility, which we hold to
God and our country. Should I keep back my
opinions at such a time, through fear of giving
offense, I should consider myself as guilty of
treason towards my country, and of an act of
disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which
I revere above all earthly kings.
This excerpt provides an example of Henry’s attempt to do which of the following?”
Establish his credibility
The assumption that a person who is competent in one field is also competent in another field is referred to as which of the following?
Halo effect
The predisposition to act for or against a person or position is referred to as which of the following?
Attitude
Most speeches should be prepared for which of the following audiences?
Specific
Which of the following terms is used for the argument that what a person hears last is remembered best and has the greatest effect?
Recency
Which of the following patterns of organization would be most suitable for speeches such as “The events leading to World War II,” “the development of language in the child,” and “the major steps in learning to use a computer”?
Chronological
“The degree to which the audience members have counterarguments ready to answer an attack on
their beliefs, attitudes, and values is referred to as which of the following?”
Inoculation
Feedback refers to:
Messages your listeners send to you before, during, and after your speech
Ethos is sometimes referred to as:
Credibility
According to your authors, while public speaking is a personal act, it’s also a/an:
social act
Direct, in-person, spoken connections between people refer to the concept of:
Orality
Edward Hall argued that the biological roots of all culture could be found in:
Speech
Which of the following is NOT considered the context of a speech?
Topic
When Aristotle stated that a person with ethos demonstrated good will while speaking, he was referring to:
Communicating a sense of caring
Speaking is a transaction involving:
All of the answer listed
Finding a moral frame that you share with your listeners is referred to as:
The skyhook principle
Which of the following is NOT one of the three main parts of speech?
Topic statement
Having good speaking skills so that you can control social and confrontational events is a consumer imperative.
FALSE
You should use the public speaking classroom to experiment with speaking techniques.
TRUE
Moral bases for public speaking are merely ethical or religious tenets.
FALSE
Public speaking is a process that takes place primarily in interpersonal settings.
FALSE
The listener is the source of the message.
FALSE
The primary reason you are speaking in public is your
general purpose
The goals you wish to achieve in a particular speech are your
specific purpose
When your professor lectures in class, she is speaking to
inform
A lawyer giving his closing argument is speaking to
persuade
“Communication is a two-way street,” means that you should consider
your listeners
When you deliver a speech, you will use ________ statements, or transitions to guide your listeners.
linking
When you have completed your outline, you’re ready to:
practice out loud
When you are learning to become a public speaker, you should
speak in public as often as you can
Your specific purpose combines your general purpose for speaking with
your topic
A persuasive speech in which you ask your listeners to take actions is called a speech to
actuate
A speech to entertain can be used to present information
TRUE
When giving a speech, you should do everything you can to not be nervous
FALSE
General purpose and central idea are essentially the same thing
FALSE
Audience orientation refers to your ability to put yourself in your listener’s shoes
TRUE
You should keep your eyes on your notes when giving a speech so you don’t lose your place
FALSE
Listening accounts for over what percent of your communication time?
40
Which of the following is NOT considered a barrier to effective listening?
Evaluating the message which is being delivered
Empathetic listening is also known as
Therapeutic listening
Critical listening can be accomplished by asking critical questions. Which of the following questions would NOT be appropriate in critical listening?
How can I help the speaker be more effective?
RRA Technique refers to the three steps of
Review, relate, and anticipate
Which of the following is an example of a distracting or misdirective statement?
Four out of five dentists agree that Impana is best for your teeth
A communication transaction must include the speaker and
the listener
While the average speaker can produce 125 to 175 words per minute, the average listener can process how many words per minute?
400
The first step in the listening process is
hearing
When you draw a conclusion about how much a member of the opposite sex likes you based on how he or she talks to you, you are engaging in
Discriminative listening
Hearing is the same thing as listening
FALSE
Listening is a psychological process, hearing is a biological process
TRUE
Getting lost in your own thoughts is known as the internal perceptual field
TRUE
Trigger words can be the cause of self-fulfilling prophecies
FALSE
Discriminative listening causes us to draw conclusions
TRUE
Culture is
a social group’s system of meanings
When speaking to a cultural group different than your own, the best approach is to
focus on the common ground between you and the group
According to Walter Ong, the phrase “better safe than sorry” demonstrates the principle that speech tends to be
traditionalist
According to Walter Ong, it is necessary to give specific information in a speech that allows the audience to visualize ideas. This demonstrates how speech tends to be
concrete
Your gender is considered to be your
co-culture
A person’s way of thinking about positive and negative grounds for human thought and action is his/her
value orientation
Which of the following would be considered indicative of a liberal ideology?
It is better to help all forms of families with their children than to deal with juveniles in prison later
Which of the following would be considered indicative of a middle-of-the-road ideology?
Raising children should be primarily a matter of parental responsibility but with governmental safety nets in place
Your own life experiences and your culture are your
self-identity
When you look at issues ethically, economically, socially, or aesthetically, you are applying
valuative frames
Learning about the cultural practices and expectations of one’s listeners is a simple matter
FALSE
Relationships between people are built primarily via face-to-face talk
TRUE
Family values can mean many things to many people
TRUE
A person with a conservative ideology would believe that America is in moral decline
TRUE
“I didn’t bring a pen to class today” is a direct conversational style
FALSE
The study of observable characteristics in groups of people is called
demographics
Which of the following is NOT a factor in audience analysis?
ideology
Identifying what your listeners think and feel is called
psychological profiling
Our tendencies to respond in a certain way to people, objects or ideas is called our
attitudes
The basic concepts that organize our orientation to life are our
values
Convictions about what is true or false are our
beliefs
Which of the following is NOT true about beliefs?
Beliefs are tendencies to respond positively or negatively to people
Which of the following is a good way to deal with a hostile audience?
Start with areas of agreement
The primary goal of audience analysis is
To discover the demographic and psychological characteristics of your listeners and shape your message accordingly
If you don’t have direct access to your audience, one thing you should NOT do is
Assume you know enough about them and prepare to speak for “any audience”
Demographic analysis is the study of geographic data on a population
FALSE
It is not necessary to adapt to your audience
FALSE
Currently, over 25% of American identify themselves as multiracial
TRUE
Demographic analysis can assist you in understanding your listeners by pinpointing the factors that are common among them
TRUE
Understanding an audience’s beliefs is the first task in psychological profiling
TRUE
Eyewitness accounts are known as
primary sources
When considering your topic, which of the following is NOT a benefit of initial topic analysis?
It helps you find a prepared speech to use on the topic you were considering
The purpose of a Boolean search is to
control the subject matter of an Internet search
ERIC is a database that helps you locate
scholarly papers in the humanities
The best way to find information online is to use
search engines
The goal of an informational interview is to
obtain answers to specific questions
Indicators that tell us about the past, present or future are
trends
Using someone else’s words without permission is
plagiarism
When you cite the opinions or conclusions of others, you are using
testimony
When using statistics, you should NOT
use only the statistic and no additional information
Plagiarism is using the opinions and conclusions of others
FALSE
Plagiarism refers simply to undocumented verbatim quotation
FALSE
When conducting an interview, you should structure it in advance
TRUE
Speakers with low credibility need more supporting materials than speakers with high credibility
TRUE
The two types of examples are hypothetical and factual
TRUE
A speech on the layout or arrangement of your campus would best be organized by using the
spatial pattern
Which of the following is NOT considered a general pattern of organization for speeches?
random
Causal patterns show a relationship or link between
cause and effect
Topical patterns of organization are best used for familiar subjects that are easily organized in terms of
subject matter
Patterns of organization that are determined by the subject matter include
chronological pattern
An audience-oriented pattern of organization is based on
the listener’s needs or desires
Which of the following questions is better asked when using a subject-oriented pattern of organization than when using an audience-oriented pattern of organization?
Can I arrange my speech by familiar topics?
Familiarity-acceptance order is very well-suited to persuasive speeches if your audience is
hostile or skeptical
The inquiry method provides
a step-by-step explanation of how you acquired information to reach a conclusion
If you choose to address a parking problem on campus and then suggest some options, you are using the
problem-solution method
Your final outline will be the most complex one
FALSE
The rough outline establishes your topic, clarifies your topic, and identifies a reasonable number of solutions
TRUE
After a speaker has listed all possible topics, clustering is the next step toward choosing a pattern of organization
TRUE
A rough outline is very detailed and provides an adequate basis from which to speak
FALSE
Backtracking is a good device to keep the speech moving and make sure the audience remembers key points
FALSE
How successful you are in getting your audience’s attention depends on how well you frame your speech with
powerful introductions and conclusions
The recency effect refers to
the fact that people believe what they heard most recently
Introductions allow you to form a first impression, which is known as
primacy effect
Proximity refers to
nearness
Humor is effective in speeches if it is
relevant and in good taste
Although your intention is to persuade, which of the following comments would have a more positive effect on the audience when revealing your intention?
Let us investigate our options together.
According to a classic study, the average speaker spends what portion of the speech on the introduction?
10-15 percent
Questions for which you do not expect an answer are called
rhetorical
Our concern with things that immediately benefit us is called
the vital
Baseball is often used as a reference because most Americans know and understand it. This is using the force of attention known as
familiarity
General references have more force than concrete words
FALSE
Stating your purpose early in your speech will allow the audience the engage in the subject matter openly and clearly
TRUE
It is important to ignore or overlook controversy in order to lessen it
FALSE
Asking a rhetorical question can be an effective technique of introduction
TRUE
You should avoid uncertainty in your speech
FALSE
Choice of language, visual aids, and bodily and vocal behaviors is known as
encoding
Which of the following does NOT aid in the achievement of coherence?
intensity
“Turning now to another point” is an example of
a signpost
Which of the following is considered a gender-linked word?
policeman
Which of the following words is gender-neutral?
chair
Telling the Latin or Greek origin of a word is an example of its
etymological definition
A sense of taste is known as
gustatory sensation
Organic imagery are ones which capture
internal feelings and sensations
The comparison of two dissimilar things is a
metaphor
“I will work hard, I will accomplish my goals, and I will win this election,” is an example of
restatement
Language functions on many levels
TRUE
Oral style is the conversational quality of everyday language
TRUE
When speaking, it is better to use shorter, more familiar words than longer, less familiar and abstract words
TRUE
It makes the speech boring if you preview the major points you will be making in your speech
FALSE
It is best to write out the whole speech before you give it so you know what you are going to say
FALSE
The use of space by human beings that includes physical arrangement and distance is known as
proxemics
According to Edward T. Hall, twelve or more feet from your audience is ________ distance
public
The degree of relaxation or rigidity and vertical position of your body is known as
posture
Facial signals of emotion that an audience perceives when scanning your face are called
affect displays
A speech that is prepared in advance and presented from abbreviated notes is called
an extemporaneous speech
The way you accent or attack words is
emphasis
When you make a judgment about a speaker based on the speaker’s dialect, you are guilty of
vocal stereotyping
Which of the following is NOT a commonly used type of gesture used by public speakers?
effective gestures
Using helpful pauses is a means of achieving
vocal stress
When a speaker throws up his hands in disgust, he is using a/an
indicator
Intelligibility refers to the intelligence of the speaker
FALSE
Our voice usually sounds louder to ourselves than it does to others
TRUE
The usual rate of conversation is between 300-350 words per minute
FALSE
If sound becomes greater than 140 decibels, we may experience pain
TRUE
Crispness and precision with which we form words is known as enunciation
TRUE
Visual aids enhance your presentation because they
aid listener comprehension and memory
Visuals that show relationships between two or more variables, usually over time are
line graphs
Which of the following would NOT be considered appropriate as a visual aid in a business presentation?
Handwritten poster board notes
When using visual aids such as charts, the experts suggest that the best font size for regular lines is 18 or 24 point type, and for headings is ________ point type
36
The best way to show the difference between male and female incomes in a particular job category is to use a
bar graph
If you are an architect presenting a plan for a new building to a client, which visual aid would be most effective?
a model
Which of the following would be a good candidate for a flowchart?
the structure of the federal bureaucracy
Which of the following is NOT a good way to get maximum benefit from your visuals?
keep visual, verbal, and electronic messages separate and distinct
You decide to use your artistic talents to enhance your bar graph by using pictures to represent size instead of bars. What visual aid are you using?
pictograph
When demonstrating an exercise technique such as pre-exercise stretching, perhaps the vest visual aid you could use would be
your own body
Statistics are more accessible and easier for the audience to understand when a bar graph illustrates the numbers
TRUE
It is a good idea to ask a volunteer from the audience to help during a presentation
FALSE
Good visual aids can increase the persuasiveness of the message
TRUE
Most people understand things better when they hear them than when they see them
FALSE
Black and white visuals command more attention than those in color
FALSE
Which of the following is NOT a suggested way to keep your speech moving?
walk around the room while talking
Facts and figures by themselves are
information
Your speech will be clearer if you
all of the answer listed
Constructing relevant visualizations refers to
recreating events
________ define concepts or processes to make them relevant to listeners
Explanations
A committee report is an example of this type of informative speech
oral report
Clarity is the result of which two factors?
organization and word selection
Clustering ideas has the benefit of
making the speech more memorable
Which of the following is NOT a method of avoiding information overload?
extend the website to other related topics
The theme “speeches to inform” is
an informative speech needs to be packaged in ways that the audience can understand and remember
Information is meaningful without interpretation or clarification
FALSE
Public speakers often serve as interpreters of information
TRUE
One of the goals of informative speaking is to make it easier for audience members to retain new information
TRUE
One way to simplify is to use key ideas or key words
TRUE
You should limit your informative speech to 3-4 principle ideas
TRUE
The achievement motive cluster does NOT include
authority
Power motives concern primarily
the desire to exert influence over others
“Friends don’t let friends drive drunk” is an example of the power motive
fear
PRIZM is a
lifestyle segmentation system
An impulse to satisfy a psychological-social want or biological urge is
a motive need
Motivational appeals work best when they are associated with
something the audience wants or needs
People with which kind of motives use authority and dominance to persuade?
power motives
The first step in structuring actuating speeches is
getting attention
The process of keeping others from influencing your audience away from your position is called
counterpersuasion
Which of the following is NOT a step in Monroe’s motivated sequence?
resistance
The persuasive speaker and the informative speaker make essentially the same demands on the audience
FALSE
A persuasive speaker seeks to change the audience’s beliefs and actions
TRUE
When constructing a persuasive speech, the last step is to assess the needs and desires of the audience
TRUE
Motivational appeals use language to activate desires in people
TRUE
Power can be used in a positive manner to benefit the group
TRUE
The difference between arguing and persuading is
persuasion uses emotion, argumentation uses reasoning
A proposition that asserts that something is or is not the case it a
claim of fact
When advancing a claim of value, you might ask the following question
How well does the item in question measure up to the standards specified?
At what point in your speech should you generally announce your claim?
in the beginning
According to the authors, if you are arguing that the speed limit should be reduced to save lives and you present statistics to prove your point, what kind of evidence are you using?
rationally relevant evidence
When a doctor makes a diagnosis based on your respiration and heart rhythms, she is reasoning from
sign
When reasoning from example, one question you should ask is
Are the instances fairly chosen?
A claim that appeals to what we don’t know is
an appeal to ignorance
When should you present your strongest argument?
either first or last
Many celebrities have made public their opposition to war. What kind of fallacy are they using to sway public opinion?
appeal to authority
A sequential fallacy is rephrasing an idea and then offering it as its own reason
FALSE
“But Mom, I need to wear low-rise jeans to school because everyone else does,” is an example of the bandwagon fallacy.
TRUE
“Claire is Irish, she must like corned beef,” is an example of reasoning from sign
FALSE
Reasoning from generalization is also called deduction
TRUE
Criticism is a process of assessing and judging ideas
TRUE
A group of individuals selected to discuss a topic for the benefit of others in the audience is called a
panel
A communication transaction in which three to five speakers speaking on different facets of a topic, presenting different solutions to a problem, and, usually, calling on the expertise of the speakers is called a
symposium
When responding to an objection made, which of the following is NOT advisable?
use emotion
A short speech of tribute designed to bring a group together or congratulate is a/an
toast
What kinds of speeches acknowledge the presence or qualities of the audience or a member of the audience?
courtesy
Which of the following is NOT a speech of courtesy?
special occasion speech
The key to determining if a group is a community is
whether they believe they are bonded together in some way
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary virtues of a speech of introduction?
knowledge of the speaker
Which of the following represents Dewey’s problem-solution strategy in correct sequence?
define the problem, analyze the problem, suggest solutions, evaluate proposed solutions, decide how to implement the solution
The key to successful group communication is interdependence. What does this mean?
you share with others, they share with you
The main purpose of a speech of introduction is to create a desire in the audience to hear the speaker you are introducing
TRUE
A speech to entertain is one form of a courtesy speech
FALSE
Toasts are actually speeches of tribute
TRUE
Speeches to entertain are mainly slapstick or stand-up comedy routines
FALSE
Using humor is usually not effective in developing group cohesiveness
FALSE
The largest part of a speech is the ________.
body
Which of the following is NOT a way to improve listening?
Research the topic being discussed
Used to signal the ending of a thought, and controls impact.
Pause
A dyadic communication is
A communication between two people
Specialized language that should be avoided during a public speech is called
Jargon
A brief summary of an article NOT written by the author is a/an
Abstract
What is the definition of the mean of a group of numbers?
The average of the numbers
Words that identify where the speaker is in the speech are called
Signposts
An appeal to moral character is called
Ethos
Part of speech that enables identification of ethnicity.
Dialect
An appeal to logic is called
Logos
If you are running short on time what should you do?
Highlight the main points only
Controlling anxiety in order to help make the speech a success is
positive nervousness
Which of the following is NOT a way to improve listening?
all of the answer listed
Which of the following does NOT need to be considered before using evidence?
all of the answer listed
What is wrong with the following interview questions: Who is the principal of the school?
The question could have been answered without the interview
What is NOT one of the obstacles to listening?
all of the answer listed
A speech to give thanks for public recognition is a/an ________ speech
acceptance
What kind of arrangement is a speech that outlines the issues of Earth’s limited natural resources; then discusses how we can alleviate some of the problem by recycling?
Problem-solution pattern of arrangement
What kind of arrangement? A public speaker who tells a story to the audience is using
Narrative pattern of arrangement
“What kind of arrangement?
∙Overpopulation of animal shelters.
∙Pets are adopted or purchased at Christmas.
∙Family’s tire of pets and animals are sent back to the pound by spring.
∙Overpopulation of animal shelters.”
Circle pattern of arrangement
What kind of arrangement? The presentation of topics where one topic is relational/dependent on the next:
Chronological pattern of arrangement
What kind of arrangement? A speech where all topics are equally important and are not dependent on another point (they can be presented in any order):
Topical pattern of arrangement
Which Amendment grants the right to free speech?
First Amendment
The crispness of distinct speech sounds.
Articulation
She laughs like a hyena is an example of a/an:
Simile
Mr. Brown is speaking about the Just Say No to drug ad campaign. He wants to influence the children’s attitudes about drugs. The final outcome is that he wants children to stay away from drugs. He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs for health and social activities. He believes that if he can scare the children enough, they surely will not try drugs. Which of the following is an example of an emotional appeal?
Scare the children
Mr. Brown is speaking about the Just Say No to drug ad campaign. He wants to influence the children’s attitudes about drugs. The final outcome is that he wants children to stay away from drugs. He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs for health and social activities. He believes that if he can scare the children enough, they surely will not try drugs. Which of the following is the topic?
Just Say No to drug ad campaign
Mr. Brown is speaking about the Just Say No to drug ad campaign. He wants to influence the children’s attitudes about drugs. The final outcome is that he wants children to stay away from drugs. He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs for health and social activities. He believes that if he can scare the children enough, they surely will not try drugs. What is the central idea of the speech?
He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs on health and social activities
Mr. Brown is speaking about the Just Say No to drug ad campaign. He wants to influence the children’s attitudes about drugs. The final outcome is that he wants children to stay away from drugs. He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs for health and social activities. He believes that if he can scare the children enough, they surely will not try drugs. What is the specific purpose of the speech?
Children to stay away from drugs
Mr. Brown is speaking about the Just Say No to drug ad campaign. He wants to influence the children’s attitudes about drugs. The final outcome is that he wants children to stay away from drugs. He is going to discuss the dangers of drugs for health and social activities. He believes that if he can scare the children enough, they surely will not try drugs. What is the general purpose of the speech?
Influence the children’s attitudes
“What type of listening?
Jane put her headphones on to listen to music.”
Appreciative listening
“What type of listening?
Frank was listening to his teenager discuss why she wasn’t home by curfew. He was trying to determine if she was telling the truth.”
Critical listening
“What type of listening?
The toddler was talking to his mother while she was reading the paper. She responded automatically with “”oh, my, is that so?”””
Not listening
“What type of listening?
Jack received a call from Mary. Mary was upset; she talked to him about her grandmother falling ill.”
Empathetic listening
“What type of listening?
The teacher held a lecture on the Civil War. The students were listening and taking notes.”
Comprehensive listening
Delivering a speech with almost no preparation time is called a/an ________ speech.
Impromptu
“Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country,” John F. Kennedy.
Antithesis
“Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man,” Francis Bacon.
Parallelism
“We will not tire, we will not falter and we will not fail,” George W. Bush.
Repetition
“Let us go forth to lead the land we love,” John F. Kennedy.
Alliteration
“My love is like a red, red rose,” Robert Burns.
Simile
Ideas taken from multiple sources:
Patchwork plagiarism
Rewording someone else’s ideas into your words:
Paraphrasing
Telling someone word for word what someone else said:
Quotations
Passing someone else’s idea off in its entirety as your own:
Global plagiarism
Failure to give credit to someone else in part of a speech:
Incremental plagiarism
George is listening to a candidate running for senate. He is trying to determine if he wants to vote for the candidate. What type of listening is George doing?
Critical
Elise is speaking with Sarah on the telephone. The telephone is an example of the ________.
Channel
Which of the following is a way to boost credibility?
All of the answers listed
“Mary was introduced to an auditorium of children by the principal, Mrs. Winter. Mary’s purpose was to discuss Earth Day. During the course of her speech the microphone cut in and out making her difficult to understand. The children began to get fidgety and put their hands behind their ears to hear Mary. However, one little boy, Jason decided he wouldn’t try to hear and began singing “”Happy Birthday”” in the middle of her speech!

What is an example of feedback?”

Children putting their hands behind their ears
“Mary was introduced to an auditorium of children by the principal, Mrs. Winter. Mary’s purpose was to discuss Earth Day. During the course of her speech the microphone cut in and out making her difficult to understand. The children began to get fidgety and put their hands behind their ears to hear Mary. However, one little boy, Jason decided he wouldn’t try to hear and began singing “”Happy Birthday”” in the middle of her speech!

What is the channel?”

Microphone
“Mary was introduced to an auditorium of children by the principal, Mrs. Winter. Mary’s purpose was to discuss Earth Day. During the course of her speech the microphone cut in and out making her difficult to understand. The children began to get fidgety and put their hands behind their ears to hear Mary. However, one little boy, Jason decided he wouldn’t try to hear and began singing “”Happy Birthday”” in the middle of her speech!

What was interference?”

Microphone cutting in and out AND Jason’s song
All women like to cook is an example of
Stereotyping
When the speaker began, a hush fell over the audience. Is an example of
Metaphor
“What is wrong with this sentence?
When a soldier fights overseas, he understands his sacrifice.”
Globe use of the word “he”
Writing the first things that come to mind in nine areas. (For the purpose of finding a speech topic).
Clustering
Law that makes it legal for teachers and students to use copyrighted material for the sake of education.
Fair use
Person that is in charge based on seniority.
Implied leader
Writing down all hobbies and interest to try to find a speech topic.
Personal inventory
A person’s values and beliefs
Frame of reference
“What goes around, comes around,” “live and learn,” “look before you leap” are all examples of
cliché
Ms. O’Hare provided a brief introduction for Mr. White. She did not speak of his expertise. This largely affected his
initial credibility
During Mr. White’s introduction in his speech he demonstrated his ________ by discussing his extensive experience in the subject.
competence
As Mr. White went through his speech the audience believed that he was an expert on his topic. This is an example of
derived credibility
The audience believed that Mr. White was trustworthy with good intentions. This is a reflection of his
character
The audience left the speech believing that Mr. White was an expert on his subject.
terminal credibility
Which type of example is one that hasn’t happened, but MAY happen?
Hypothetical example
Sally was listening to her friend complain about a bad day at work. She is performing what type of listening?
empathetic
Which of the following is NOT an example of a reference work?
Newspaper
The fallacy that the first step in a process will subsequently lead to future steps.
Slippery slope
The following is an example of ________ fallacy: The president, who was never a member of the military, will advocate mandatory military service.
Red herring
The following is an example of ________ fallacy: The highly liberal, spend-happy candidate wants to spend all of our hard-earned tax dollars for her inconsequential plan.
Ad hominem
The following is an example of ________ fallacy: Since everyone is doing it, adoption from a foreign country is the best method.
Bandwagon
The following is an example of ________ fallacy: High school graduates can either go to college, or join the military.
Either/or
“What kind of reasoning is the following:

All people need food.
I am a person.
I need food.”

Principle
“Which type of reasoning is the following:

If you like gymnastics you’ll be a great cheerleader.”

Analogical
So far we have determined that the cause for many family’s economic circumstances have been caused by involuntary job loss. The previous statement is an example of
Internal preview
As a teacher the general purpose of public speaking is
inform
If there is no author identified on a document/website try to determine the
sponsoring organization
The anxiety before giving a speech is called
stage fright
The belief that one culture is superior to another:
Ethnocentrism
The typical nonverbal message that listeners deliver to the speaker is
feedback
The three main parts of a speech are called
Introduction, body, conclusion
People’s natural inclination to be concerned with themselves before others is
Egocentrism