Praxis II Teaching Reading

4 Ways to build Phonemic Awareness?
1. Tell Rhymes 2. ABCs & read alphabet books 3. Alliteration 4. Give the ability to sound and blend their letters (slap, trap)
3 levels of comprehension?
1. Literal 2. Interpretive 3. Applied
5 Steps in the Reading Process:
1. Pre-Reading 2. Reading 3. Responding 4. Exploring 5. Applying
5 Systems of Language:
1. Sound- Phonology 2. Meaning -Semantics (vocabulary) 3. Word Order – Syntax 4. Grammar – Morphology 5. Social Uses -Pragmatics
6 thinking processes:
1. Connect 2. Organize 3. Image 4. Predict 5. Self monitor 6.Generalize
7 Crucial Understandings About Print
1. Children who have had many print experiences know why we read & write. 2. Greater knowledge to make sense of the info they read. 3. Understand the conventions & jargon of print. 4. Have higher levels of phonemic awareness. 5. Can read some important-to-them words. 6. Know some letter names and sounds. 7. Are eager and confident in their reading and writing
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How many phonemes are there in the English language?
44
Accuracy and Fluency affect the ability to…
read smoothly and quickly.
Activating prior knowledge
use of a concrete experience or object pretesting discussions anticipation guides
Affixes
subordinate additions to rood words with grammar-like functions. They can either be added to the beginning (prefixes) or the end (suffixes)
Alliteration:
Producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound; alliteration and rhyming are at the beginning of the phonological awareness continuum.
Allusion
an indirect reference to a person, place, thing, or event considered to be known to the reader
Analogy Based Phonics
Children learn to use parts of word families they know to identify words that have similar parts.(root words, suffixes, prefixes)
Analytic Phonics
Learn to understand letters-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce words in isolation.
Applied Level of Comprehension
using information to express opinions and form new ideas.
Assessment Tool Categories
1. Student Profile 2. Auditory Discrimination and Phoneme Awareness 3. Emerging Literacy assessment 4. Sight Word Assessment 5. Formal Reading Assessment
Assonance
repetition of a vowel sound
Authentic Assessment
Assessment activities which reflect the actual workplace, family, community and school curriculum. Involves using tasks that are typical of the kinds of reading or writing that students perform in school and out.
Awareness of Print
understanding that the squiggly lines on a page represent spoken language. They understand that when adults read a book, what they say is linked to the words on the page, rather than to the pictures.
Balanced Approach characteristics
1.Literacy is viewed as involving reading & writing 2.Lit is the heart of the program 3. Skills & strategies are taught both directly & indirectly. 4. Reading involves learning word recognition, fluency, vocabulary & comprehension. 5.Writing involves learning to express meaningful ideas & use conventional spelling, grammar & punctuation. 6.Reading & writing for learning in the content areas. 7.Goal is to develop lifelong readers and writers.
Balanced Reading Program
Reading to children, reading with children,& reading by children
Basal Reading Program
Commercially produced reading programs. May include guided reading, workbooks, practice books, manuals, tests
Base Words
meaningful linguistic units that can stand alone and contain no smaller meaningful parts (free morphemes)
Behaviorism
Skinner- Students learn a series of discrete skills. Stimulus, teacher/response, teacher centered, set up standards, teach to the standards. How we use it: worksheets, basal readers
Bottom-Up
progressing from the parts of language (letters) to the whole word (meaning) (letters, Words, Sentences, Paragraphs, Texts, Meaning)
Components of a Reading Program
1.Reading-engagement of the written word 2.Oral Language-connection between oral & written 3.Writing-allow students to practice 4.Spelling- correlates w ability to identify words
Components of strategy instruction
Assessment, Explanation, Awareness, Modeling and Demonstration, Guided practice application
Concrete words
Words that most children can recognize by cite. (Their name, Mom, Dad)
Consonant Blend
Two or three consonants blended together. The sound that this blend makes is the sound of the consonants blended together.
Consonant Cluster
A group or sequence of consonants that appear together in a syllable without a vowel between them.
Consonant diagrams
Two consecutive consonants that represent one new speech sound. In the word “digraph” the “ph” sounds like /f/. This is a digraph.
Consonant Digraph
A pair of consonants that makes a single sound that is different from each individual letter sound.
Constructivism
Students construct own frames of thought. Modify cognitive structures/schemata. Non-authorization. Student centered. Indirect instruction.
Critical literacy
Language is a means for social action. Teach grammar, standard English. Value dialects. Read & discuss books that involve social issues. Write letters to the editor.
Decoding Clues
Semantic- Syntactic- Picture- Graphophonic- Syllable Division
Decoding
the process of translating written language into verbal speech sounds.
Differences between Indirect and Direct Vocabulary instruction
Indirect: students learn word when they hear or see words used. Best learning takes place after being exposed to many different types of contexts. Directly: explicitly taught, words and word strategies.
Differences between more fluent readers and less fluent readers
More: able to focus on making connections between ideas and the text. Less: most have their primary focus on decoding words. Leaves little time for comprehension. Reading is choppy and halting.
Digraph
A pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Diphthong
A complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable. (boy-oy noise- oi).
Directed Reading Thinking Activity
1. Sample the Text 2. Make Predictions 3. Sample the Text to Confirm or Correct Predictions
Discussion circles
After a text is read the teacher prompts the student, perhaps asking for funny or unusual words.
Distinctions between phonological awareness and phonemic awareness
Phonological: includes phonemic awareness. Understanding & manipulating larger parts of speech, words, syllables, onsets & rimes as well as phonemes. Phonemic: identifying & manipulating individual sounds in words.
Early Readers
1. ID most high frequency words. 2. Use pics to confirm meaning . 3. Use Syntax & Phonics to figure out most simple words. 4. Use spelling patterns to figure out words. 5. They are gaining control of reading strategies. 6. Use their own experiences & background info to glean meaning.
Eclectic Approach
Teachers borrow elements from two or more approaches to create their own approach.
Embedded Phonics
Children learn letter sound relationships by reading. Not systematic or explicit.
Emergent Readers
understand that print contains a message, recognize some high frequency words using context, realize pics can be used to predict meaning.
Encode
to put words into print.
Factors that affect a student’s ability to understand reading text
1. Accuracy and Fluency 2. Reading Level of Text 3. Word Recognition skills 4. Prior Knowledge or Experiences 5. Vocabulary 6. English Language Development
Fluency
the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. It frees students to understand what they read.
Fluent Readers
ID most words, read chapter books with good comprehension, consistently monitor cross-check and self, correct reading. They can offer their own interpretations of text based on personal experience and prior reading.
concepts children must recognize in order to be phonemically aware
1.Rhyming 2. Word Blending 3. Phonemic Segmentation 4. Sound addition and Subtraction 5. Sound Manipulation
Four main components of a reading program
1. Reading 2. Oral Language 3. Writing 4. Spelling
Frustration Reading Level
a level students shouldn’t read (below 85%)
Grapheme
The unit of writing that represents a single phoneme. It can be a letter or a group of letters. The smallest part of WRITTEN language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. A grapheme may be just one letter, such as b,d,f,p,s or several letters, such as ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh.
Guided Reading
Students do the reading w/ teacher guidance. Teachers meet w/ small homogenous groups using instructional level books to observe & support students use of strategies
Homographs
Words that have identical spellings but sound different and have different meanings.
Homonym
A word which is spelled & pronounced identically to another, but has a different meaning.(Swimming POOL- POOL table).
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
An informal instrument designed to help teachers determine a child’s independent, instructional, frustration,& capacity levels.
levels of reading
Independent- reading is at 95% success. Instructional- reading is at 90% success. Frustration- reading is below 90% success, child becomes too focused on decoding, loses comprehension.
Summative Assessment
occurs after learning has taken place and summarizes students’ progress at the end of a unit or a semester or at some other point in time
Formative Assessment
Takes place during learning and is used to plan or modify instruction
Evaluation
The process of using the results of tests, observations, work samples, and other devices to judge the effectiveness of a program. A program is evaluated in terms of its objectives. The ultimate purpose of evaluation is to improve the program.
High-stakes Test
Results are used to make an important decision such as passing students, graduating students, or rating a school.
Assessment
The process of gathering data about an area of learning through tests, observations, work samples, and other means.
Reliability
The degree to which a test yields consistent results. If students took a test again, the results would be the same.
Validity
The degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
Content Validity
The tasks of an assessment device are representative of the subject or area being assessed.
Listening Capacity
The highest level of reading material that students can understand with 75 percent comprehension when it is read to them.
Miscue
An oral reading response that differs from the expected (correct) response.
Running Record
An assessment device in which a student’s oral reading errors are noted and classified in order to determine whether the material is on the appropriate level of difficulty and to see which reading strategies the student is using.
Group Reading Inventories
Used when it is impractical to administer individual IRIs. Three tests: Degrees of Reading Power (DRP), The Scholastic Reading Inventory, and STAR
Maze Passage
The student chooses from three or more words the one that is the correct replacement for a deleted word.
Norm-Referenced Test
Students’ performances are compared with a norm group, which is a representative sampling of students.
Criterion-Referenced Test
Student’s performances are compared to a criterion, or standard.
Raw Score
The number of correct answer or points earned on a test.
Percentile Rank
The point on a scale of 1 to 99 that shows what percentage of students obtained an equal or lower score. A score of 75 means that 75 percent or of those who took the test received an equal or lower score.
Grade Equivalent Score
indicated the score that the average student at that grade level achieved.
Norm Curve Equivalent
The ranking of a score on a scale of 1 through 99
Stanine
A point on a 9-point scale, with 5 being average.
Rubric
A written description of the traits or characteristics of standards used to judge a process or product
Think-Alouds
Procedures in which students are asked to describe the processes they are using as they engage in reading or another cognitive activity.
Anecdotal Record
The recording of the description of a significant incident of student behavior
Holistic Scoring
A process for sorting or ranking students’ written pieces on the basis of an overall impression of each piece.
Analytic Scoring
A process for scoring that uses a description of major features to be considered when assessing a written piece.
The first step in building higher-level literacy
Determine your students’ level of literacy development by using an informal reading inventory, running records, or other placement measures to find out their general reading level.
Ways to foster emergent literacy
Create an environment that promotes active reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Examples: A student-run post office so that children can correspond with each other. E-mail (if computers are available). Modeling (allowing students to observe you as you write notes to parents, the principal, etc.). Encourage adults to write to the class and post their letters.
Stages of Language Development
Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years), Preoperational Stage (2-7 years), Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years), and Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years)
Onset
All the sounds in the syllable before the vowel
Rime
The vowel and everything that follows it
Phonemes
The smallest units comprising spoken language. Combine to form syllables and words. For example, the word ‘mat’ has three phonemes: /m/ /a/ /t/
Phonemic Awareness
The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words
Graphemes
Represented by symbols or letters
Alphabetic Principle
The principle that letters in written words represent sounds in spoken words.
Phonological Awareness
A broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language-parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.
Ways to assess phonemic awareness
Recognizing Rhyming words, Oddity Tasks (which one does not belong), Syllable and sound counting task, initial consonant sound test, same different word pair task, auditory sound blending task, segmenting sounds
Strategies for teaching phonemic awareness
Playing with rhymes and alliteration, grab the odd one out, picture box sound counting (Elkonin Boxes), beginning with children’s names, add a sound/take a sound, sing it out, word rubber banding
Phonics
Teaching practices that emphasize how spellings are related to speech sounds systematically. (Letter-sound relationships)
Synthetic Approach to phonics instruction
Traditional instruction where students change letters into speech sounds and blend them together (sounding out).
Embedded Approach to phonics instruction
Less explicit, embedded into the text. Authentic reading for enjoyment.
Analogy approach to phonics instruction
A variation of onset and rime instruction, using prior knowledge of word families (ed. -eep, peep, sleep, weep).
Analytic Approach to phonics instruction
Students study previously learned whole words to discover letter sounds relationships. (pl, play, plan, plot consonant blends).
Phonic through spelling approach to phonics instruction
Segmenting words into phonemes and writing letters that represent the sounds.
Syllable
A word or part of a word that contains one vowel
6 syllable types
Closed, open, vowel-consonant-silent e, vowel pair, R-controlled, and consonant-le.
Closed syllable
A short vowel, followed by at least one consonant: much, vet, shell, insect, publish, sunset
Open Syllable
End in a vowel that is usually long: Shy, go, me, silo, zero.
Vowel-consonant-silent e Syllable
Vowels are long and the final e is silent. Lime, those, snake.
Vowel Pair Syllable
Vowels sounds are spelled with digraphs such as: plain, coat, cowboy
R-Controlled Syllable
A vowel followed by an r. The r affects the sound the vowel makes, and both sounds are heard within the same syllable: or, ir, er, ar, ur
Consonant-le syllable
AKA final stable syllables. Bubble, maple, kettle, and fiddle.
Sight words
Words that occur frequently in print and are usually best learned through memorization.
Structural Analysis
The ability to study words to identify their individual meanings.
Activities for Phonics Instruction
Letter-sound cards, Phonics fish card game, spelling in parts, sound swirl, button sounds, stomping, clapping, tapping, and snapping sounds, tongue twisters, creating nonsense words, word boxes, etc.
7 Aspects of our Language System
Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics, Orthography, Vocabulary
Phonology
The basic sound units of language (phonemes)
Morphology
Units of meaning within words; the way words are formed (morphemes)
Syntax
Phrase and sentence structure
Semantics
The way language conveys meaning
Pragmatics
Appropriate word choice and use in context to communicate effectively
Orthography
spelling patterns
Vocabulary
Knowledge of the meaning and pronunciation of words (lexicon)
Reading Vocabulary
Word is in the student’s listening and speaking vocabularies but is not yet recognized in print
Writing Vocabulary
Word is in the student’s listening, speaking, and reading vocabularies but is not yet known well enough to be used when writing compositions.
Concepts/Schema
The student does not comprehend the new word because of a lack of conceptual knowledge related to the word
Receptive Vocabulary
Listening and Reading
Expressive Vocabulary
Speaking and Writing
Technical Vocabulary
The new word is unknown to the student and is directly related to a content area
Context
the student has trouble using context clues to figure out the meaning of an unknown word
Morphemic Analysis
Student lacks sufficient knowledge about word parts such as prefixes, suffixes, and root words (also known as structural analysis)
Using vocabulary to enhance comprehension
Teachers should preteach new words that are associated with the text they are about to read
Levels of Word Knowledge
Unknown- Don’t recognize
Initial recognition- have sen or heard word but does not know meaning
Partial word knowledge- knows one meaning of word and use it in a sentence
Full word knowledge- knows more than one meaning of word and can use it in several ways
The largest source of increasing one’s vocabulary
Reading
Sustained silent reading
encourages a wide variety of reading
How students learn vocabulary words
Incidental word learning, independent reading, sustained silent reading, and being read aloud to
Synonyms
Words with the same meaning (cold, cool, chilly, frigid, frosty, freezing)
Antonyms
Words that mean the opposite (loud-quiet)
Homonyms
Words that sound or look the same but have different meanings (to-too-two) (right-write) (there-their-they’re) (bear-bare) (wind-wind)
Semantic Maps
Useful in tying together new vocabulary with prior knowledge and related terms
Etymologies
The history of the English Language
Idioms
Groups of words that have special meaning (“in hot water”)
Free Morpheme
A freestanding root or base of any word that cannot be further divided and still have meaning. (Farmer, farm is the root word)
Bound Morpheme
The part of the word that carries meaning only when attached to a free morpheme (the -er in farmer)
Most common bound morphemes
Prefixes- in, pre, mono
suffixes- er, ous, ology
inflectional endings – s, es, ing, ed, est
Ways to assess student’s vocabulary knowledge
Observation, conferences, rubrics, tests, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Expressive Vocabulary Test, Informal Reading Inventories
3 reasons why some students struggle to become fluent
Reading books too difficult, Reading very little, Frequently asked to read aloud and then teachers interrupt and correct them
4 principles to promote reading fluency
Teachers should model reading, Teacher should provide support while students are reading, teachers should have students do repeated readings of brief texts, and teachers should focus students’ attention on chunking words into meaningful phrasing
Cloze Passages
Short (250 word) passages drawn from typical reading materials found in your instructional program. Student’s asked to read passage and see if they can fill in the missing words based on what they believe makes sense using context clues.
Maze Test
Similar to cloze test with one exception: there are three choices for the students to choose from for each blank in the passage
Vocabulary Flash Cards
One of the most traditional ways to do a quick assessment of a student’s vocabulary knowledge
Enhancing Accuracy
word reading must be accurate and automatic. Taught through mini lessons and words walls. Students need daily opportunities to practice the words they’re learning in reading and writing
Improving reading speed
Best way to improve is through repeated readings. Practice reading at independent level, record progress monitoring data, have guided reading lessons, and listening centers
Accuracy
The ability to recognize familiar words automatically, without conscious thought
Reading Speed
Refers to the rate at which students read. Readers should adjust their speed depending on the difficulty of what they’re reading and their purpose
Prosody
The ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation
Components of Fluency
Accuracy, Identifying unfamiliar words quickly, To read fluently a student needs to read a piece of text that is independent level 95% accuracy, Reading Speed and Prosody
Teaching Prosody
Teach students to phrase or chunk together parts of sentences. Practice expression and choral or unison reading
Reading Practice
Students need many opportunities to practice reading and rereading books to develop fluency (choral reading, readers’ theater)
Promoting Reading Fluency
Sustained silent reading
Round Robin Reading no longer recommended
Prerequisites for Comprehension
Background knowledge – need word and literature knowledge
Vocabulary – important to comprehension
Fluency- read quickly and efficiently; can devote time to comprehension
Assessing Fluency
DIBELS
Fluency Checks
Informal Reading Inventories
Running Records
Comprehension
The ultimate goal of reading
The reason why people read
Involves different levels of thinking
Ways to Activate prior knowledge
Anticipation guides
exclusion brainstorming
graphic organizers
KWL charts
Prereading plans
3 ways to connect to a story
text-to-text
text-to-word
text-to-self
Demonstrating Comprehension Skills
Compare/Contrast
Cause/Effect
Sequencing
Paraphrasing
Ways to develop comprehension
Students spend lots of time reading authentic texts independently
Students need to discuss their reading with classmates and teachers
Teachers need to read aloud to students
Assessing Comprehension
Cloze Procedures
Story Retellings
Running Records
Think-Alouds
Types of Literacy Centers
Listening Center, Drama Center, Writing Center, Publishing Center, Reading nook, play center, computer center
Guided Reading Instruction
Small, homogeneous groups of children who reflect a similar range of competencies, experiences, and interest in book reading and word study.